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The Lockheed L-188 Electra

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1. Design Origins:

Transition periods sometimes prompt transition solutions. During the 1950s, the piston airliner, in the form of the Douglas DC-6 and DC-7 and the Lockheed L-649/749 and -1040 Constellations, were moving toward their technological peaks, yet the pure-jet engine, other than that powering the ill-fated de Havilland DH.106 Comet I and emerging military aircraft, had yet to reach commercial aviation maturity. The compromise, at least in terms of speed, seemed to be the turboprop engine, which combined elements of both and had already been introduced by the Vickers Viscount in the UK.

It was during this period-specifically 1954-that American Airlines, supported by interest from Eastern, submitted design specifications for what it considered a new class of airliner. Those included a greater than 400-mph cruise speed, profitable operations on sectors ranging from 100 to 2,700 miles, a passenger capacity of at least 65, and the type of short-field performance that would enable it to serve all of the country’s 100 major airports.

In short, it sought greater speed, comfort, and economy than that offered by the current generation of quad-engine piston transports, but that could operate multi-sector flights without requiring enroute refueling and attain profitability with load factors as low as 50 percent.

“American and Eastern had demanded a plane equally adept at short- and long-haul operations,” according to Robert J. Serling in “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery” (Bantam Books, 1963, p. 15). “This was mostly achieved by the thirteen-and-a-half-foot props, which swept their mighty air stream over all but nine feet of the wing area.”

Toward that end, Lockheed elected to employ the same C-130 Hercules design team and Allison T-56 engines that powered the type, creating the US’s first turboprop-powered airliner, the L-188.

“Lockheed opened America’s commercial jet era by hanging a propeller on the jet engine,” according to Jim Upton in “Lockheed L-188 Electra” (Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1999, p. 7). “Research left Lockheed convinced that, while jets without propellers (would be) excellent on long-range fights, airlines would be better served by having an effective vehicle for segments which historically showed little or no profit-(that is), short to medium routes.”

The aircraft was almost the product of an equation which read: “Jet power + propeller efficiency = proper performance and economy.”

Aside from its design team and powerplant, it also shared another aspect of the manufacturer’s lineage: its name. Ensuring that its products would bear the designation of a star, as had occurred during the 1920s and 1930s with names such as “Orion,” “Vega,” “Sirius,” and “Altair,” it would borrow the nomenclature of its twin piston engine L-10 Electra, L-12 Electra Junior, and L-14 Super Electra.

Eastern and American respectively placed orders for 40 and 35 L-188 second generation Electras in 1955.

2. Design Features:

“(The Lockheed L-188 Electra) has a purposeful and powerful profile,” according to veteran American Airlines Captain Arthur Weidman, who had flown DC-3s, Convairliners, DC-6s, and DC-7s. “The nose slopes downward sharply to provide good forward visibility on the ground and in the air. Then, her lines go straight back along a perfectly cylindrical fuselage to give her a wider cross section than the DC-7… There is a graceful upsweep to its dorsal fin and rudder, effecting a sleek, trim, streamlined look. Slender nacelles jut forward like giant probes, offering a minimum of frontal resistance.”

With a 104.6-foot-long and 11.4-foot-diameter fuselage, the Electra featured large, square passenger windows.

One of the keys to its design was its wing. Appearing proportionately too short in span for the aircraft it supported, mounted with considerable dihedral, and sporting square tips, it was only 5.5 feet shorter than the fuselage itself, at 99 feet in length, and offered both a low-drag and -aspect ratio. Its trailing edge flaps ran from the fuselage root to the ailerons, or just beyond the outer engines’ exhaust nozzles, and almost 80 percent of its span was subjected to lift-generating prop wash, facilitating low-speed handling.

Power was provided by four 3,750-eshp (equivalent shaft horse power) Allison 501-D13 turboprops, which turned 13.6-foot-diameter, single-rotation, hydraulically-controlled, constant-speed, reversible pitch, four-bladed propellers. Compared to the pure-jet engine, the prop jet featured reduction gear that drove both the propeller and additional gas turbine section stages, resulting in a 90:10 thrust production ratio, or 90 percent created by the propeller and ten percent by the exhaust gases.

The ailerons, elevator, and rudder were operated by push-pull, tube-linked hydraulic booster units, while engine compressor bleed air provided anti-icing of all control surfaces.

The aircraft’s 5,520-US gallon fuel capacity was stored in four wing integral tanks, divided into the two, 1,100-gallon inboard and two 1,660-gallon outboard ones. In-flight fuel cross-feeding was only necessary on long-range sectors exceeding 1,800 miles.

The L-188 rested on a twin-wheeled, hydraulically actuated, forward-retracting tricycle undercarriage, which had the provision for gravity free-fall extension in the event of either hydraulic or electrical system failures.

Integral, fuselage extendable air stairs, along with other self-contained features and its low-to-ground, support equipment-independent position, facilitated turn-arounds at transit stations where fueling was not required in as little as 12 minutes.

The Electra was standardly flown by a three-person cockpit crew, with a duplicate throttle quadrant on the captain’s and first officer’s sides and the flight engineer’s station behind both in the center on domestic routes, while a fourth crew member, the navigator, was employed on international ones and positioned on the aft, left side, occupying the location of the otherwise observer’s eat.

Although passenger cabin configurations and densities varied according to the operator, Lockheed initially offered several options, facilitated by the installation of seat tracks. Either 66 four-abreast, 20-inch-wide seats at a 38-inch pitch with a 26-inch aisle or 85 five-abreast, 18-inch-wide ones with a 17-inch aisle could be installed, both of which also featured a six-place, tail-located lounge arranged in a semi-circular configuration. Installation of aft, as well as the standard mid, lavatory reduced the capacity to 83, while the maximum was 99 five-abreast in 20 rows. Alternatively, 127 passengers in a six-abreast, 32-inch pitch configuration was available, but required structural modifications and additional exits to meet evacuation criteria.

