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Is Microfluidic Technology the ‘Next BIG Thing’ in the Circuit Realm?



In the last two decades, there has been a rapid increase in the number of publications that focus on lab-on-a-chip systems. Researches from the Morin group lead by Prof. Stephen Morin, an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska leveraged from these systems in the realization of curvilinear printed circuit boards that have the potential to be the future of technology based on their numerous applications.

There is no doubt that advanced manufacturing techniques have enabled economical, large-scale and efficient manufacturing of different components including electrical circuit boards which are essential elements of modern-day consumer products. From simple toys to intricate systems, these electronic components have application in almost all industries. If the processor is considered as the brain of a device, then undoubtedly, circuits are the nerves that effect the overall function. And why not? They help power majority of the systems and give them direction. However, traditional component circuitry can only be used on a planar surface, and they are produced using top-down lithography. It’s only a matter of time when these components will no longer be used in devices for applications that require components to be non-flat or be flexible.

In a recent paper titled “Soft microreactors for the deposition of conductive metallic traces on planar, embossed, and curved surfaces” published in Advanced Functional Materials, Morin group at the University of Nebraska, demonstrated the seamless integration of microfluidics to produce circuits on non-planar objects and further attached various electronic components to these circuits. Leveraging the microfluidic technology with better standards of fabrication processes and facilities, the results showed promise of commercial standardization and up scalability to produce curvilinear printed circuit boards.

For those of you who are not familiar with the term “microfluidic device”, it is a configuration of components made from microscale fluid-like microchannels, chambers that allow easy flow of fluids and valves that are individually addressable. You might be wondering; this sounds a bit familiar, and you are correct. The description is fairly similar to an electric circuit where the only difference is the medium—in an electric circuit, there is a flow of electricity.

In a microfluidic device, the rate of fluid flow can be controlled, the direction of flow can be changed, chemical reactions can take place using a mixture of fluids, particles can be separated, etc. All this can happen in a single microfluidic device. Many experts consider microfluidic devices as using the model analogous to the electric circuit. With that out of the way, it is imperative to look at the research as mentioned above and how it benefits the future of electronics. The in-depth research was carried out by a highly qualified team of experts led by Prof. Stephen Morin, and included Dr. Abhiteja Konda, Prof. Christos Argyropoulos and others at the University of Nebraska, and was in part funded by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 1555356) and the Nebraska Research Initiative.

These researchers have pulled off something unthinkable by developing a simpler and cost-effective method for depositing circuits on surfaces that are textured, stretchable and curved. The idea behind this technology is to free circuitry from the limitation of being rigid and flat on the circuit board. “If you can remove the need for dedicated substrates to house electronic circuits by coating support elements with those circuits, then you can save material and mass”, says Prof. Stephen Morin.

Unlike animals whose flexibility allows them to evolve through time taking different shapes, size and structure, the present-day circuit boards are rigid, flat and boxy devices. Morin and his team devised a technique called microfluidic-directed electroless copper deposition (μ-DECD)—a technique that can “paint” copper traces onto textured, non-planar, curved surfaces. This technology can transform nearly any kind of surface into a de facto circuit board with enhanced structural integrity and has the potential to revolutionize the electronics industry by saving the engineer valuable space and weight and expand the use of these structures into unprecedented domains.

According to Dr. Abhiteja Konda, currently a post-doc at the Argonne National Laboratory, and the lead author of this paper, “For the first time, we demonstrated the use of soft, microfluidic devices in the deposition of metallic traces. Our approach is unique in using simple process tools for the fabrication of circuits on non-planar, arbitrary surfaces.” Based on his experience, the technique is relatively simple, and would be able to offer better accessibility and affordability compared to the existing alternatives that use laser-based tools.

The μ-DECD process involved imprinting of the microscopic canals into an elastic material, which was then sealed by compressing onto various surfaces—a corrugated plane, a sphere or even a cylinder—anything that creates a reversible yet strong seal. The seal allowed the flow of solutions through the channels which were used for electroless deposition of copper. The metallic copper is deposited only in the areas exposed to the solutions as defined by the channels in the microfluidic device.

