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U.S. Uranium Mines Could Produce 25 Million Pounds in 10 Years



On September 26th, Strathmore Minerals President David Miller presented at the Platts Nuclear Fuel Strategies conference, announcing a large percentage jump in U.S. uranium production over the next decade. Presently, domestic production hovers around 3 million pounds of uranium oxide. Miller forecasts U3O8 production could increase to 25 million pounds by 2016 and maintain this pace through the second decade.

We talked with Miller about his projections and how he arrived at those numbers. He told us the big surprise would be the return of conventional uranium mining – both underground and open pit deposits. While the in situ recovery (ISR) method might quadruple from the current level of production, conventional mining would overtake ISR over the next seven to nine years. Miller believes by 2015, conventional uranium mining production in the United States might come close to 15 million pounds per year.

He also talked about which U.S. states would become the top producers. Miller explained the strong interest in Wyoming and the states’ favorable climate toward uranium mining would keep Wyoming in the Number One spot through 2020. Miller foresees New Mexico becoming the country’s second largest uranium producer, closely followed by Utah. Neither state is currently mining uranium, but both have a long history of high uranium production. Despite a strong increase in production, Texas would fall to fourth place. Colorado and Nebraska would round out the key uranium producing states.

We believe his production estimates – if the current group of junior uranium developers and others meet the 2013 target – might come just in time. The Russian HEU-LEU deal, also known as ‘swords for plowshares,’ expires in 2013. U.S. utilities have been complacent in ensuring an abundant inventory is accumulated in advance of this expiration. If U.S. uranium production meets or surpasses Miller’s projections, this could become a welcome event for U.S. utilities and electricity consumers.

Q& A with David Miller

President of Strathmore Minerals


StockInterview: Who do you think will become the U.S. uranium producers by 2010?

David Miller: Strathmore is moving forward with two projects, which we are permitting in New Mexico. In Wyoming we could be in production with one or two of our projects by 2010. Permits are the limiting factor. If we had our mining permits tomorrow, we could start construction the next day. By 2010, other uranium producers would include Cameco Corp’s Power Resources with two existing and possibly two additional projects, Mestena and Uranium Resources in Texas, Denison (IUC), Cotter in Colorado, and others who have announced they plan to be in production, such as Energy Metals, UR-Energy and

Uranerz Energy. And a few others may also come into production around that time or later in the decade.

StockInterview: And what will the U.S. production climate be like by 2020?

David Miller: Naming the uranium-producing companies who will be around in 2020 may be difficult, but knowing which properties will likely be in production is easier. Strathmore’s Roca Honda should be in production by then with a proposed new mill in New Mexico. This mill might produce between three and six million pounds of U3O8 per year, fed by the Roca Honda and other uranium mines in New Mexico. The big operation in Wyoming will be the Sweetwater Mill, now owned by RTZ unit Kennecott. Sweetwater would be fed uranium from the Gas Hills and Green Mountain Projects in Wyoming. Blanding (Utah) should be the third largest milling operation in the U.S. The other two mills, Canon City (Colorado) and Ticaboo (Utah) should also be operating at somewhat lesser production rates.

StockInterview: What will happen with ISR operations in the U.S. with the rise of conventional mining?

David Miller: By 2020 I can see eight ISR’s in Wyoming, two in New Mexico and maybe four in Texas. Total production from conventional and ISR could be over 20 million and maybe as much as 30 million pounds per year. The split will be about 60 percent for conventional mining and 40 percent for ISR.

StockInterview: Why do you see Wyoming leading the country and annually producing more than 10 million pounds before 2020?

David Miller: The largest conventional mill is presently in Wyoming. Two operating ISR plants and three additionally permitted operations could start in the near future. A number of companies have already announced their permitting plans. The regulatory and political climate in Wyoming is more comfortable with uranium mining because of the fifty-plus years of continuous uranium production. Uranium mining is recognized in Wyoming as clean and safe. It is also appreciated for the jobs the industry creates and the taxes the uranium production spins off.