A maximum, 6.55-psi differential, achieved by two engine-driven superchargers, provided cabin pressurization and temperature was maintained by radiant heating.

Baggage, cargo, and mail were carried in two underfloor, starboard door-accessed holds.

Featuring a 113,000-pound maximum takeoff weight, the initial, domestic L-188A version had a 2,200-mile range and attained a 373-mph cruise and 448-mph maximum speed.

“There were… two basic versions, the L-188A for US domestic operation, with a fuel capacity of 5,520 US gallons, and the L-188C with 900 US gallons more fuel and a higher gross weight of 116,000 pounds… ,” according to Michael Hardy in World Civil Aircraft since 1945 (Charles Scribner’s Sons 1979, p. 93).

Its range was 3,500 miles.

3. Test Flights:

Piloted by Captain Herman “Fish” Salmon, First Officer Roy Wimmer, Flight Engineer Laurie Hallard, and Flight Test Engineer Bill Spreurer, the L-188 Electra made its inaugural flight from the Lockheed Air Terminal in Burbank, California, on December 6, 1957, after which Spreurer commented, “The smoothness and quietness of the aircraft (were immediately apparent). The vibration level was very low and the engines were so quiet that you could hear the chase aircraft.”

After a four-airplane, 655-hour flight test program, the type was certified on August 12, 1958, five weeks ahead of schedule, permitting first delivery of aircraft 1007 to launch customer Eastern Airlines two months later, on October 8.

Accolades of the Electra’s design and performance capabilities accrued, as pronounced by the Air Line Pilots Association evaluation committee.

“Members were very much impressed with the rapid power application possible and with the immediate airplane response in climb performance,” they proclaimed. “It definitely exceeded their balked landing and pull-out.

“High-speed stability is good… good control response at touchdown speeds… responded well to the flare-out on landing… crosswind take off and landing characteristics to be most normal…

“The stall characteristics of this airplane in all configurations was exceptionally good. There was no fall-off on one wing or any other adverse tendencies.

“This committee is more than reasonably confident that the manufacturers, the operators, the pilots, and the public will be satisfied with the record of safety, efficiency, and economy which will be achieved.”

American Airlines Captain Arthur Weidman expanded upon this after his first flight in the type.

“Electra is every inch a pilot’s airplane,” he wrote in Douglas J. Ingells’ “L-1011 TriStar and the Lockheed Story” (Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973, p. 124.) His initial impression was that the aircraft exuded “functional beauty.”

Despite its powerful prop-jet turbines, he found it quieter during taxi and acceleration in the cockpit than in comparable pistonliners.

“… It got off in a hurry and climbed rapidly,” he stated. “Obviously, there was a lot of power packed into her streamlined nacelles (and) thrust to spare in the noticeably wide, flat blades of the propellers (p. 127).

A throttle advance to the “flight regime” stage initiated the aircraft’s acceleration roll at a 13,820-rpm speed of its engines, causing the L-188 to achieve its rotation “before it would occur in a Piper Cub. Power is there and speaks through performance.

“The low sound and vibration level make the take off seem effortless and the airplane lifts off… ” he continued (p. 129). “The thumping vibration of piston engines and the long, slow climb out are things of the past.”

Contrary to the throttles on other aircraft, those on the Electra controlled the blade angle, not the engine’s rotations, which remained constant throughout all flight phases. Thrust changes therefore only depended upon changes to their pitch, but needed to be coupled with elevator inputs.

Climbs equaled 2,200 to 2,500-fpm and speeds exceeded 400 mph.

Lift and wing efficiency were considerably enhanced by the prop wash over the upper surface.

“She responds to control actions more like a fighter than a sixty-ton airliner,” he commented (p. 129).

The aircraft’s power reserve was almost astronomical: it could climb on any two engines and maintain altitude on any one.

Landing only required ground contact and a short deceleration roll, aided by brake applications and the reversible pitch of the propellers.

4. Airline Operations:

First and largest of the 14 original operators with 34 L-188As and six L-188Cs, Eastern Airlines inaugurated the type into scheduled service on January 12, 1959, configured for 66 single-class passengers, along with the aft, six-place lounge, on several dual-sector routes, including New York (Idlewild)-Atlanta-Tampa, Miami-New York-Montreal, and Detroit-Cleveland-Miami. It was both the air shuttle’s first- and second-section (to the DC-9) aircraft between 1965 and 1977, linking La Guardia with Boston and Washington.

American, the second operator with 35 L-188As, inaugurated its Electra service the same day as Eastern on the New York-La Guardia to Chicago-Midway route.

National Airlines, which had ordered 15 L-188As, offered a 72-passenger and six-seat lounge interior and connected New York (Idlewild) with Miami as of April 23, 1959.

Braniff, which offered a similar 75/6 arrangement, served the Texas cities of Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio from New York-Idlewild and Chicago-Midway airports.

“Advertised as ‘a totally new dimension in jet-age travel,’ Western Airlines began Electra-jet service on August 1, 1959 between the West Coast cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle,” according to John Proctor, Mike Machat, and Craig Kodera in “From Props to Jets: Commercial Aviation’s Transition to the Jet Age” (Specialty Press, 2010, p. 91). “Two months later turboprop flights were added to Salt Lake City, Denver, and Minneapolis, as the fleet expanded to five 66-seat, first class-configured airplanes. Seven more Electras followed with the last delivered in 96-seat, all-coach layouts, lacking a lounge.”

Inaugurating service on September 18, 1959 with the first of 18 72-seat L-188Cs, Northwest served its Minneapolis fight base with it, along with operating a transcontinental segment from New York-Idlewild to Seattle.

