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The Ups and Downs of Parking Lot Control Arms

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My office is contacted many times a month regarding a parking lot control arm or barrier gate injury of some sort. These terms are generally interchangeable; however, some standards do not use the term control arm, only barrier arm. Usually, the attorney starts by explaining that the plaintiff was hit by a descending parking lot arm without any advance warning. Sometimes the injured party is riding a motorcycle, sometimes walking as a pedestrian under the arm. In other claims the gate arm does not fully cycle open before returning to the horizontal position. There are also cases where the gate appears to have been left in an open position, turned off, and is remaining in the upright position for extended periods of time and suddenly descends just as a pedestrian begins to pass under it. There are numerous variations of the same type of accident, but there are big differences in who the responsible party is for the cause of injury. Some of the first questions asked pertain to how the device works, and why the arm did not detect the person as they walked through the driveway.

FULLY AUTOMATED OR ATTENDED, BOTH SHARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS

Manufacturers of most barrier arm gates build their devices to activate in one of two different ways. Fully automated by remote stimulus and/or manually controlled by a parking lot attendant.

Many parking lot control arms are activated when a driver pulls up to a parking lot gate in a vehicle. As the vehicle arrives, an electronic signal is sent to the arm mechanism due to the detection of that vehicles large metallic presence interacting with an in-ground magnetic field. This

in- ground magnetic field is created from buried wires known in the trade as an induction loop. The signal generated from this “activation or approach magnetic induction flux loop” often is connected to a ticket printing device. This piece of equipment is commonly referred to as a “Ticket Spitter”. The “Spitter” issues a ticket, usually for single vehicle access prior to activating the barrier arm gate mechanism causing the arm to raise. An alternative method to get the control arm raised requires a driver to reach out of the car and push a button to receive a parking lot access ticket from the “Spitter”. (In that mode of operation, it is probable that there is no magnetic loop in place.) In either case, once the ticket is taken by the driver, the “Spitter” sends a control signal to the gate arm mechanism, and the arm is supposed to raise, generally for a single vehicle to control access to the parking lot.

As the vehicle transitions from the approach location where the ticket is issued, once the control arm raises, there is usually a functioning magnetic flux or induction “Safety Loop” located under the control arm swing location which provides protection for a vehicle until it has cleared the “Zone of Danger” underneath the active arm. The control arm may also be kept in the open position by a timer that holds the gate arm up for a predetermined time prior to closing. Using a timer function in place of an in-ground magnetic loop is risky, as vehicles may not clear the opening, or another vehicle can attempt to gain access without receiving a usage ticket. Older, non-current standard compliant installations have been seen without any consistency of design or operational function.

There are multiple installation variables that can alter the basic loop positions and quantities, but most basic systems operate as described above using at least two control loops. One underneath the control arm, and one egress or approach loop. In some installations, all three loops will be present. This triple looped system offers the most comprehensive safety for a vehicle, NOT A PEDESTRIAN!

MANUAL VERSIONS OF PARKING LOT CONTROL ARMS

A parking lot attendant, usually positioned inside an adjacent booth, has a control switch that activates the parking arm. The attendant has a switch that raises the arm, lowers the arm, and keeps the arm inactive, either up or down. Some manually controlled arms also have magnetic induction loops connected to the parking lot control arm when the parking lot is unmanned after hours, in which case, the arm should function in the fully automatic mode, as described above.

BARRIER ARMS ARE WEIGHT ACTIVATED, RIGHT?

Contrary to popular belief, most are activated due to a change in a magnetic field which is generated by twisted energized wires positioned below the adjacent pavement of the control arm. Modern arms are not usually controlled by pneumatic pressure like an old-fashioned gas station bell hose. It is unlikely that the weight of a vehicle or a pedestrian walking underneath the arm will stop an active arm. Modern parking arms are triggered by a change in the magnetic induction loop return. Modern induction loops are manufactured from a relatively light gauge of wire, placed in a rectangular shape that is calibrated and sized to detect a change in the magnetic field when a metallic object such as a vehicle enters or covers that field.

Many attorneys insist to me during their initial call that a pedestrian walked next one and activated the arm due to their client’s weight, and the arm failed to remain open as they walked under the arm. This scenario is generally incorrect. Weight of a vehicle, or weight of a pedestrian cannot activate most modern parking control arms. A trigger of an arm or activation of a street traffic light due to weight has not been in practice for many years. It is highly unlikely that a pressure pad sensitive to weight is ever controlling a parking lot arm today.