StockInterview: Speaking of taxes and jobs, how will this projected increase in uranium production impact Wyoming?

David Miller: Producing 10 million pounds per year would yield close to $25 million in severance and ad valorem taxes. There may be an additional few million in royalty payments on state lands. This additional stream of tax income would be enough to educate nearly 3,000 children per year in Wyoming. For every one million pounds of uranium oxide produced at least 200 direct jobs would be created. If uranium production increases by 10 million pounds per year, I would expect more than 2,000 direct new jobs created. These are mining jobs, which are at the top of the pay scale and with full benefits. Each direct job will spin off a number of support jobs – suppliers, contractors, builders, merchants, educators and the like. About seven jobs are indirectly created for every new mining job. That would have a strong impact in many areas of Wyoming, and especially in New Mexico, where uranium mining should also significantly grow.

StockInterview: But, New Mexico is presently producing zero uranium. Why do you envision this state surpassing Texas and Nebraska in uranium production by 2020?

David Miller: New Mexico has a great uranium history. New Mexico uranium deposits have some of the highest grades in the country. You find elephants in elephant country, and New Mexico has elephant uranium deposits. You do not produce 350 million pounds historically by having poor uranium deposits. The political climate in Grants, New Mexico is also one of the most encouraging environments for uranium mining in the United States.

StockInterview: Of course there are likely to be some disappointments along this production timetable.

David Miller: There will be many disappointments with many of the new companies and deposits they try to mine. There will be permitting delays. Those companies which say they will be in production in two years may be disappointed. ISR is not an easy way to mine. It takes some very skilled people to do it properly. I know of no consulting group in which you can go hire out this expertise. There may be less than twenty people in the U.S. who are capable of running ISR operations at an optimum level. Those companies which have those experts will have fewer disappointments than those who don’t. Many geologic environments which have been promoted as having potential ISR operations may show difficult characteristics, disappointing the owners and shareholders. There will be some winners, but there could probably be more losers in this game.

StockInterview: What will be the key to a successful U.S. ISR operation?

David Miller: The key to ISR will be permeability, grade, thickness, and depth – pretty much in that order. With low or no permeability the deposit will need to be conventionally mined. A high permeability, low or medium grade deposit at less than 1000 feet will be a very attractive operation. After you have a certain volume of uranium to justify the capital costs of an operation, I would rather have good permeability and low grade than low permeability and high grade, if I am going to use ISR as my recovery technique. Of course with conventional mining I will take the highest grades we can get.

StockInterview: How large would a uranium deposit have to be to justify the conventional mining method?

David Miller: Near-surface, open-pittable deposits could be as small as a few hundred thousand pounds to be economic if a mill is nearby. To justify a new mill, for example in New Mexico, a critical mass of about 50 million pounds of uranium is needed. Grades can vary greatly. If the deposit is shallow and mined by open pit, with a mill nearby, then grades could be as low as 0.05 percent U3O8. With a 1500 to 2000-foot underground mine, grades above 0.20 percent may be required.

StockInterview: How many U.S. uranium deposits do you suspect can be economically mined using conventional methods for less than $65/pound?

David Miller: There are probably more than one dozen deposits in the U.S. with uranium resources recoverable at less than $65/pound. The resources would likely exceed more than 200 million pounds.

StockInterview: Why do you believe companies will proceed with conventional mining instead of ISR mining? They are more expensive to set up and more labor-intensive.

David Miller: Conventional mines will access much larger deposits. The individual projects which justify a mine and mill will have to be deposits of 30-million to 50-million pound and larger. Also, with higher grades a deposit has less permeability. You cannot properly address the mineralization with ISR in the higher grade deposits. Percent-recovery of the total uranium resource should generally be higher with the conventional mining. Conventional mining can recover all the good ore, even in low permeability areas.