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, with 12 67-passenger international L-188Cs, became the only European operator of the Electra, inaugurating it into service on December 9, 1959 on routes such as Amsterdam-Dusseldorf-Vienna, Amsterdam-Frankfurt-Budapest, and those to the Middle East. Its aircraft featured the rounded-tip Hamilton Standard propellers and cockpit navigator’s stations.

The type was also operated as far afield as Hong Kong, Indonesia, and Australia with, respectively, the likes of Cathay Pacific, Garuda, and Qantas.

5. Braniff Flight 542:

While the conclusion of the Air Line Pilots Association concerning the fact that the Electra’s “record of safety, efficiency, and economy will be achieved” was optimistically predictive, the first of its three tenets was, in the event, not realized.

Scheduled to operate the multi-sector route from Houston to New York with intermediate stops in Dallas and Washington as Braniff Flight 542, aircraft N-9705C, the carrier’s fifth L-188A-which itself had only been delivered two days earlier-accepted its 28 passengers on the warm, humid night of September 29, 1959. There was no hint as to the airplane’s fate. Or was there?

Of the six crew members aboard, First Officer Dan Hallowell commented to an Allison representative before departure, “This aircraft trims up funny.” Hallowell could not elaborate, nor did the representative understand his implications. The aircraft’s logbook noted no maintenance, trim-related anomalies. Perhaps it was nothing more than an uneasy, unexplainable feeling.

Divorcing itself from the runway at 2244, the Electra reached its assigned, 15,000-foot altitude 13 minutes later, at 2300, maintaining a 275-knot speed on its relatively short sector to Dallas.

After reporting its position over Leona, Texas, five minutes later, it was instructed, “Request you now monitor Fort Worth on a frequency of 120.8,” which was recorded in the logbook as “Transmission completed, 2307.”

It was its last.

The subsequent event was heard before it was seen by the tiny town of Buffalo, Texas, as most of its inhabitants had already retired for the night. It was an assault of the senses. Shrills and deafening whistles, of varying pitches, preceded a faint roar that culminated in a thunderous cacophony. Like an exploding bomb, it next visually manifested itself as tornadoes of heavy metal shards, fractured fragments of some considerably sized craft. Finally, it entered the nostrils as rain reeking of jet-propelling kerosene, all remnants of Braniff Flight 542 and all at a time when almost 100 L-188s routinely carried 20,000 daily passengers.

Although witnesses on the ground from the predominantly farmland area described various, pre-impact sounds, perhaps the most accurate of them came not from humans, but from canines, when a farmer observed, “When the sound came, every coon dog for miles around started howling.” Why did it affect them so severely?

Reflected on the ground, to a degree, was the aftermath image of what must have occurred in the air, of what had sparked the airliner’s plummet and disintegration. A crater apparently bored by its nose contained the forward fuselage section and a few seats, dismembered from the rest of its body, and behind it, first at periodic feet, and then mile, locations, were its remnants: the center cabin at 225 feet; the vertical tail, rudder, inboard stabilizers, and tail cone at 230 feet; a large section of the right wing at 1,760 feet; the starboard stabilizer at 2,020 feet; the port stabilizer at 4,080 feet; the number four engine nacelle covering at 5,300 feet; the left wing, number two engine nacelle covering and propeller, and number four engine at 8,640 feet; the number one propeller and gear box at 9,600 feet; and a nine-inch section of the number two fuel tank’s hydraulic line at 2.3 miles. Indeed, a 17-mile linear pattern of wreckage stretched from the crater to the LEONA VOR.

Painstaking reconstruction revealed that the Electra had shed its left wing, at which point fire erupted and the limbless airplane dove earthward, shattering from the gravity-induced forces.

Part of the investigation focused on ground witness accounts and claims about the high-pitched sound in the sky before they were even aware of its origin, indicating, perhaps, that the turning propellers had for some reason reached supersonic speeds. The physiological responses of the collective coon dogs was also not to be discounted, since they reacted as if the sound had pierced their ears. But how and why? And what, if anything, did all of this have to do with the first officer’s pre-departure comment about the airplane’s “funny trim?” Could this have been the result of an autopilot or stabilizer malfunction or even a fuel imbalance?

And what was the significance of the damage marks that revealed that the number one propeller had whirled at an angle of up to 35 degrees from its normal plane of rotation? Would it not have been the natural result of the stresses and strains of the left wing as it tore off? Or was it the cause?

Yet exhaustive investigation and analysis revealed no definitive answer-no probable cause-and hence no design modifications could be recommended to correct the undetermined error or flaw.

By March 17, 1960, it was concluded that only the unlikely repeat of the Braniff Electra accident could pinpoint the reason for its demise and the loss of all on board. And on that day, that is exactly what occurred.

6. Northwest Flight 710:

Aircraft N-122US was ironically the first L-188C delivered to Northwest Airlines and had logged fewer than 1,800 hours, but it would not be in service for long. Operating as Flight 710 on March 17, 1960, it had covered the first of its two segments, from Minneapolis to Chicago-Midway, in one hour, fur minutes; however, it was quickly airborne again, now destined for Miami, at 1438 local time, at a 105,000-pound gross weight, reaching 18,000 feet and advising Indianapolis Center seven minutes later that it was over Millford, Illinois.

Proceeding to its next radio checkpoint of Scotland, Indiana, at 1513, it advised, “Maintaining 18,000 and estimating Bowling Green (Kentucky) at 1525.”

Fifteen minutes later, Flight 710 was instructed to contact Memphis Center on frequency 124.6, to which it replied, “Acknowledged.” It was the last transmission received.

The weather was clear, but, based upon the subsequent events, apparently not very cooperative. Penetrating the powerful, unpredictable phenomenon designated “clear air turbulence” (CAT), the Electra was allegedly reduced to a helpless victim, releasing two puffs of white smoke and then a huge black one as its fate was audibly registered as two, ground witness evidenced explosions.