UL 325/ASTM F2200

There are several standards that are used to design and install parking control/barrier arm devices. In the most basic sense, UL 325 (Underwriters Laboratories) in conjunction with ASTM F2200 (American Society of Testing Materials) as well as other trade organizations have compiled standards that are designed to make a control/barrier arm installation safe and user friendly. Most of the regulations that are referenced in these standards have been adopted and in common trade practice and usage since the year 2000. There are numerous revisions of these standards, and industry best practices for service providers and installers should be to bring any of these past installed products up to date with the latest revision of the standards for entrapment and function.

A UL 325 COMPLIANT INSTALLATION

A UL 325 compliant barrier arm or parking control arm installation requires several conditions to be met. The mechanism is generally installed atop a concrete island (not a UL requirement). All conduits and control circuits are routed into the base of the barrier arm mechanism through this elevated platform. This is not always the observed situation; however, it seems to be the most encountered condition as the elevated platform provides protection from vehicle impact for the arm housing. When this island is placed by a concrete contractor, it is the perfect time for the facility to install a dedicated pedestrian walkway.

This dedicated pedestrian walkway must be away from the “danger zone” of the active control arm. This dedicated pathway is one of the most important factors to having a UL 325 compliant installation. Another significant safety device required for a UL 325 compliant installation is blatant painted warnings on the pavement located adjacent to both sides (ingress and egress) of the control arm. For instance: “Not a Pedestrian Walkway” or “Motor Vehicles Only” along with bright stripes and designs to draw the attention of a pedestrian to indicate danger prior to coming into the “danger zone”. Signage is also required, on the arm itself, the cabinet that houses the activation equipment, and on a placard in front of the control arm equipment.

PEDESTRIAN SIGNAGE, NOT ALWAYS EFFECTIVE

I have observed for many years that pedestrians are often walking while distracted by their cell phones, other people they are engaged in conversation with, or low lighting conditions. Although a UL requirement for a compliant installation is having a warning sign placed in several areas adjacent to and attached to the control arm, that warning is often unseen for many reasons. Pedestrians often look to the location that they are planning to reach without seeing their immediate surroundings. When this occurs, any warning signage has no value to them. A sign that is attached to a vertically elevated arm is out of the field of view for a pedestrian in most cases so that warning label is ineffective. A distracted pedestrian is as likely to walk off a curb in front of oncoming traffic or walk under a raised parking control arm without realizing that the danger exists. Blatant pavement signage has also been ignored by distracted pedestrians focused on getting to where they want to go.

WHO IS AT FAULT?

There are a variety of cases where a parking lot barrier arm has malfunctioned due to a complete lack of maintenance awareness. Most manufacturers suggest they should be inspected and evaluated for function by a professional service provider at least once a year. This interval inspection routine is questionable in a parking area with high usage of the control arm. In a case of continual usage, a professional service provider should be in place to inspect the device every quarter. Usually, some malfunction occurs that requires professional visits more frequently than every 3 or 4 months in a high usage installation.

Sometimes property management or an owner employs a maintenance person to make repairs. This can be problematic, as that maintenance person may not have adequate skills or training as to how to properly inspect the functions of the control arm mechanism and related systems correctly. In other low usage areas, where the arm is either occasionally used, unused and left in an open condition, or there is minimal parking lot activity, property owners never get them serviced. They are unaware of the need for service, feel that the arm is operating correctly when it is used, or just do not want to expense the services of a professional due to budgetary constraints or an ignorance of how the device functions.

Most owners of parking control lot arms do not understand or have the skills to properly check all functions of the arm control mechanism. They may be capable of replacing a broken arm component when damaged by a vehicle, but rarely understand the actual electronic requirements. When a competent, qualified professional service provider is used to make proactive inspections of a parking control arm, there are numerous tests and electronic evaluations that are made with dedicated service equipment that the average equipment owner would not possess.

One of the most basic critical evaluations to ensure that a parking control arm is properly functioning involves checking the resistance capacity of the in-ground magnetic flux loops. These loops are one of the primary controls for avoiding vehicular/arm impact collisions. There is an electronic meter known as a “megohm meter” or “meggar” that checks the condition of the in-ground loop insulation material of all system loops. It measures millions of ohms of resistance by placing a signal onto the flux loop when tested. The unbroken condition of the insulation that is the outside coating of these in ground wires is essential to have a properly functioning flux loop.