StockInterview: It appears Strathmore Minerals and SXR Uranium One plan to move forward with conventional mining. What obstacles do you expect as you come closer to mining your deposits?

David Miller:

The Number One problem will be finding experienced miners. It has been over twenty years since we did conventional mining. I was involved in the very last underground uranium mine in Wyoming. The miners I worked with are all in their fifties now or older. While some would make great mentors we will need a new generation of young, tough miners that are not afraid of getting dirty. We may have to recruit some from the hard rock mines of Canada to teach the new generation of miners in Wyoming and New Mexico.

StockInterview: When do you think conventional uranium mining will overtake the ISR method in the United States?

David Miller:

The key is the four existing mills in the United States. They could all be up and running by 2012. Conventional mining and milling could pass ISR before 2012 with Blanding getting up to full speed. I won’t make a forecast as to when Strathmore’s proposed mill near our Roca Honda property would become operational until we have evaluated all the alternatives and issued a formal statement. Once we have a permit, production would likely follow within two years.

StockInterview: How many new jobs will the current uranium bull market create for the world’s mining industry?

David Miller: When annual uranium production reaches 20 million pounds U308 in the United States, the industry would create about 4,000 direct jobs in the mining industry and nearly 30,000 in support services. Because Canada and Australia have higher grades, there would be about 150 new mining jobs created for every one million pounds of newly recovered uranium. However, in Canada where is a tremendous amount of new exploration pushing the limits of geophysics and drilling contractors. I would guess this would create at least 2,000 new full-time exploration-related jobs.

StockInterview: In dollar terms, how large of an operating revenue stream would this bull market bring to the U.S. mining industry?

David Miller: In U.S. the new uranium mining production will be sold at prices in excess of $50 per pound. So the industry will be generating $500 million in cash flow per 10 million pounds produced. Over next 20 years it should spin off $20 billion in cash flow to US uranium producers.

StockInterview: Is it realistic to expect operating income of about $20/pound between ‘all in’ costs and revenue from the uranium sold to U.S. utilities?

David Miller: That sounds about right for the new production coming online. Operating costs automatically go up because companies try to extend the life of the orebodies being mined. I think the spread will be between 1.5 to 2 times cost when prices settle a little. At a mining cost of $30 per pound, a reasonable sales price of $45 to $60/pound will make a nice profit for an operating company.

COPYRIGHT © 2007 by StockInterview, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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Mortgage Post Closing Services: Describing What They Entail




Could you be interested in mortgage post closing services? They entail strict reviews and audits to ensure compliance and completeness of documents. It is only after total confirmation of documents that the lender can fund the loan. The service provider selected by your company must be very experienced and good at their work. They must know how to correct documents from various origination stages and review them. The only documents that providers of mortgage post closing services could correct are those that have been signed and funded. The work of hired professionals also is to review legal, loan processing and other documentation for regulatory conformity.

They follow origination and underwriting rules to the letter, making sure missing information, if any, is retrieved. Mortgage closing services also entails data integrity checks so as to generate quality control reports. While doing integrity checks on loan information, service providers also state any possible exceptions. Basically their major activities entail the following. Tracking all documents (trailing document retrieval) associated with the mortgage post-closing is the first critical step. The documents that need to be trailed include assignments, assumption agreements, judgments, tax records, trust deeds, modifications, and UCC (Uniform commercial code) among others.

After the completion of this, issuance of final title policy, lien and assignment take place. The second activity offered during delivery of Mortgage closing services is the assembly of post closing loan package. What this entails is compilation of all loan documents that are usually submitted during the whole origination process. It means therefore that the provider of mortgage post closing services will work together with underwriters, loan officers, loan processors, mortgage brokers, home appraisers, property sellers and any other involved parties. The assembling work is rather tiresome and lengthy and that is why you want it to be done by a big company with many employees.