Reduced to an airborne amputee, the airplane shed its right wing and retained little more than the stub of its left one. Initially oblivious, the limbless body continued in a straight-and-level path, but, unable to generate lift and helpless to create or correct a bank without ailerons, it was no longer able to tame one of the three axes of flight the Wright Brothers had so scientifically identified 57 years earlier and succumbed to the instability of air above and the pull of gravity below.

Nosing over, trailing smoke, and shedding structure, it dove like an air-to-ground missile, plunging into a soybean field near Tell City, Indiana, at 618 mph. Gauging snow, dirt, mud, and vegetation, it more than adequately demonstrated Newton’s Third Law of Motion-“for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”-when the earth ricocheted and spat chunks of itself 250 feet into the air.

What remained was a 30-by-40-foot wide, 12-foot deep crater of smoldering smoke, molecular disintegration, and the obliteration of the 63 passengers and crew on board, since not a single recognizable body was ever found.

Could clear air turbulence have been the culprit?

The only significant piece of wreckage was later discovered in the crater itself.

“The huge fuselage had telescoped and compressed into a mass of molten metal only one-third its overall length,” wrote Serling in “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery” (op. cit., p. 49). “Of the 63 occupants, there was not enough left to identify-eventually-more than seven bodies. The aluminum fuselage that was their coffin was so hot that five days later a steam shovel picked up pieces that still were burning.”

11,291 feet from the impact point was the severed right wing. The clues were strangely reminiscent of the Braniff accident near Buffalo, Texas. What was the commonality between the two?

One aspect differed. Clear air turbulence and a more than 100-mph jet stream at 18,000 feet, the Northwest flight’s altitude, had intercepted its flight path at a 90-degree angle and had affected other aircraft in the vicinity at the time. But it begged the question: why, if it had been so severe, had they not succumbed to a similar fate?

Clear air turbulence for all its properties, had suddenly become visible to the Federal Aviation Agency. Although the L-188 had more than exceeded its structural expectations, it differed from other propeller airliners, since it represented, to a degree, transition technology: it combined traditional props with still-untraditional turbines, enabling it to eclipse speed boundaries between those of, say, the DC-6 and the emerging military jets.

Like the adolescent who tries to grow up too fast, perhaps it had entered a realm for which it was not sufficiently ready, as the Comet had at high-altitude regions with insufficiently thick fuselage skin gauges. Combined with CAT, perhaps it had proved catastrophic.

Fighting to ground the aircraft, yet unable to identify the definitive cause, the FAA elected to keep the Electra in the sky, albeit at an initially imposed 275-knot speed restriction, coupled with the deactivation of its autopilots and the installation of impact-sustainable flight recorders. When it was realized that this had been the speed of the Braniff aircraft, it was further reduced to 225 knots.

What exactly was happening? The aircraft had, after all, been subjected to rigorous, pre-certification tests.

“… (But) nowhere in the Electra blueprints-which, laid end to end, would stretch forty miles-nowhere in the reports of thousands of hours of ground and test flights-nowhere in 20,000 separate design studies or 7,000 pages of mathematical calculations-was there any mention of a scientific phenomenon known as ‘whirl mode,'” Serling pointed out (Ibid, p. 19).

7. Mystery Solved:

Both laboratory (theoretical) and airborne (practical) exploration and analysis, parts of the Lockheed Electra Achievement Program or LEAP, probed the mystery behind the Braniff and Northwest accidents, and entailed two daily, ten-hour flights, in which various loads, parameters, and speeds were explored, even red-line eclipsing ones. Initially, they only proved the L-188’s design integrity, until a clue, which was not even interpretable, finally surfaced.

Energy propagates and exerts its effects at its final destination. In the Electra’s case, it was ascertained that heavy motion loads had produced a far greater effect on its outboard engine nacelles during severe turbulence penetration than structural tests had revealed, producing a wing bending force from there to the tips, as proven during flight tests over the California mountains that produced tornado-strength updrafts called the “Sierra waves.” The turbulence they created wreaked havoc with the aircraft’s flight controls and structure.

Progressive damage from the number one and number four engines of, respectively, the Braniff and Northwest aircraft had been the result of uncontrolled flutter. Diagonal, saw-tooth fractures indicated the presence of pre-structural failure–cyclic, repetitive, and powerful oscillations—but what could not be answered was why the lack of turbulence over Buffalo, Texas, had caused the same phenomenon as that over Tell City, Indiana. What exactly had sparked the same destructive flutter in the atmospheric-dissimilar mishaps?

Focus next shifted from the weather to the engine nacelles themselves, which opposed each other in installation on the respective Electras involved.

Analyses of what remained of the eight propellers indicated that that turned by engine number one on the Braniff aircraft had, for some reason, wobbled. An over-speed catalyst or condition had caused the tips to reach sonic velocities and with that realization the light of truth had been lit. Both accidents had been caused by propeller whirl mode.

Because a propeller has gyroscopic tendencies, it remains in its plane of rotation until and unless it is displaced by an external source, causing it to adhere to Newton’s “equal and opposite reaction” law. In this case, the propeller continued to rotate in one direction, while the induced whirl mode removed it from its uniform place of rotation and caused it to vibrate in a different one.

If not dampened, removed, or reversed, it develops a wildly wobbling gyroscope, transmitting its energy to that which it is mounted-like an illness that spreads and infects everything in its path-in this case, the wing-or, more precisely, the outer wing. In the Braniff accident, it was the left one. In the Northwest accident, it was the right one.

A strut fairing failure, occurring in the number four engine of the latter Electra, eliminated the restraint that had restricted the engine from moving upward and to the left, resulting in abnormal, omni-directional loads, which caused the engine to experience large cycle motions. These ultimately cracked the propeller’s reduction gear box.