Electrical leakage to the surrounding ground due to partial loss of the protective insulation creates false imaging to the controls of the parking arm equipment. The insulation of these flux wire loops has an expected life. This is due to corrosive aspects of the material that the wires are encased in. Concrete, asphalt, various cement, sands and gravel all have corrosive components to their chemical composition. These acids can affect the lifetime of the flux wire insulation. Depending upon how much water leaches through the pavement, these flux wires will eventually be exposed to chemicals that will break down the insulation protection that is required. When that insulation breakdown finally happens, the operation of the magnetic flux loop is inconsistent and often becomes a danger to vehicles of all kinds (cars, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles, trailers, etc.) using the control arm.

Defective operation of parking lot control systems has been frequently observed following flooding due to driven rains or adjacent sprinkler systems. In several past cases, service providers and owners that failed to take critical tests to determine insulation quality of magnetic loops have been responsible for damage caused as a result of those unknown wire conditions. In some claims, the service provider was aware that the loops were not functioning up to specifications of the loop manufacturer yet failed to take any proactive action to have them replaced, or minimally alert the owner of the arm that the condition existed. To save money, some service providers fabricate their own loops for these installations. When that is the case, the service provider needs to regularly verify the condition of the loops to make certain that the performance is as required.

ADDING ADDITIONAL SAFETY FEATURES

It is usually a goal to make a product that is as safe as is possible for all users. The UL 325 standards attempt to keep current with technological advances but are not always up to date. Basic requirements as described above do make control arms reasonably safe, but there are additional safety devices that can be added to most parking control systems.

  • Cross threshold optical sensor beams. These beams function in the same way that a common residential automatic garage door bottom beam sensor works. They provide an additional protection to both vehicles and pedestrians as they stop the control arm from descending when the beam is obstructed. To be effective, they need to be properly positioned and in enough quantity.
  • Audible alarms are being installed to alert pedestrians and drivers in proximity to the control arm that it is about to descend.
  • Visible alarms that provide strobe or flashing light action alert pedestrians and drivers that the barrier arm is about to descend.
  • Contact safety switches attached to the bottom edge of a parking control arm cause the descending arm to reverse when 10 pounds of force from an obstruction occurs.

These added safety devices are not part of any standard requirement but are relatively inexpensive to add to a control arm system and tend to be more effective in warning pedestrians that something is about to happen. Both alarms begin working a few seconds before any activation movement of the arm starts. A properly positioned beam or beams can be effective in stopping the descent of a control arm when a pedestrian is obstructing the beam but is not fully reliable due to user interactions. It is best practice to avoid having any pedestrian walk under the pathway of a control arm.

THE IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING THE ACTIVE CONDITION OF ALL MAGNETIC LOOPS

Many motorcycle injuries from parking arms have occurred as a direct result of magnetic loop degeneration. Properly operating control loops should have enough sensitivity to “notice” most metallic objects. I have been able to test magnetic fields for gates and control arms using a one-foot square piece of sheet steel with positive results that have activated the devices. Cars and trucks obviously have larger footprints than a motorcycle, scooter or bicycle, but if the loops are sensitive enough and the module that controls those loops is properly adjusted, it is not unreasonable to get a big enough change in the magnetic field to trigger the operator mechanism. Unless there are specific access and egress points for motorcycles and other two wheeled conveyances, most riders will expect that a control arm will react to their rides. It is critically important to have competent professional service providers evaluate control arm systems on a regular basis. Changes to sensitivity of the magnetic fields that can occur suddenly create problems resulting in cosmetic damage to cars but can cause catastrophic dangerous conditions for two wheeled vehicles. Motorcycle accidents with barrier arms are particularly dangerous when the safety loops that are positioned under the control arm fail or work intermittently. A rider will gain access, the arm will lift, and without warning it will descend into the face or on top of the head of the rider leading to potentially severe injuries. It is a reasonable expectation on the part of a motorcycle operator that the arm will remain open and the in-ground loops will detect the presence of a motorcycle. Dangerous conditions that exist as a result of deferred or non-existent maintenance of parking control arms have created many motorcycle rider impact injury claims.

VARIETY OF OBLIGATIONS ON ALL PARTIES

THE OWNERS OBLIGATIONS

When there is no proactive maintenance of any device or piece of equipment in a facility the owner is negligent for failing to make the effort to ensure that the property will be safe for all invitees. Failing to employ competent professional service providers due to cost, ignorance, laziness or stupidity is negligent. Having properly maintained and properly operating equipment is responsible and meets the standard of care expected of an owner that invites the public on to the property. Having a proactive plan to provide inspections and maintenance of all equipment is responsible and diligent. If the professional service provider has not met the standard of care, the owner may ultimately have the responsibility for the defective condition of the control arm. Whether or not there is an indemnification policy between the service provider and owner can determine who is financially responsible for the injury claim. If the owner has been informed of operational or functional deficiencies by others and has refused to upgrade or make the control arm standard compliant, it is more probable than not that the owner will become a responsible party.