The team further demonstrated the use of these traces in producing a light-sensing circuit, and a radio frequency antenna that was used to transmit a signal and was detected using a smartphone through near-field communication.

Image Credit: University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Image Credit: University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dr. Abhiteja Konda

Sara Gloria is the author of the young adult, contemporary romance novel, All the Wrong Reasons. She is currently at work on book two, aptly titled All the Right Reasons.

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Virtual Numbers for Small Businesses: Affordable Solutions for Enhanced Communication



Virtual phone numbers have become popular all over the world. They are popular because virtual phone numbers are practical and provide a wide range of benefits. There are several significant variations between a virtual number and a regular number, and there is no direct connection between a virtual number and a telephone.

Small businesses can quickly and affordably enhance their business by using virtual phone numbers. As it helps to maintain a professional image, the majority of small business owners are choosing a virtual number for customer care solutions. Here are the reasons why virtual phone number India can be an affordable solution for small businesses:

Virtual numbers are economical for startups and small companies

What financial savings may your company expect from a virtual phone number? The first thing is that there are no additional tools or equipment are initially required. Second, unlike mobile phone plans, you can pick and choose the functions you need, saving you money on extras your team won’t use.

A virtual number will assist you with customer retention, which will increase income and is the third reason to get a virtual number.

Establish local presence

Most existing and prospective clients prefer to contact a local vendor for their needs. No matter where they are physically located, small businesses can create and maintain a strong local presence by using virtual phone numbers.

Choosing a local virtual call phone number gives businesses the opportunity to add customization. Using a virtual phone number has other benefits, like handling increased call volume because people are more likely to call a nearby company than one located miles away.

Keep personal communication and business separate.

Your personal cell phone number should be kept private if you don’t want others to know it. This is specifically true if you want to publish a phone number for your company online.

With a virtual number, you can manage both your friends and family’s direct cell numbers from the same device. You can do it while also having a separate phone number for your business contacts.

Virtual numbers are more than just a number.

The best thing about virtual Indian number is that they come with more high-tech and sophisticated functions than your regular number. There are many other services that come with virtual phone lines, including call forwarding, sophisticated conference tools, SMS and email notifications, comprehensive customization, etc.

You can also easily get voicemail service in addition to a variety of other helpful features with efficient business solutions.

Maintain a level of privacy.

It is not always easy to communicate with coworkers or business partners using personal phone numbers. But with virtual phone numbers it is easy to be connected to a personal number without compromising privacy.

For lone proprietors who want to operate a business while keeping their home numbers confidential virtual numbers can work incredibly well.

Choosing a virtual phone service: Things to take into account

Getting a virtual phone number is not too difficult. But when getting ready to get one or more for work, there are several important things to consider:

Free telephone numbers: A virtual phone number is a freebie that some service providers give to subscribers. As part of an upgrade or add-on, you can also get multiple free numbers.

Use and access: To make sure that business numbers are used properly and by the appropriate persons, it is important to keep track of usage and access. Most services come with extras that let you better track phone line usage and make sure everything works as it should.

Pricing and overall value for the money: For getting a virtual number, there are several economical choices available. The service that will provide you with the best value for your money is the one you should choose. While a free service might be adequate for a very small business, a larger corporation would need to look around for options that offer the best integrations.

Final thoughts

Small businesses benefit from using virtual phone numbers as they enable them to reduce unnecessary costs and improve overall performance. The virtual mobile number India also offers a lot of sophisticated and advanced features to small businesses. So, consider getting a virtual phone number for your company if you want to improve effectiveness and make it simpler for customers to contact you.

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Film Production Services and their Future




Film production services play a pivotal role in bringing captivating stories to life on the silver screen. With their expertise, film production companies provide a comprehensive range of services, ensuring the seamless execution of every aspect of filmmaking. In this article, we will delve into the world of film production services, exploring what they entail and shedding light on how to choose the right production company. Additionally, we will examine the future of film production services, considering the advancements that technology and changing audience preferences are bringing to the industry. Also, if you are searching for film production services in India from one of the trusted film production companies, you can refer to the concluding part of the article.

Content of the article

  • What are film production services?
  • What do film production companies do?
  • How to choose a film production company?
  • The future of film production services
  • Concluding remarks – Finding the best film production services in India

What Are Film Production Services?