The result, as demonstrated by a one-eighth scale L-188 model in a NASA Langley wind tunnel, was expressed as follows.

“With simulated damage in the nacelle area, propeller auto-precession, a self-sustained, wobbling motion of the spinning propeller involving coupling of gyroscopic and aerodynamic forces, occurred.”

The aircraft’s design flaw did not necessarily entail the inadequate strength of the nacelle structure, but its lack of sufficient stiffening. Affected by previous damage, it developed into a chain reaction of destruction. After its engine had wobbled, so, too, had its propeller and, as its motion was transmitted to the outer wing, it flexed, fluttered, and snapped, leaving the limbless fuselage to the grip of gravity.

Although clear air turbulence had obviously been the spark that lit the chain reaction in the Northwest accident, it could only be surmised that a hard landing, not noted in the logbook, had served as the similar ignition in the Braniff one. Undetected, could this early, not yet catastrophic wobble have not been the reason behind the first officer’s comment that the airplane had “trimmed funny?”

And dogs do not lie, coon or otherwise. As the supersonic speed of the propeller tips emitted painful pitches that virtually pierced their hypersensitive ears, they reacted with a collective howl.

A $25 million, Lockheed financed modification program, applied to both in-service and assembly line aircraft, entailed structural improvements, which resulted in a seven-percent increase in stiffness, and the installation of top and bottom struts, designated “vibration isolators,” were installed in the engine’s reduction gearbox. Its air inlet was relocated and new, stronger engine mounts prevented lateral movements, all resulting in the addition of 1,400 pounds of structural weight.

The aircraft was FAA recertified on December 30, 1960 and, in order to increase public confidence, which had understandably been marred as a result of the accidents, airlines redesignated their modified aircraft “Electra IIs” and “Super Electras.”

8. Program Sunset:

The last three of the 170 L-188As and -Cs produced, registered PK-GLA, -GLB, and -GLC, were acquired by Garuda Indonesian Airways, while the type was given a second lease on life as Central and South American airliners, cargo liners, fire bombers, and as the platform of the foreshortened P-3C Orion antisubmarine patrol aircraft. Alaska-based Reeve Aleutian Airways operated three pure-passenger and combi examples on scheduled services as late as the turn-of-the-century, demonstrating the type’s ruggedness and reliability.

But, as a main line bridge between the piston and pure-jet eras, its crossing was brief and it was quickly replaced by the likes of the Sud-Aviation SE.210 Caravelle, the Boeing 727-100, and the Douglas DC-9-10 and -30 by the mid-1960s.

Bibliography:

Hardy, Michael. “World Civil Aircraft since 1945.” New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1979.

Ingells, Douglas J. “L-1011 TriStar and the Lockheed Story.” Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973.

Proctor, John; Machat, Mike; and Kodera, Craig. “From Props to Jets: Commercial Aviation’s Transition to the Jet Age, 1952-1962.” North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2010.

Serling, Robert J. “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery.” New York: Bantam Books, 1963.

Upton, Jim. “Lockheed L-188 Electra.” North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1999.

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How to Sense Low Levels of Asbestos in Your Daily Environment

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My discovery came to me by accidentally removing an asbestos

material in my home. The resulting condition of the whole house

after this accident left me with a sore chest, dry and unbearably iching skin and eyes. My wife complained of extreme thirst and my oldest son, age 14, developed severe asthma. This

all continued for five to six months. During this time I tried

desparately to determine if we were living in an unsafe level of asbestos. The material that I had removed was tested and found to

contain 20% crysitile asbestos. Air sampling proved to be unreliable because the area had been ventilated so well. But the furnishings, carpets, walls and all other personal belongings

were covered the remnants of the demolition.Everyone wanted to play down the seriousness of the situation, but, to me it was

obviously not a healthy environment.

So, I set out to try to logically deduce, with a knowledge of the physical properties of asbestos,when I encountered the substance as I attempted to clean every surface and item in every room of the house.

That was fifteen years ago. During that time, as I learned

more about where we all encounter asbestos materials on a daily basis. I made mental notes concerning my and others’ reactions

to these encounters. Many situations have arisen ranging from

sore throats and skin conditions(acne and basil cell skin cancer) to asthma, pneumonia and death. I don’t have clinical

proof of these claims I’ve made, except to say “if it looks, walks and sounds like a duck it probably is a duck”. Many times clinical trials are verified by producing the same results in subsequent testing. Deductive reasoning can also be verified

in the same way. If the same results are observed again and again after low level exposure to these remnants then that is

proof to me.

Without writing a book, I wouldn’t have the space to detail every observation I’ve made during this period, but I can assure you that no contact with asbestos is without a possible adverse health consequence.

Asbestos is a very lightweight chrystal-like material with highly static electrical properties. It often produces a static

discharge like when one is shocked by touching the metal switch plate or door knob in their home. It often leaves a bitter-salty taste in your mouth. It can stay airborne for days at a time. It absorbs moisture and produces a very dry environment (which only makes the static electric situation worse.)

The loose material may be accidentally contacted in a number of

building types and situations.

Many buildings built before 1977 have vinyl asbestos floor tile. No one can avoid walking on this, if they enter the building. This is fine if the floor is well maintained. Look out for broken or worn and never waxed tile. This applies to any

location in the building, commercial or residential. Closets are

very seldom waxed. Items stored there will accumulate certain

amounts of this substance.

Anytime an older building is renovated the possibility exists

for a number of materials containing asbestos to be encountered.

The contractor does’t always do the right thing. In many instances it is cheaper to pay the fine if he is caught. So he just tears it out and throws it in the dumpster or hauls it to the dump himself. As a consequence, many newly renovated stores

have a certain amount of this dust on the shelves and new merchandise in the store.