Another activity includes post closing data integrity audit as aforementioned. The main reason why this audit is done is to tackle possible home loan deficiencies. They verify and address red flags that were raised during the underwriting process. After this, all loans that have been fully approved are registered with a given mortgagee system. This whole process of registering approved loans prevents future assignments on loans. It also saves lenders from incurring future correction and tracking costs or facing document penalties among others. This step of mortgage post closing services also ensures faster execution of loans, zero errors on documentation and an easy closing process.

Mortgage quality control audit is also part of mortgage post closing services. There are automated audit systems used for this task. The service you will be offered in this step include pre-funding, post-closing, servicing, compliance, foreclosure loans, fraud investigation, preparation of the QC plan, cancel or reject, and commercial loans audit among others. It is imperative to make sure that the provider of the post closing service can audit and review the loans you normally process. Many outsourced companies deal with FHA, VA, Fannie Mae, and Freddie Mac among other home loans. Their basic auditing process entails file document review, evaluation of underwriting process, credit risk analysis and third party verification.

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All You Want To Know About Mortgage




A mortgage is a kind of agreement. This allows the lender to take away the property if the person fails to pay the cash. Generally, a house or such a costly property is given out in exchange for a loan. The home is the security which is signed for a contract. The borrower is bound to give away the mortgaged item if he fails to make the repayments of the loan. By taking your property the lender will sell it to someone and collect the cash or whatever was due to be paid.

There are several types of mortgages. Some of them are discussed here for you –

Fixed-rate mortgages- These are actually the most simple type of loan. The payments of the loan will be exactly the same for the whole term. This helps to clear the debt fast as the borrowers are made to pay more than they should. Such a loan lasts for a minimum of 15 years to a maximum of 30 years.

Adjustable rate mortgages- This type of loan is quite similar to the earlier one. The only point of difference is that the interest rates might change after a certain period of time. Thus, the monthly payment of the debtor also changes. These kinds of loans are very risky and you will not be sure that how much the rate fluctuation shall be and how the payments might change in the coming years.

Second mortgages- These kinds of mortgage allows you to add another property as a mortgage to borrow some more money. The lender of the second mortgage, in this case, gets paid if there is any money left after repaying the first lender. These kinds of loans are taken for home improvements, higher education, and other such things.

Reverse mortgages- This one is quite interesting. It provides income to the people who are generally over 62 years of age and are having enough equity in their home. The retired people sometimes make use of this kind of loan or mortgage to generate income out of it. They are paid back huge amounts of the money they have spent on the homes years back.

Thus, we hope that you are able to understand the different kinds of mortgages that this article deals with. The idea of mortgage is quite simple- one has to keep something valuable as security to the money lender in exchange for getting or building some valuable thing.

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What Insurances Can I Have With My Mortgage?




Life Cover

Life Cover provides a lump sum if you die during the policy term. This can be used to pay off your mortgage so your family do not have to worry about making any further repayments.

Critical Illness Cover

Critical Illness Cover is designed to insure against critical illnesses which could have a severe impact on your ability to earn a living. It should pay out if you are diagnosed with one of the critical illnesses or disabilities listed on the policy. You could then use the lump sum to repay your mortgage or help pay expensive medical costs. Some policies pay out on death during the period of cover if you are eligible to claim.

Accident, Sickness & Unemployment Cover

Accident, Sickness & Unemployment Cover is a short-term income-protection policy. It pays you a tax-free monthly sum for up to 12 months if you are unable to work due to an accident or sickness or if you become unemployed through no fault of your own. Policies are available that protect you against all of these events or just cover you for accident and sickness only, or unemployment only.

This type of insurance is expensive so to reduce the cost you can choose to have a ‘deferred period’. Then, in the event of a claim, you will not receive any benefit for a period of time at the beginning. This deferment could be for 30, 60 or 90 days for all three types of claims. You can also have a longer deferred period of 180 days for accident and sickness cover. To help you decide which deferred period is best you should take into consideration such things as any savings you may have and any sick pay you get from your employer.