Film production services encompass a wide array of activities involved in the creation of a film. From pre-production to post-production, these services cover every stage of the filmmaking process. In pre-production, film production companies assist with script development, casting, location scouting, and budgeting. During production, they oversee aspects such as cinematography, directing, art direction, and sound recording. In post-production, these services involve editing, visual effects, sound design, and distribution.

What Do Film Production Companies Do?

Film production companies serve as the driving force behind the realisation of a film project. They bring together a team of professionals, including producers, directors, cinematographers, editors, and production designers, who collectively contribute their expertise to ensure the film’s success. These companies take charge of budgeting, securing funding, coordinating logistics, managing schedules, and overseeing the entire production process. Additionally, they liaise with talent agents, negotiate contracts, and provide legal and administrative support.

How to Choose a Film Production Company?

Selecting the right film production company is crucial for the success of your project. Here are some key factors to consider when making this decision:

a) Portfolio and Expertise: Assess the company’s portfolio and past projects to gauge their level of expertise and the quality of their work. Look for companies that have experience in producing films similar to your project’s genre or style.

b) Reputation and Track Record: Research the reputation and track record of the production company. Read reviews, seek recommendations, and evaluate their success in delivering projects within deadlines and budgets.

c) Creative Collaboration: Communication and collaboration are essential in the film production process. Choose a company that aligns with your creative vision, values your input, and encourages a collaborative working environment.

d) Resources and Network: Consider the company’s resources, including equipment, facilities, and industry connections. A production company with an extensive network can help in securing financing, accessing talented professionals, and finding suitable shooting locations.

e) Budget and Cost: Understand the company’s pricing structure and ensure it aligns with your budget. A transparent and detailed breakdown of costs will help you make an informed decision.

The Future of Film Production Services

The future of film production services is influenced by several factors that are transforming the industry:

a) Technological Advancements: Rapid advancements in technology are revolutionising the film production landscape. Innovations such as virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and high-quality digital cameras are reshaping the way films are made, enabling filmmakers to explore new creative possibilities and streamline production processes.

b) Diverse Storytelling: Film production services are witnessing a growing demand for diverse stories and representation. As audiences seek authentic and inclusive narratives, production companies are embracing a wider range of perspectives and cultural experiences.

c) Streaming Platforms: The rise of streaming platforms has created new opportunities for film production companies. With platforms like Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, and Disney+, there is an increased demand for original content, leading to a surge in film production services catering specifically to these platforms.

d) Sustainability and Social Responsibility: The film industry is increasingly recognizing the importance of sustainability and social responsibility. Production companies are adopting eco-friendly practices, reducing waste, and promoting inclusivity behind the camera.

Concluding remarks – Finding the best film production services in India

Film production services are the backbone of the filmmaking process, bringing together creativity, technical expertise, and logistical support to transform ideas into captivating visual stories.

Choosing the right production company is crucial to ensuring the success of a film project. As the industry evolves, film production services are poised to embrace new technologies, diverse storytelling, streaming platforms, and sustainable practices. By embracing these changes, production companies will continue to captivate audiences and deliver awe-inspiring cinematic experiences for years. If you are searching for film production companies, then you can visit this website. They are a leading provider of world-class film production services in India.

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How to Pick the Best School in West Bengal For Your Kid in 2023?




The educational landscape, as a whole, keeps changing with time. The same goes well with the state of West Bengal. A vast array of school options are available in the state, and it can be overwhelming to select one out of the lot. Finding the best fit that aligns with your child’s unique needs, interests, and learning capabilities is paramount to boosting their academic and personal growth.

In this guide, you can find the essential factors to weigh the primary aspects in 2023 that the educational sector beholds. Learn how to select the best schools in Kolkata and the rest of West Bengal. Secure your child’s educational future by discovering the perfect match with a few easy steps.

Factors to Look Out for When Selecting a School for Your Child

While choosing a school, one should keep a few primary factors in check. Here are the factors that can make a huge difference while selecting the best schools in Darjeeling and other parts of the state.