There are many more instances of contact for which I don’t have the time to detail here, but basically, with the characteristics of the material, knowledge of where you may encounter the substance and many hours of observation (I’ve been in construction over thirty years), you too can make the same

deductive conclutions that I have made.

In subsequent articles I intend to go into detail on the unique physical properties of asbestos and how this promotes detection in your hair and clothes. In future articles I would also like to expand on the many other health effects I’ve noticed, such as acne, which could benefit many young adults and a number of people who continue with this complexion problem into adulthood.

For more information on this subject see these sites:

www.livingwithasbestos.com [http://www.livingwithasbestos.com]

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=25139

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What Is Stage 3 Lung Cancer Life Expectancy?

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In both the United States and the United Kingdom, lung cancer is now considered to be the leading cause of cancer related deaths among both males and females (not including skin cancer), and is also considered to be more fatal than all other known cancers due to its late stage diagnosis.

There are two different types of lung cancer. The less common and faster growing small cell lung cancer (SCLC), also known as oat cel cancer (OCC), and the slower growing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Both types are staged (staging describes the extent or severity of a patient’s cancer) with each stage further divided into more specific stages.

Stage 3 – Lung cancer is broken down into two different stages (A & B), and has been reached when the disease has spread to either the lymph node system, or to another part of the body. This is a critical stage for any patient, as the cancer has now become life-threatening.

An important group of factors can affect stage 3 cancer sufferers considerably. Age, gender, weight, previous medical history, and general physical condition must all be taken into consideration when evaluating the prognosis of a patient. Any, or all of these are factors that may have a bearing on the eventual life expectancy of a patient.

Stage 3A – The cancer has passed the first two stages and has affected the lymph node system. The tumor may vary in size at this stage. Other parts of the body that may be affected are the main bronchus, the chest wall, the diaphragm, the pleura (membrane lining the thoracic cavity), and the membrane that surrounds the heart. At this stage there is also the possibility of lung inflammation or a complete collapse of the lung.

Stage 3B – The cancer has further spread to the opposite side of the body where it has probably affected the chest wall, the inferior cava (the vein that receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart), the aorta (the largest artery in the human body), the diaphragm (muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities), the trachea (windpipe), sternum (breast bone), or the esophagus (the tube that carries food, liquids and saliva from the mouth to the stomach).

Stage 3 Life Expectancy

The prognosis of a stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer patient can vary considerably. As previously mentioned, age, gender, weight, previous medical history and general physical condition may all affect how a patient responds to treatment (what side-effects are experienced). Depending on these factors, a prognosis of around 15 months (stage 3A), and 13 months (stage 3B) can be expected (on average). Sadly, only around 23% of all stage 3A sufferers, and 10% of stage 3B sufferers can be expected to be alive five years after diagnosis.

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The Most Common Symptoms – Lung Cancer Detection

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In just the UK, a staggering 1 in every 14 people will suffer from lung cancer during their lifetime. Unfortunately, lung cancer does not have a great survival rate and one of the biggest reasons is because often diagnosis happens in the latter stages of the disease. This late diagnosis is largely due to a lack of awareness of the symptoms. Only 27% of patients survive for longer than a year following their diagnosis. Of those 27%, patients who are diagnosed during the early stages of lung cancer have a 43-78% chance of surviving for up to five years following their diagnosis. Whereas survival rates past a year for those who have their cancer diagnosed during the later stages can be as low as 10%.

Because of this, it is absolutely crucial that people make themselves aware of the early symptoms of lung cancer so that they can go to a doctor for an assessment and possible diagnosis as quickly as possible. You may find that when you go to the doctor’s you are simply reassured that your symptoms do not equate to cancer of the lungs. But, if you are unfortunately diagnosed, the earlier you get the diagnoses, the better. Here are some early signs of lung cancer to look out for, however these do not give a definitive answer, they are just a suggestion that you need to go to your doctor for a check-up.

Persistent coughing: Although coughing is a symptom of many illnesses (the majority of which are relatively harmless), persistent coughing may indicate a problem. If your cough has lasted for a several weeks or has worsened over time, it might be a sign of lung cancer. Also, bringing up large amounts of phlegm, especially if it contains blood, can be a prominent symptom.

Noisy breathing: If someone is making noises when they are breathing it is always a cause for concern. If someone is having difficulties breathing and/or is wheezing (stridor), it could be a sign of a chest infection, asthma or allergic reaction. However, it could also be an indication of lung cancer. Any trouble breathing should always be checked out.

Pain: In your shoulder, back and chest which isn’t caused by persistent coughing.

Tiredness: Poor lung function (which could be caused by this type of cancer) will mean that your body isn’t sending enough oxygenated blood to organs and muscles in your body. Because of this you may become extremely tired and your muscles may even begin to waste (cachexia.)

A loss in your appetite and weight loss: This isn’t just a symptom of lung cancer exclusively but is a symptom of many cancers. Professionals remain unsure of why this is the case however it is certainly one to be aware of.

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Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Stage 2) – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Stages and Treatment

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Symptoms

Stage 2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be present in a sufferer for many years before it is eventually discovered. Common symptoms of the disease are a persistent cough (smoker’s cough), hemoptysis (coughing up blood [origin from the lungs or bronchial tubes]), shortness of breath, wheezing, back pains, chest pains, and recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia.

Other symptoms such as weight loss and fatigue are less common at this early stage, and are more likely to show at a later stage as the tumor has metastasized (spread) beyond the lungs.

Diagnosis

Stage 2 NSCLC means that the tumor is no longer localized just within the lungs, but that it has spread to the nearby lymph nodes.

Stages

– 1 The cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes.

– 1A (the tumor is 3 cm or less in diameter but has spread to the nearby lymph nodes).

– 1B (the tumor is larger than 3 cm in diameter, has spread to the nearby nymph nodes, and is either present in a location near to the bronchus, or the lining of the lungs).

