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Billions of dollars have been invested to fight the coronavirus, but what comes next?



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In response to the coronavirus pandemic, Congress has pumped tens of billions of dollars into state and local public health agencies, paying for gloves, touch tracers, and outreach programmes to encourage people to get vaccinated.

Public health authorities, who have been juggling bare-bones budgets for years, are overjoyed to have the extra funds. However, they are concerned that it will quickly dry up as the pandemic subsides, perpetuating the boom-bust spending loop that has ravaged the United States’ public health sector for decades. They advise that if budgets are cut again, the country will be back as it was before the coronavirus: unprepared for a health scare.

“We need funds on which we can depend year after year,” said Dr. Mysheika Roberts, Columbus, Ohio’s health commissioner.

Since Roberts arrived in Columbus in 2006, an emergency preparedness grant covered the salaries of more than 20 employees. By the time the coronavirus pandemic struck, it had paid for only ten years. Last year’s relief funds aided the department in staffing its coronavirus response teams. Although the money has assisted the city in dealing with the current situation, Roberts is concerned that history will repeat itself.

With the pandemic, public health authorities across the United States worry that they will be forced to scrape together funds from a variety of outlets to deliver vital care to their populations, just as they did after the Sept. 11 attacks and the SARS and Ebola outbreaks.

When the mosquito-borne Zika virus ravaged South America in 2016, causing major birth defects in newborn infants, members of Congress couldn’t agree on how and how much to spend in the United States on prevention measures like schooling and mosquito control. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used funds from its Ebola response as well as state and local health department grants to finance the original Zika response. Congress ultimately appropriated $1.1 billion for Zika, but by that time, mosquito season had ended in most of the United States.

“Something happens, we put a lot of money at it, and then we go back to our shrunken budgets and we can’t do the minimum work we have to do day in and day out, let alone be prepared for the next emergency,” said Chrissie Juliano, executive director of the Big Cities Health Coalition, which includes the heads of more than two dozen public health agencies.

According to Trust for America’s Welfare, a public health policy and lobbying group, funding for Public Health Emergency Preparedness, which accounts for emergency capabilities for state and local health departments, fell by about half between the fiscal years 2003 and 2021, after accounting for inflation.

Even the federal Prevention and Public Health Fund, developed by the Affordable Care Act to provide $2 billion a year for public health, has been depleted of funds over the last decade. If the funds were not touched, city and state health authorities may have received an extra $12.4 billion.

Several senators, led by Democratic U.S. Sen. Patty Murray of Washington, are attempting to break the boom-bust loop by enacting bills that will potentially include $4.5 billion in key public health funds annually. Health departments perform critical government tasks such as water quality management, death certificate issuance, monitoring sexually transmitted illnesses, and planning for infectious outbreaks.

Spending for state public health agencies fell by 16 percent per capita from 2010 to 2019, while spending for municipal health departments fell by 18 percent, according to a July investigation by KHN and The Associated Press. Between the 2008 crisis and 2019, at least 38,000 public health workers were lost at the state and local levels. Many public health employees are already working on a contract or part-time basis. Some are paying so little that they are eligible for government assistance. These causes limit agencies’ willingness to attract experts.

In addition to these casualties, the coronavirus pandemic has resulted in a mass migration of public health workers due to intimidation, political pressure, and fatigue. Between April 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021, at least 248 heads of state and local health agencies resigned, retired, or were fired, according to an AP and KHN yearlong investigation. During the pandemic, almost one in every six Americans missed a local public health leader. According to experts, this is the biggest migration of public health officials in American history.

Brian Castrucci, CEO of the de Beaumont Foundation, a public health advocacy organisation, describes Congress’ massive infusion of cash in response to the crisis as “wallpaper and drapes” because it would not rebuild public health’s collapsing foundation.

“I’m concerned that at the end of this, we’ll have hired a slew of touch tracers — just to lay them off right after,” Castrucci said. “We’re all going from catastrophe to disaster without even worrying about the infrastructure.”

Castrucci and others argue they need consistent funding for high-skill specialists including epidemiologists — data-driven epidemic detectives — as well as technological enhancements to better monitor diseases and disseminate awareness to the public.

The operating machine in Ohio that is used to record cases to the state predates the advent of the iPhone. State officials have said for years that they needed to update it, but lacked the funds and political commitment to do so. To record COVID-19 incidents, several departments around the country have relied on fax machines.

During the pandemic, the state auditor of Ohio discovered that almost 96 percent of the municipal health authorities surveyed had issues with the state’s disease reporting system. According to Roberts, staff questioning patients had to navigate multiple pages of inquiries, which was a significant challenge when dealing with 500 cases per day.

The framework was so old that certain information could only be submitted in a non-searchable feedback box, and authorities scrambled to pull evidence from it to disclose to the media, such as how many people who tested positive have attended a Black Lives Matter march, which was a crucial concern last summer for people seeking to grasp whether marches contributed to the virus’ spread.

Ohio is developing a new scheme, but Roberts is concerned that without a stable budget, the state will be unable to keep it up to date.

“You’ll need to update that,” Roberts said. “And you’re going to need money to back that up.”

Patty Hayes, the public health officer for Seattle and King County in Washington, said she is often asked if there isn’t a centralised location to register for a vaccination appointment. The answer is simple: property. Years of underfunding had left offices across the state with antiquated operating networks that were incapable of handling the coronavirus when it struck.

Hayes remembers that her agency used to perform mass vaccine exercises, but the programme was scrapped when the money ran out after the spectre of Sept. 11 disappeared.

An study conducted about six years ago revealed that her administration was about $25 million short of what it needed annually for key public health work. According to Hayes, the past year has shown that this is an underestimation. Climate change, for example, is causing more environmental health issues, such as the effect on people as wildfire smoke covered most of the Pacific Northwest in September.

Since a broad swath of the population has criticised — and often been actively aggressive against — the mask mandates and business controls enforced by public health authorities since the pandemic, public health officials in certain places may fail to make the argument for more secure support.

Any county commissioners in Missouri withdrew funds from public health agencies because they were dissatisfied with the limitations.

Mayor Glenn Jacobs of Knox County, Tennessee, narrated a video posted in the fall that featured a shot of health officials after referring to “sinister powers.” Someone later spray-painted the word “DEATH” on the department office block. In March, the Board of Health was deprived of its authority and reduced to an advisory role. The mayor’s office did not respond to a request for comment on the film.

“This will transform the status of public health and what we can and cannot do around the country,” said Dr. Martha Buchanan, the health department’s head. “I know it’s going to change things around here.”

In December, a KHN and AP investigation discovered that at least 24 states were drafting bills to restrict or eliminate public health powers.

Back in Seattle, small businesses have contributed funds and personnel to vaccine sites. Microsoft is hosting one location, and Starbucks is providing customer experience expertise to assist in the construction of the others. Hayes is glad, but she is perplexed as to why a vital government feature was not adequately resourced during a pandemic.

If public health had received consistent support, her team may have worked more closely with data and prepared for new risks in the state where the first COVID-19 case in the United States was identified.

“They will look back on this nation’s reaction to the pandemic as a perfect example of a country failing to prioritise its people’ welfare because it did not contribute to public health,” she added. “That will be included in the storey.”

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Mahesh is leading digital marketing initiatives at RecentlyHeard, a NewsFeed platform that covers news from all sectors. He develops, manages, and executes digital strategies to increase online visibility, better reach target audiences, and create engaging experience across channels. With 7+ years of experience, He is skilled in search engine optimization, content marketing, social media marketing, and advertising, and analytics.