A SERVICE PROVIDERS OBLIGATIONS

If a professional service provider does not make the property owner aware of changes in standards or advise the owner of possible safety upgrades, that professional is not acting up to industry expectations. The service provider is also not taking the opportunity for increased sales revenues derived from making those suggestions. If a service provider has offered limited services to an owner (such as an on-call / as-needed basis), it is hard to place the blame on the service provider that was just providing specific work. It is still recommended that all deficiencies in an operating barrier arm system be identified, specified, and described so that the service provider can transfer the liability onto the owner of the now non-compliant control arm.

When a professional service provider installs a parking control arm in a non-compliant installation (for example there is no dedicated walkway or signage), the obligations for that deficiency depend upon the communication and working relationship with the owner of the property. There are several different scenarios that determine the responsible parties for the non-compliant conditions.

  • Was the service provider only called upon to install a specific product?
  • Was the service provider limited by the owner of the property to only do a specified job?
  • Did the service provider make the owner aware of the deficiencies of the installation prior to, during or after the work was performed?
  • Did the service provider attempt to make the installation current standard compliant, but was told not to?
  • What portion of the installation was the service provider involved with? For example, the service provider was contracted by a general contractor and told to specifically provide a portion of the products required to make the installation compliant. The representations made by the general contractor was that the general would place all signs when the project was turned over to the owner, the general would have appropriate pavement warnings painted and placed when the paving was completed, and the general would install a dedicated walk way for pedestrians at a later date.

If the service provider acted in a trade appropriate manner, fulfilled all duties and obligations informing the owner or management of the non-compliant conditions encountered, that service provider has met the industry standard of care. In that case, the service provider is not responsible for a non- compliant control arm installation.

PEDESTRIANS INVOLVED IN A PARKING CONTROL ARM INJURY

WHAT WERE THE CIRCUMSTANCES?

This condition has been seen so many times that multiple injuries were caused in the exact same way. In several past claims, a pedestrian was essentially forced to walk under a parking control arm because there was no other way to exit the lot or garage space. There was no dedicated pedestrian walkway, no openings in a fence, no indicated paths for people to exit, no special stairways or other means of egress, and in those cases, the control arm was unavoidable. In other claims, a remotely operated control arm, that was activated by a guard in an adjacent hut came down upon several pedestrians due to the guard being careless. The gate was routinely in an upright position, the guard never meant to have the gate close upon the pedestrians, yet the injury took place as a direct result of the guard’s negligence.

ACTUAL CASES OF PEDESTRIANS BEING STRUCK BY PARKING CONTROL ARMS

A group of pedestrians walking into a concert venue walked under a control arm, which came down just as they walked under it. There was plenty of space on either side of the control arm, but there was no signage or painted warnings on the pavement showing where the arm could come down.

A pedestrian going to work in a hospital, caused her own injury. She watched as a car went through the control arm entry point and did not realize that the gate would close upon her. In her deposition statements she said she thought that the arm would stay up because she had seen other people walk through the same opening in the past without the arm descending. There was a dedicated walkway a few feet away from where this incident occurred, going through the vehicle path was a shortcut that saved a few steps and caused her major injury.

Tenant of an apartment complex gets hit with control arm gate after helping a neighbor gain access when the neighbor had forgotten her card key access pass. The injured party stood adjacent to the control arm, swiped her access card, watched her friend drive through the opening and then without thought proceeded into the lot following the car. Once the car cleared the magnetic loops, the arm descended as designed, only it struck the tenant, knocking her out only seconds after her good deed.

INTENDED USE OF CONTROL ARMS

Control arms are designed for restricting the flow of vehicles into or out of a location that desires regulation of traffic. The equipment functions based upon activation signals received as described above. Access points that have control arms are not intended for pedestrian traffic at any time. While most vehicles are metallic, most pedestrians are non-metallic. The machines that operate these control arms are dumb robots without any capabilities of intervention in the event of a non- conforming use. A pedestrian attempting to walk through a parking control arm location is a non- conforming use, and there must be some common sense exercised when assessing an interaction with any robotic machine.