You can choose the amount of monthly benefit you wish to receive up to 65% of your gross monthly income. Gross income is your wages before deductions have been taken such as income tax and National Insurance contributions. Of course the higher the benefit you require the higher the cost of the insurance. Cover provided by some companies may be limited due to individual circumstances.

Just as an example, Accident, Sickness and Unemployment Cover typically costs £4.71 a month for every £100 of monthly benefit. This is based on a 36-year-old customer choosing £850 of accident, sickness and unemployment monthly benefit with claims paid after a 30-day deferred period.

The cost of this insurance depends on a number of factors including your age, your occupation and where you live.

A number of companies offer short-term income protection and other products designed to protect you against loss of income.

Buildings Insurance

This covers the structure of the home such as the roof, walls, windows and permanent fittings.

Contents Insurance

This covers household goods, personal possessions and valuables within the home.

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Tips to Choosing a Mortgage Broker




When you’re searching for a new home, you go through a number of properties to find that perfect match for you and your family. Once the excitement settles, it’s time to secure your financing.

You have two choices, you can approach your bank and hope that they are offering loans right now or you can approach a mortgage broker, someone who specializes in property financing and works with a host of leading banks, financial institutions and credit unions to secure you the best deal available to meet your budget.

When you first start looking for someone to help you secure the financing you need, it’s advisable to speak to family and friends that have recently purchased property in the area. They may be able to recommend an experienced broker that they dealt with, who secured them their financing. Word of mouth is usually the best way to find the best of the best.

Another option is to search online. You will be welcomed by hundreds of mortgage brokers who all want to assist you in getting the finance you need to secure your new home. If you choose online, there is some additional research you will have to do to ensure you will be working with someone who has experience and knowledge in the industry and has a good reputation with their customers.

There are a number of different brokers out there, some will be tied to certain estate agencies, some will work independently and some will work for large lending centers that are working closely with a number of the leading lenders in the country. Try and steer clear of the first two, rather go with the one that can work alongside a large number of banks and financial institutions to find you the money you need in the shortest period of time.

The mortgage broker should be focused on finding you the best possible deal. They may present you with a number of offers, enabling you to choose the one you feel meets your specific requirements.

One of the most important considerations is that they have extensive industry experience and an excellent reputation. You want your mortgage broker to work for you, they should provide you with all the information and advice you need, also providing you with outstanding customer service. This is so important as a first time buyer when you are unsure about the processes that lie ahead.

Determine if they charge any upfront fees. Some mortgage brokers will charge fees for their efforts. Ensure you are aware of the percentage they charge and how the payment is to be made. Is it upfront? Do you have to pay it straight away? This may reduce your down payment slightly, so take this into consideration.

Always do your own research as well, don’t rely on what they tell you. Even if you have chosen to use a mortgage broker because they can secure the best deals, approach the banks and find out what they are offering right now. Don’t settle for the first offer that comes you way, by doing some research, you can ensure you find the best mortgage with the best interest and terms to suit your budget.

Never assume your loan is secure. Ensure everything is provided to you in writing. This should be the offer from the lending institution, the mortgage broker’s fees and anything else imperative to your decision.

With everything in writing, you are set to go ahead and place an offer on your new dream home with the confidence that your financing should be approved within the shortest period of time.

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STAR Servicer – Total Achievement and Rewards Program for Mortgage Servicers




As the fall out continues with the countrywide 50 state investigations, lending servicers who are responsible for bill collection of mortgage payments and other aspects of mortgage servicing for investors, it has come to the attention of the government how badly these companies are run. Fourteen companies have been under review and all of them have been found to violate foreclosure laws. Fannie Mae and other government agencies have been discussing how to best improve our mortgage servicing and lending here in the United States. Fannie Mae has come up with a performance program to help assist mortgage servicers’ to get it right and to stay within the boundaries of the law. This ultimately will help ensure the health of our housing economy and help support the housing recovery.

Not only will servicers be facing no procedures, they will also be facing harsh fines as a group entity. These fees could total over 20 million; however, this is just an estimation of what they could be paying for violating foreclosure laws.