The significance of location cannot be overstated when selecting the ideal school for your child. One of the most practical reasons to consider location is the daily commute. Opting for a school conveniently located near your home can significantly reduce travel time. It eases the morning rush and ensures your child arrives at school fresh and ready to learn. A shorter commute can also offer parents more time with their children, promoting a balanced family life.

Moreover, proximity to the school allows your child to participate in extracurricular activities and events frequently. Whether attending after-school clubs, sports practices, or parent-teacher conferences, being closer to the school ensures more accessible involvement in your child’s academic journey. Further, it enhances communication and collaboration with teachers and other parents.


The second crucial aspect to consider is the school’s offered curriculum. In West Bengal, you will find a diverse range of curriculums, including the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), and West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE). Each of these curricula possesses its unique advantages and limitations. So it is essential to conduct thorough research to pinpoint the most suitable school for your kid.

ICSE: This curriculum is regarded as an elite education board that strongly focuses on language acquisition, science, mathematics, and social studies.

CBSE: It is the most widely adopted board of education in the country. It is renowned for its keen attention towards mathematics and science, making it a most sorted choice nationwide.

WBBSE: This is a state-run board of West Bengal that primarily aims to shape every child’s future in the state.

Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff

Another essential factor while selecting a school is considering the quality of both faculty and non-teaching staff. The teaching staff’s qualifications, experience, and expertise are of utmost importance. Highly qualified and experienced teachers are better equipped to deliver effective and engaging lessons, catering to the diverse learning needs of students. Equally vital is the student-to-teacher ratio, as smaller class sizes often translate to more personalised attention and support for each student.

Apart from teaching staff, non-teaching staff contribute significantly to a school’s success. Administrative staff, librarians, counsellors, and other support personnel are essential in ensuring smooth school operations. They significantly provide comprehensive support to students and teachers to keep the educational institution running in the heartiest way.

Infrastructure and Facilities

When evaluating the best schools in Asansol or anywhere on the lands of the Ganges, one crucial factor that should not be overlooked is the infrastructure and facilities offered by the institution. A well-designed and equipped school environment enhances the overall learning experience. It is a primary necessity to provide a scope for the holistic development of students.

When considering the physical infrastructure, scrutinise whether the classrooms are spacious, well-maintained, and safe. The physical space is a critical factor in creating a conducive learning atmosphere. The availability of specialised facilities is also essential. Look for schools that offer dedicated laboratories for science subjects, computer labs with up-to-date technology, and well-stocked libraries that encourage a culture of reading and research.

Sports and co-curricular facilities are vital for promoting physical fitness and extracurricular development. A school with playgrounds, sports fields, and facilities for other extracurricular activities can encourage students to participate in physical activities. It promotes a healthy lifestyle and provides a sound recreational space for the students.

Academic Performance

Assessing a school’s academic performance is crucial in making an informed decision about your child’s education. A school’s track record in academic achievements reflects its instructional quality and the success of its students. One key metric is to assess their board exam performance, be it CBSE or ICSE, and look for the overall academic score of the students. Compare the subject scores with national and state averages. Consistently high scores indicate a school’s dedication to imparting quality education and preparing students effectively. Choosing a school with a constantly excellent academic record helps in making wise decisions.

Fee Structure

It is not always true that the best schools in Kolkata and anywhere else have a hefty fee to be paid. One should stick to their budget while opting for a school as it is a long-term commitment and going beyond your limits can cost your child’s future. Understanding the fee structure of a school is a crucial step in the decision-making process. It allows parents to assess the affordability of the institution and plan their finances accordingly. While comparing fees, one should consider the value offered in terms of educational quality, facilities, and extracurricular opportunities.

Transparent and well-structured fee policies help build trust between the school and parents, ensuring a smooth and hassle-free educational journey for the child.


Whether in West Bengal or anywhere else worldwide, a few factors hold the most importance while selecting an ideal school as a parent. By prioritizing your child’s unique needs and learning styles, you can navigate various curricula, teaching staff, infrastructure, academic performance, and fee structures. Thorough research and open communication with schools will empower you to make an informed decision promoting your child’s academic growth, personal development, and overall well-being. Remember, the ideal school ignites their passion for learning, provides a nurturing environment, and equips them with the skills and knowledge they need to win over the competitive academic world. So, choose wisely.

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