PROPERTY OWNER OR PROPERTY MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES

All owners that have public, commercial, or residential community properties can expect usage by thousands of different people. If proactive maintenance and evaluation of the location setting as well as the condition of the equipment that people interact with is made routinely, an owner can take the needed steps to keep the property in a reasonably safe condition. An owner should enlist the services of qualified and competent service providers to make certain that all access control arms are properly functioning, and the site is totally compliant. If an owner takes responsibility and hires professional service providers to make a property fully compliant, that owner has met his obligations to all invitees of the property. Failing to proactively evaluate a potentially dangerous condition is negligent. Maintenance saves money in the long run. Keeping equipment of all kinds in good condition is responsible and indicates good ownership. Safety to all invitees should be of prime importance to a concerned owner.

TERMS YOU SHOULD KNOW

Magnetic induction flux loop: A wire of specific size and design placed below the pavement surface to create a magnetic field which is altered when a metal object (vehicle) is in proximity or on top of the wire field.

Ticket Spitter: A printing device used to dispense parking tickets to patrons of a parking lot. Manual (push button by user) or automatic (triggered by presence of vehicle on top of magnetic loop in ground), records date and time of entry onto a paper ticket and then when removed from the slot activates a control arm mechanism to gain access into the lot.

Control arm device: All electronic and mechanical equipment combined to allow a gate arm to raise and lower.

Approach loop: Magnetic loop placed in ground to trigger activation of a control device.

Safety Loop: Magnetic loop placed directly under the path of a parking control arm to protect vehicles from impact by a descending gate arm when the zone is occupied by a vehicle.

Egress loop: Magnetic loop placed in ground to hold a control device in the open position until the area can be cleared. Usually in place in high traffic or cross traffic locations.

Megohm meter (Megger): An electronic meter designed to determine resistance in millions of ohms, relevant to this article, checking for leakage due to the breaking down of insulation on in ground magnetic flux loop wires used to control parking control arm actions.

Zone of Danger: The area immediately under the path of a descending parking control arm and any immediate area where a pedestrian could be struck by a descending arm without notice.

SUMMARY

Parking Control arm injuries occur frequently. These injuries are often the result of a deferred or non-standard installation or maintenance protocol. They occur equally to standard compliant installations when pedestrians just do not pay enough attention to their surroundings.

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How to Sense Low Levels of Asbestos in Your Daily Environment

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My discovery came to me by accidentally removing an asbestos

material in my home. The resulting condition of the whole house

after this accident left me with a sore chest, dry and unbearably iching skin and eyes. My wife complained of extreme thirst and my oldest son, age 14, developed severe asthma. This

all continued for five to six months. During this time I tried

desparately to determine if we were living in an unsafe level of asbestos. The material that I had removed was tested and found to

contain 20% crysitile asbestos. Air sampling proved to be unreliable because the area had been ventilated so well. But the furnishings, carpets, walls and all other personal belongings

were covered the remnants of the demolition.Everyone wanted to play down the seriousness of the situation, but, to me it was

obviously not a healthy environment.

So, I set out to try to logically deduce, with a knowledge of the physical properties of asbestos,when I encountered the substance as I attempted to clean every surface and item in every room of the house.

That was fifteen years ago. During that time, as I learned

more about where we all encounter asbestos materials on a daily basis. I made mental notes concerning my and others’ reactions

to these encounters. Many situations have arisen ranging from

sore throats and skin conditions(acne and basil cell skin cancer) to asthma, pneumonia and death. I don’t have clinical

proof of these claims I’ve made, except to say “if it looks, walks and sounds like a duck it probably is a duck”. Many times clinical trials are verified by producing the same results in subsequent testing. Deductive reasoning can also be verified

in the same way. If the same results are observed again and again after low level exposure to these remnants then that is

proof to me.

Without writing a book, I wouldn’t have the space to detail every observation I’ve made during this period, but I can assure you that no contact with asbestos is without a possible adverse health consequence.

Asbestos is a very lightweight chrystal-like material with highly static electrical properties. It often produces a static

discharge like when one is shocked by touching the metal switch plate or door knob in their home. It often leaves a bitter-salty taste in your mouth. It can stay airborne for days at a time. It absorbs moisture and produces a very dry environment (which only makes the static electric situation worse.)

The loose material may be accidentally contacted in a number of

building types and situations.