These stages may also be described with a system called TNM (T = tumor size, N = nodes, and M = metastasis [spread of cancer]). Example:

– 1A (T1N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is less than 3 cm (T1), with spread to the nodes (N1), and no metastasis (M0).

– 1B (T2N1M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T2), with spread to the nodes (N1), and no metastasis (M0).

– 1B (T3N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T3), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0), but has spread to nearby areas such as the wall of the chest, or the diaphragm.

Treatment

Surgery is usually considered as the primary option for the treatment of Stage 2 lung cancer, where removal of the tumor may be done via several different techniques depending on exactly where the tumor is located. Adjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancerous cells) is usually recommended by doctors at this stage.

If the lung cancer is inoperable (the tumor is in a difficult position to get at, or the patient is unable to undergo traditional surgery due to general health concerns), then radiation therapy may be considered. Radiation therapy’s are considered by many doctors as being less intrusive on a patient than traditional surgery.

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Asbestos Infection Symptoms

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The types of asbestos infection symptoms a person experiences usually depends on the developed asbestos-related diseases was. There are different types of conditions related to asbestos, asbestosis, the two are most often associated with asbestos and malignant mesothelioma. However chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has reached the epidemic proportion in the United States and it is a condition that the asbestos exposure has helped thousands of cases.

Symptoms typically include asbestosis following conditions:

• Breathing difficulties
• Chronic cough
• Chest pain
• Breathing difficulties
• Difficulty with exercise

Malignant mesothelioma usually develops in people over 65 years and is usually in the thoracic cavity, resulting in the pleura in 65 to 70 percent of cases. It can also affect the lining of the heart, pericardium, in exceptional cases.

The most common symptoms of a disease called mesothelioma include:

• Breathing difficulties
• Chest pain
• tightness in the chest
• A persistent cough
• Weight Loss
• Fatigue

The pleural effusion is also the joint development with mesothelioma. This condition is caused by excessive accumulation of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall or diaphragm. You can be the cause of chest pain and reduced respiratory capacity.

Peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by an abdominal swelling and pain. This symptoms can also result from the accumulation of fluid – in this case in the abdominal cavity. Thickened peritoneal tissue to an additional symptoms:

• Swelling
• Weight Loss
• Nausea
• Bowel obstruction
• Anemia
• Fever and / or night sweats

Now you understand the symptoms of asbestos infection. You should be careful before it infects you.

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What Is the Best Way to Search for a Workers Compensation Attorney?

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Looking for the right Workers’ Compensation Attorney that will be a good fit for you takes time. You should look for one that is experienced in personal injury, specifically, workers’ compensation cases. If you were injured at work, the first thing you should do is report the accident to your employer and then start looking for an attorney.

Once you have reported the accident, you should be seen by a doctor, whether it is at the hospital or in a doctor’s office. You should tell the treating doctor that you were injured at work so that it is documented. Your physician may set up a treatment plan, depending upon the extent of your injury.

Successful Search for the Workers’ Compensation Attorney:

The following guideline should help you find the right Workers’ Compensation Attorney in Massachusetts:

1. Start by calling the Massachusetts Bar Association’s toll free number and asking them for a Lawyer that specializes in Workers’ Compensation in your area.

2. You should then follow-up by searching the names provided online to determine if they concentrate their practice in workers’ compensation. If you are not satisfied with the results, then you may try conducting your own online search.

After reviewing the attorneys’ area of expertise provided by your online search, the next question you may consider is should you hire an attorney from a small or large firm?

3. There are pros and cons to hiring a small or large law firm. It is a personal choice or preference as to which size firm you would feel more comfortable with. A lot of reviews state that hiring an attorney from a small firm is more preferable as they may have more time available to spend on your case. You may also consider asking your family, friends or co-workers for a recommendation although you should confirm that the attorney’s practice specializes in workers’ compensation.

4. It will take some time reviewing the various attorney’s websites. You should also consider looking beyond the first page of your online search. It is very expensive to be listed on the first page which means that most of the names will be from very large law firms since they have an extensive advertising budget. More than likely, they will pass your case onto one of the less experienced attorneys to handle.

Therefore, considering a firm on the second or third page may get you more individualized attention with greater experience.

5. The last step would be to set up a free consultation either by phone or in person to see if they are a good fit for you and your case. You will then have enough information to make an informed decision.

Investing the time to find the right Massachusetts Workers Compensation Attorney will be worth it in the long run and may make the difference in the outcome of your case.

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How Many Different Types of Lung Cancer Are There?

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There are two main types of lung cancer that can be found in both men women. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Small Cell Lung Cancer, both which are unique to each other as they grow and spread within the body differently.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

NSCLC is the more common of the two lung cancers, and is attributed to about 85% of all cases found in a patient. It tends to grow and spread at a much slower pace than small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and is broken down into three main sub-types, all which have their own unique cancer cells.

1. Squamous Cell Caricinoma (epidermoid caricinoma) is attributed to about 25-30% of all cases found. It is made up from thin flat cells (similar to fish scales) that line the inside airways of the lung, and begins in the squamous cells in the centre of the lung.

2. Adenocaricinoma is attributed to about 35-40% of all cases found, mainly in smokers, although it is also found in non-smokers as well. It begins in the cells that have glandular (secretory) properties, and grows slowly in the outer-region of the lung. It is more common in women than men, and more likely to be found in a younger person. Patients with this type of cancer usually tend to have a better prognosis (life expectancy).

3. Large Cell (Undifferentiated) Caricinoma is attributed to about 10-15% of all cases found. It grows and spreads quickly as its cells multiply rapidly. When viewed under a microscope, the cells have an abnormal look to them compared to other types of cancer cells.

Adenosquamous Caricinoma and Sarcomatoid Carcinoma are also sub-types of NSCLC, although they are very rarely found in a patient.