Fannie Mae on Wednesday announced the STAR (Servicer Total Achievement and Rewards); the program is designed to better assist and will help examine how the servicers help homeowners avoid foreclosure. The goal of this new program is to set clear expectations and specific measurements to help Fannie Mae and servicers increase focus on avoiding foreclosure.

As more and more news comes out about how servicers’ have violated foreclosure laws, this program is an ongoing effort to hold servicers accountable. So how will this work? Each servicer will be given a servicer performance scorecard, which in turn will provide feedback on a monthly basis. With this program it should help servicers see where they need improvement and overall performance. Top ranking servicer’s will become eligible to receive monthly incentive awards and recognition. Also, top ranking servicer’s performance will be made public in an annual scorecard. Many believe this program will help gear better customer service to home owners, help with the housing recovery, and keep the servicers on the right track.

This will also help the federal government to set guidelines and regulations in place for the mortgage servicing industry. As the mortgage industry and bank industry is reviewed by the government to find a solution and to prevent another financial crises,it seems many changes are going to happen over the next few months and years. As we wait and see if the HAMP program and other federal programs will stick around, it is good to know servicers will now be regulated better in hopes of making the homeowner ship experience safer for everyone.

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Foreign National Mortgages: Things To Keep In Mind




A foreign national mortgage refers to a loan for non-us residents. Even the government can issue loans to non-residents of the States. Let’s find out more.

First of all, if you are in the States legally, you can apply for the loan. However, for illegal residents, there are zero chances of success. The reason is that main lenders always require ID before reviewing an applicant. And these requirements include visas, work permits, green cards and social security numbers as well.

Rules for the resident foreigners

Generally, it’s not difficult for non-us residents to look for a mortgage. There are two primary categories that they fall in:

1. Permanent residents: they have green cards and the rights to live in the States with all the long-term residency rights

2. Non-permanent residents: Generally, your residency rights are based on your employment.

Regardless of which category you fall in, you can apply for a mortgage. However, you may need to put in a little more effort if you are not a permanent resident.

Permanent vs non-permanent

If you are a non-permanent resident, you may have to show a proof that you will live in the country for at least another three years. If your visa or work permit has fewer than 12 months of expiry date, your lender can find out how likely you may be to stay.

FHA loans are designed for non-permanent residents. According to the rules, if you have a renewed visa or work permit, you can be a good candidate for approval.

Refugees or those in the asylum

If you have been in the asylum or have the refugee status, we have good news for you. With this status, you have the right to work, and you have greater chances of getting a mortgage approval. So, this is important to keep in mind.

Non-resident foreign buyers

If you have no right to live in the USA, you may still be eligible for the loan. However, you may have credit score problems to face. Actually, lenders have concerns as how they can enforce a debt in case of these non-residents.

So, you can’t get the type of deals a resident or citizen can get. In fact, you may have to make a down payment up to 50% to get this type of loan. Aside from this, the mortgage rate can be quite higher unlike the rate charged to a resident.

Welcome to the States

Immigrants were the founders of the States. Therefore, American has always been quite welcoming to immigrants.

Typically, lenders make their lending decisions based on the risk factors, such as the financial resources, down payment size, and creditworthiness of the borrower. As far as determining the best deal is concerned, you can be on the level playing field irrespective of the citizenship status you may have.

Long story short, if you are non-resident in the United States, you can still apply for a mortgage but you need to meet the requirements set by the lender. Hope this helps.

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Tips To Choose a Mortgage Lender




No matter how rich you are emergency situations can crop up at any time. Thus, you have to consider taking a loan either from an individual or from a financing company or a bank. Most of the people of now like to opt for the latter options rather than going for the first option. This is because the financing companies or banks are more reliable than a person. But the high interests that are charged on the loans are really a burden. So, a better alternative that you can look for is mortgaging your property against the loan you take. This will relief you from being taxed with high charges and you can pay the loan amount at your convenience within the time limit that the company has offered you. To choose a proper loan lender you can follow some of the tips that we have provided in this article.