Many buildings built before 1977 have vinyl asbestos floor tile. No one can avoid walking on this, if they enter the building. This is fine if the floor is well maintained. Look out for broken or worn and never waxed tile. This applies to any

location in the building, commercial or residential. Closets are

very seldom waxed. Items stored there will accumulate certain

amounts of this substance.

Anytime an older building is renovated the possibility exists

for a number of materials containing asbestos to be encountered.

The contractor does’t always do the right thing. In many instances it is cheaper to pay the fine if he is caught. So he just tears it out and throws it in the dumpster or hauls it to the dump himself. As a consequence, many newly renovated stores

have a certain amount of this dust on the shelves and new merchandise in the store.

There are many more instances of contact for which I don’t have the time to detail here, but basically, with the characteristics of the material, knowledge of where you may encounter the substance and many hours of observation (I’ve been in construction over thirty years), you too can make the same

deductive conclutions that I have made.

In subsequent articles I intend to go into detail on the unique physical properties of asbestos and how this promotes detection in your hair and clothes. In future articles I would also like to expand on the many other health effects I’ve noticed, such as acne, which could benefit many young adults and a number of people who continue with this complexion problem into adulthood.

For more information on this subject see these sites:

www.livingwithasbestos.com [http://www.livingwithasbestos.com]

http://ezinearticles.com/?id=25139

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What Is Stage 3 Lung Cancer Life Expectancy?

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In both the United States and the United Kingdom, lung cancer is now considered to be the leading cause of cancer related deaths among both males and females (not including skin cancer), and is also considered to be more fatal than all other known cancers due to its late stage diagnosis.

There are two different types of lung cancer. The less common and faster growing small cell lung cancer (SCLC), also known as oat cel cancer (OCC), and the slower growing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Both types are staged (staging describes the extent or severity of a patient’s cancer) with each stage further divided into more specific stages.

Stage 3 – Lung cancer is broken down into two different stages (A & B), and has been reached when the disease has spread to either the lymph node system, or to another part of the body. This is a critical stage for any patient, as the cancer has now become life-threatening.

An important group of factors can affect stage 3 cancer sufferers considerably. Age, gender, weight, previous medical history, and general physical condition must all be taken into consideration when evaluating the prognosis of a patient. Any, or all of these are factors that may have a bearing on the eventual life expectancy of a patient.

Stage 3A – The cancer has passed the first two stages and has affected the lymph node system. The tumor may vary in size at this stage. Other parts of the body that may be affected are the main bronchus, the chest wall, the diaphragm, the pleura (membrane lining the thoracic cavity), and the membrane that surrounds the heart. At this stage there is also the possibility of lung inflammation or a complete collapse of the lung.

Stage 3B – The cancer has further spread to the opposite side of the body where it has probably affected the chest wall, the inferior cava (the vein that receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart), the aorta (the largest artery in the human body), the diaphragm (muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities), the trachea (windpipe), sternum (breast bone), or the esophagus (the tube that carries food, liquids and saliva from the mouth to the stomach).

Stage 3 Life Expectancy

The prognosis of a stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer patient can vary considerably. As previously mentioned, age, gender, weight, previous medical history and general physical condition may all affect how a patient responds to treatment (what side-effects are experienced). Depending on these factors, a prognosis of around 15 months (stage 3A), and 13 months (stage 3B) can be expected (on average). Sadly, only around 23% of all stage 3A sufferers, and 10% of stage 3B sufferers can be expected to be alive five years after diagnosis.

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The Most Common Symptoms – Lung Cancer Detection

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In just the UK, a staggering 1 in every 14 people will suffer from lung cancer during their lifetime. Unfortunately, lung cancer does not have a great survival rate and one of the biggest reasons is because often diagnosis happens in the latter stages of the disease. This late diagnosis is largely due to a lack of awareness of the symptoms. Only 27% of patients survive for longer than a year following their diagnosis. Of those 27%, patients who are diagnosed during the early stages of lung cancer have a 43-78% chance of surviving for up to five years following their diagnosis. Whereas survival rates past a year for those who have their cancer diagnosed during the later stages can be as low as 10%.

Because of this, it is absolutely crucial that people make themselves aware of the early symptoms of lung cancer so that they can go to a doctor for an assessment and possible diagnosis as quickly as possible. You may find that when you go to the doctor’s you are simply reassured that your symptoms do not equate to cancer of the lungs. But, if you are unfortunately diagnosed, the earlier you get the diagnoses, the better. Here are some early signs of lung cancer to look out for, however these do not give a definitive answer, they are just a suggestion that you need to go to your doctor for a check-up.