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

SCLC is much less common than NSCLC, and only attributes to about 10-15% of all cases found. It tends to grow and spread much faster than other types of cancer, and is broken down into three types, each which contain different cell types.

Small Cell Caricinoma (oat cell cancer) is a highly malignant cancer that is usually found in the lung, although it can be found in other parts of the body as well, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mixed Small/Large Cell Caricinoma is a rare form of lung cancer, which when diagnosed is formed from both oat cell cancer, and large cell caricinoma.

Combined Small Cell Caricinoma is diagnosed when a malignant tumor is found arising from the lung tissues, and contains both small cell caricinoma, mixed with one or more components of non-small cell caricinoma.

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What Can You Expect From a Dog Bite Settlement?

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Dog bite settlement cases can vary drastically, depending on the circumstances and situation of each individual case.

In a recently settled case in New Jersey, the victim of the dog bite received a $1.75 million dollar payout. In this case, the victim was a home health care worker providing physical therapy for a relative of the homeowners.

Without any apparent warning, the couple’s small dog suddenly bit the therapist on the hand, causing 3 deep puncture wounds to his index finger. While this may not seem like much, the injuries were indeed very serious. There were complications which resulted in significant pain, swelling, and surgeries. There was a decreased range of motion, as well. Some of the injury involved a permanent spinal cord stimulator.

A lawsuit was filed in this case, and a settlement was reached through the mediation process. As the victim was found to be on the property legally, the dog’s owners were found to be legally liable for the injuries sustained.

While every case is different, this is an extreme case, as they were significant injuries which affected the victim’s ability to work. If you have been involved in a dog bite attack, you will first off need to seek proper medical treatment and evaluation immediately. Even if the bite does not seem to be very serious, it is extremely important to have the wounds professionally treated. In this case, there were only 3 small puncture wounds, there was nothing immediately appearing that the wounds were as serious as they turned out to be.

You may be entitled to receive a settlement which would include monetary compensation for your pain and suffering, all medical expenses you have already incurred, funds to cover any future expected medical care, and lost wages due to the inability to work due to your injuries. Future medical expenses may include reconstruction or plastic surgery, physical therapy, and psychological counseling for emotional trauma.

Some cases are much smaller financially, but still have significant costs involved which you should not be responsible for paying. Your lost wages should be restored to you as well. If you were in no way negligent, or were legally on the property of the dog’s owner, you are entitled to receive proper remuneration for your injuries.

If you or a loved one have experienced injury by being bitten by a dog, you need to consult with an experienced and proven successful personal injury attorney experienced in dog bites.

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Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Stage 1) – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Stages and Treatment

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Symptoms

Stage 1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be present in a sufferer without showing any signs or symptoms. It is usually diagnosed when a doctor orders a patient to take a chest X-ray which is often associated with another illness. Symptoms may include: a persistent cough (smoker’s cough), shortness of breath, wheezing, and recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia. At this early stage, other symptoms are not usually present in a sufferer.

Diagnosis

Stage 1 NSCLC is localized (contained within the lungs) and has not spread to the lymph nodes or other organs in the body.

Stages

– 1 The cancer is localized within the lungs but has not yet spread to the lymph nodes.

– 1A (the tumor is 3 cm or less in diameter).

– 1B (the tumor is between 3-5 cm in diameter).

These stages may also be described with a system called TNM (T = tumor size, N = nodes, and M = metastasis [spread of cancer]). Example:

– 1A (T1N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is less than 3 cm (T1), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0).

– 1B (T2N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T2), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0).

Treatment

Surgery is usually considered as the primary option for Stage 1 lung cancer treatment where removal of the tumor may be done via various different techniques. These techniques may include: segmentectomy (removal of a small segment of the lung), lobectomy (removal of the lobe of the lung), or pneumonectomy (removal of the entire lung).

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may be used when either the location of the tumor is difficult to reach using traditional surgery, or when the general health of the patient is not at its best and considered that the patient would not be able to tolerate a full surgical procedure. VATS is also less intrusive on the patient than traditional surgery.

If the cancer is considered to be inoperable, radiation therapy may be used to treat it.

Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) is one treatment that may be considered. This is where the patient is first immobilized in a frame to stop any movement, then computer imaging techniques are used to identify precisely where the cancerous cells are. These cells are then in turn destroyed by being given high dosages of radiation.

Conventional radiation therapy’s are not usually recommended with Stage 1A lung cancer, although with Stage 1B, adjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancerous cells) may be offered.

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What You May Not Know About Dog Bite Law

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If you have suffered a dog bite for any reason, especially when it has to do with someone else’s dog or negligence, you should absolutely get yourself a personal injury attorney. There is no debating the fact that in these types of cases, you truly do need great representation, as there is a high propensity of these cases which deal with a large amount of money. Furthermore, when you are dealing with dog bite injuries, there may be damage that has to be treated later on in a person’s life.

Because of this, it is absolutely imperative to get yourself a highly qualified personal injury attorney, who will be able to get you the best settlement possible. Many people tend to think that they can handle their own cases, but the reality is this is a huge mistake. You can just about guarantee that whoever’s dog it was that bit you is going to have a lawyer, who will likely bring out all of the stops possible to try and get their client off the hook.

If you do win your specific case and are awarded a settlement, it has been statistically proven that the sum of money you receive will be higher after paying your lawyer than it would have been if you are representing yourself.

There are all sorts of attorneys out there that know each and every dog bite law and defend people that have been attacked by another person’s dog and have suffered dog bite injuries. It is important to work with an attorney that truly does know each dog bite law by heart and has worked a lot of similar cases before. This will give you the highest chance of ending your case favorably, so make sure you do your research. Locating a great attorney is fairly easy online, so the best course of action is to search in your area and research the potential candidates.

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