Prepare a List

While you consider risking your personal property, why plan everything in haste. Some companies would try to persuade you to take quicker decisions by offering attractive rates but let them be as they are and take your time to take your decision. Research well and make a list of the companies that you find.

Check the Terms and Conditions

Not only choosing the company but knowing the terms and conditions through which the loan to be completed are important. Remember that you are risking your property for money and the slightest carelessness in this respect can cause you to lose your money.

How Quickly They Respond

The next thing that should be your determining factor is that how quickly they respond to your queries. Emergency situations don’t give you a lifetime opportunity. A delay can make the problems to increase. So, instead, you should go for the ones that respond quickly to your needs.

Compare and Choose

After you check with several companies you can compare the interest rates and also the time period they are allowing you to make the repayments. You also have to ensure that the company that you are thinking of dealing with should have a good reputation in the market. Check their client reviews and the years the company has been in the market. If you find that the company is a genuine one then you should go ahead with finalizing the deal with the company.

We hope that just by reading this article you have got an idea about choosing the mortgage provider. This will help you in choosing a better lender for your needs.

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Credit Card Processing: How the System Works




Establishing a merchant account for your business enterprise is the wisest financial decision you will ever make for the growth, expansion and success of your business. Once you’ve set up a merchant account, you can accept credit and debit cards payments from your clients for your products and / or services. You can also arrange to accept online and mobile banking payments for your products and / or services.

A merchant account opens up new avenues for your business; therefore, giving your business many more opportunities to flourish. But, have you ever understood how the credit card processing system works? Have you tried to perceive the complexities of the players involved in the process and the intricacies of the system?

While it is not entirely essential for you to know the inside and outside of the card processing system because your Merchant Service Provider will do the needful for you; it is good for you to acquaint yourself with the system on a general basis.

The Participants Involved in a Card Transaction

A typical credit or debit card transaction involves the following players:

• The customer

• The merchant

• The payment gateway

• The customer’s credit card issuer

• The credit card interchange

• The processor at the acquiring bank

• The merchant’s acquiring bank

The Route the Money Takes from the Customer to the Merchant

Let’s take an example to understand how the card processing system works.

Suppose that a customer walks into a clothing store and she finds a bag that catches her eye. She immediately proceeds to the payment counter and makes a payment of $100 towards her purchase with her cards.

The cashier at the merchant’s store accepts the cards and uses a card swiping machine to set the process into motion.

• The $100 amount makes its first stop at the payment gateway where the payment is first authorized with a minor deduction in the amount.

• Now, $99 travels to the appropriate processor and after a minor deduction is submitted to the card interchange as $98.5.

• Once the transaction gets a clear at the interchange, it moves on to the issuing bank with a further deduction where the issuing bank verifies the availability of funds in the customer’s credit / debit card.

If the transaction is declined, it makes its journey back to the customer from here.

• If the transaction is approved, $98 reaches the processor at the acquiring bank, just one step closer to the merchant account.

• Once authorized, $97.5 gets deposited into the merchant’s account, which is now at the merchant’s disposal.

(The figures and fees involved in card processing are based on the number of players in the process, merchant type, card type and risk factors)

In the present age, quite a number of payments are made electronically, especially with the extensive use of credit and debit cards and online funds transfer. Although typical card processing takes seven participants, the entire transaction amazing takes a maximum of five seconds for approval.

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5 Tips to Consider When Refinancing Your Mortgage




Here are 5 tips to consider when refinancing your mortgage.

Is it the right move?