Persistent coughing: Although coughing is a symptom of many illnesses (the majority of which are relatively harmless), persistent coughing may indicate a problem. If your cough has lasted for a several weeks or has worsened over time, it might be a sign of lung cancer. Also, bringing up large amounts of phlegm, especially if it contains blood, can be a prominent symptom.

Noisy breathing: If someone is making noises when they are breathing it is always a cause for concern. If someone is having difficulties breathing and/or is wheezing (stridor), it could be a sign of a chest infection, asthma or allergic reaction. However, it could also be an indication of lung cancer. Any trouble breathing should always be checked out.

Pain: In your shoulder, back and chest which isn’t caused by persistent coughing.

Tiredness: Poor lung function (which could be caused by this type of cancer) will mean that your body isn’t sending enough oxygenated blood to organs and muscles in your body. Because of this you may become extremely tired and your muscles may even begin to waste (cachexia.)

A loss in your appetite and weight loss: This isn’t just a symptom of lung cancer exclusively but is a symptom of many cancers. Professionals remain unsure of why this is the case however it is certainly one to be aware of.

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Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Stage 2) – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Stages and Treatment

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Symptoms

Stage 2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be present in a sufferer for many years before it is eventually discovered. Common symptoms of the disease are a persistent cough (smoker’s cough), hemoptysis (coughing up blood [origin from the lungs or bronchial tubes]), shortness of breath, wheezing, back pains, chest pains, and recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia.

Other symptoms such as weight loss and fatigue are less common at this early stage, and are more likely to show at a later stage as the tumor has metastasized (spread) beyond the lungs.

Diagnosis

Stage 2 NSCLC means that the tumor is no longer localized just within the lungs, but that it has spread to the nearby lymph nodes.

Stages

– 1 The cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes.

– 1A (the tumor is 3 cm or less in diameter but has spread to the nearby lymph nodes).

– 1B (the tumor is larger than 3 cm in diameter, has spread to the nearby nymph nodes, and is either present in a location near to the bronchus, or the lining of the lungs).

These stages may also be described with a system called TNM (T = tumor size, N = nodes, and M = metastasis [spread of cancer]). Example:

– 1A (T1N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is less than 3 cm (T1), with spread to the nodes (N1), and no metastasis (M0).

– 1B (T2N1M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T2), with spread to the nodes (N1), and no metastasis (M0).

– 1B (T3N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T3), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0), but has spread to nearby areas such as the wall of the chest, or the diaphragm.

Treatment

Surgery is usually considered as the primary option for the treatment of Stage 2 lung cancer, where removal of the tumor may be done via several different techniques depending on exactly where the tumor is located. Adjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancerous cells) is usually recommended by doctors at this stage.

If the lung cancer is inoperable (the tumor is in a difficult position to get at, or the patient is unable to undergo traditional surgery due to general health concerns), then radiation therapy may be considered. Radiation therapy’s are considered by many doctors as being less intrusive on a patient than traditional surgery.

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Asbestos Infection Symptoms

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The types of asbestos infection symptoms a person experiences usually depends on the developed asbestos-related diseases was. There are different types of conditions related to asbestos, asbestosis, the two are most often associated with asbestos and malignant mesothelioma. However chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has reached the epidemic proportion in the United States and it is a condition that the asbestos exposure has helped thousands of cases.

Symptoms typically include asbestosis following conditions:

• Breathing difficulties
• Chronic cough
• Chest pain
• Breathing difficulties
• Difficulty with exercise

Malignant mesothelioma usually develops in people over 65 years and is usually in the thoracic cavity, resulting in the pleura in 65 to 70 percent of cases. It can also affect the lining of the heart, pericardium, in exceptional cases.

The most common symptoms of a disease called mesothelioma include:

• Breathing difficulties
• Chest pain
• tightness in the chest
• A persistent cough
• Weight Loss
• Fatigue

The pleural effusion is also the joint development with mesothelioma. This condition is caused by excessive accumulation of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall or diaphragm. You can be the cause of chest pain and reduced respiratory capacity.

Peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by an abdominal swelling and pain. This symptoms can also result from the accumulation of fluid – in this case in the abdominal cavity. Thickened peritoneal tissue to an additional symptoms:

• Swelling
• Weight Loss
• Nausea
• Bowel obstruction
• Anemia
• Fever and / or night sweats

Now you understand the symptoms of asbestos infection. You should be careful before it infects you.

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What Is the Best Way to Search for a Workers Compensation Attorney?