When conditions are right, financially and economically, you might be considering a refinance of your mortgage. Before you jump into what seems like a good idea, it’s best to know exactly what the refinancing process is, and just what it entails. You should know that when you are going to refinance, it involves starting the loan application process right from the start, as if you are buying a new home. Will you be taking the loan with a new lender, setting up a new deal, or should you shop around and see what’s on offer from other loan providers? The best person to lead you through what is now a veritable minefield of lenders, is your mortgage broker. They are far more up to date with what’s on offer than if you spent hours scouring the internet looking for the best deals.

Why Refinance?

What are your reasons for refinancing? There could be a variety of reasons. Lower interest rates on offer? A difference of a point or two in the rate may seem small when you look at it, but that couple of points can save you thousands over the years because your repayments will go on for 15 to 30 years for a typical mortgage.

Another reason some may decide to refinance is to get a shorter term, which also saves thousands of dollars. For example, things have never looked rosier personally, and both you and your partner are working, and your income is higher. So, a change in your financial situation can be used to save money on higher monthly payments. Conversely, you might be after a lower monthly payment or have that fixed rate changed to a variable rate, or vice versa.

Refinancing Costs

There are some obvious things to look at when considering refinancing. One of the first things is the actual cost of refinancing. Look at the fees you will be paying and divide it by the months of your mortgage and see whether there is a saving as a result of the refinancing. Sometimes you are ahead straight away, other times you might have to work out when you will hit the break-even point.


Are there any penalties in your mortgage terms and conditions that apply if you pay out the mortgage early? Lenders do NOT like mortgages paid out early. Remember, when you refinance, you are paying off one loan and applying for another completely new loan. Add any penalties to your total costs for refinancing and calculate that break-even point again. Be certain that you are not losing money overall when you refinance.

Your Equity

An important factor in this whole process is to work out the equity you have in your home. A negative equity is when you owe more on the home than what the house is worth. If you have been in your home for a number of years, the annual increase in your home’s value will stand you in good stead. But if this is a refinance taken out after only a short time into your mortgage, price fluctuations may have worked against you. If your lender is offering less than the equity, you will not be able to get the refinance, unless, of course, you have the money to pay the difference. Current markets indicate an overall rise in prices, but there have been some downward movements as well over the year and that may have had a negative effect on your home’s value.

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Get Over from Your Credit! Credit Debt Management




Credit arises when you spend without paying. And how it is done? Yes, you are right, it’s through credit cards. Here, we are going to discuss how can we control that small plastic card which can make us happy with its service and can lead us to bankruptcy if goes out of control. Credit debt management can suggest us the way to get back that control and maintain it.

Credit card handling tips which you can follow for efficient credit debt management:

o Use your credit cards wisely; this will help you build a good credit history.

o Reviewing of credit card bills helps you pay them on time simultaneously finding errors (if any) in the bill.

o Get your credit report and analyze it. Contact credit rating agencies if there is any mistake in the report regarding credit card or any other debts.

o If you are already having balances on your credit cards, don’t apply for more cards.

o Get your balance transferred to a card with lower interest rate, if you use more than one credit card.

o If you are late on payments to another creditor, your credit card company can raise your

interest rate. So, always pay your bills on time for all your debts.

o Special cards such as gas and petrol cards, departmental store cards or rewards cards carry higher rates as compared to normal cards, so avoid them

o If your credit debts are getting out of hands, contact credit debt management agencies for help.

Along with the measures specified above you can take the help of credit debt management companies. You can search among numerous credit debt management companies available online along with the services they offer. These services include credit counseling, credit card education and credit card debt consolidation services. Under a credit card debt consolidation service, you make a single monthly repayment to these agencies for all your credit card bills. Further, this agency pays your creditors from that amount at negotiated amounts. Yes for getting this service, you will be charged with a certain percentage of the total debt payment for credit cards.

You can enroll for a credit debt management agencies within 15 to 20 minutes. After the enrollment the consultants from these agencies will contact you with the services and credit debt management plan while discussing your credit card spending with you. The services of these agencies will continue till all your debts are in control or you have decided you withdraw voluntarily from this service. A credit debt management besides erasing your debts can also erase your stress due to credit cards.

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