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Looking for the right Workers’ Compensation Attorney that will be a good fit for you takes time. You should look for one that is experienced in personal injury, specifically, workers’ compensation cases. If you were injured at work, the first thing you should do is report the accident to your employer and then start looking for an attorney.

Once you have reported the accident, you should be seen by a doctor, whether it is at the hospital or in a doctor’s office. You should tell the treating doctor that you were injured at work so that it is documented. Your physician may set up a treatment plan, depending upon the extent of your injury.

Successful Search for the Workers’ Compensation Attorney:

The following guideline should help you find the right Workers’ Compensation Attorney in Massachusetts:

1. Start by calling the Massachusetts Bar Association’s toll free number and asking them for a Lawyer that specializes in Workers’ Compensation in your area.

2. You should then follow-up by searching the names provided online to determine if they concentrate their practice in workers’ compensation. If you are not satisfied with the results, then you may try conducting your own online search.

After reviewing the attorneys’ area of expertise provided by your online search, the next question you may consider is should you hire an attorney from a small or large firm?

3. There are pros and cons to hiring a small or large law firm. It is a personal choice or preference as to which size firm you would feel more comfortable with. A lot of reviews state that hiring an attorney from a small firm is more preferable as they may have more time available to spend on your case. You may also consider asking your family, friends or co-workers for a recommendation although you should confirm that the attorney’s practice specializes in workers’ compensation.

4. It will take some time reviewing the various attorney’s websites. You should also consider looking beyond the first page of your online search. It is very expensive to be listed on the first page which means that most of the names will be from very large law firms since they have an extensive advertising budget. More than likely, they will pass your case onto one of the less experienced attorneys to handle.

Therefore, considering a firm on the second or third page may get you more individualized attention with greater experience.

5. The last step would be to set up a free consultation either by phone or in person to see if they are a good fit for you and your case. You will then have enough information to make an informed decision.

Investing the time to find the right Massachusetts Workers Compensation Attorney will be worth it in the long run and may make the difference in the outcome of your case.

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How Many Different Types of Lung Cancer Are There?

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There are two main types of lung cancer that can be found in both men women. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Small Cell Lung Cancer, both which are unique to each other as they grow and spread within the body differently.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

NSCLC is the more common of the two lung cancers, and is attributed to about 85% of all cases found in a patient. It tends to grow and spread at a much slower pace than small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and is broken down into three main sub-types, all which have their own unique cancer cells.

1. Squamous Cell Caricinoma (epidermoid caricinoma) is attributed to about 25-30% of all cases found. It is made up from thin flat cells (similar to fish scales) that line the inside airways of the lung, and begins in the squamous cells in the centre of the lung.

2. Adenocaricinoma is attributed to about 35-40% of all cases found, mainly in smokers, although it is also found in non-smokers as well. It begins in the cells that have glandular (secretory) properties, and grows slowly in the outer-region of the lung. It is more common in women than men, and more likely to be found in a younger person. Patients with this type of cancer usually tend to have a better prognosis (life expectancy).

3. Large Cell (Undifferentiated) Caricinoma is attributed to about 10-15% of all cases found. It grows and spreads quickly as its cells multiply rapidly. When viewed under a microscope, the cells have an abnormal look to them compared to other types of cancer cells.

Adenosquamous Caricinoma and Sarcomatoid Carcinoma are also sub-types of NSCLC, although they are very rarely found in a patient.

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

SCLC is much less common than NSCLC, and only attributes to about 10-15% of all cases found. It tends to grow and spread much faster than other types of cancer, and is broken down into three types, each which contain different cell types.

Small Cell Caricinoma (oat cell cancer) is a highly malignant cancer that is usually found in the lung, although it can be found in other parts of the body as well, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.

Mixed Small/Large Cell Caricinoma is a rare form of lung cancer, which when diagnosed is formed from both oat cell cancer, and large cell caricinoma.

Combined Small Cell Caricinoma is diagnosed when a malignant tumor is found arising from the lung tissues, and contains both small cell caricinoma, mixed with one or more components of non-small cell caricinoma.

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What Can You Expect From a Dog Bite Settlement?

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Dog bite settlement cases can vary drastically, depending on the circumstances and situation of each individual case.

In a recently settled case in New Jersey, the victim of the dog bite received a $1.75 million dollar payout. In this case, the victim was a home health care worker providing physical therapy for a relative of the homeowners.

Without any apparent warning, the couple’s small dog suddenly bit the therapist on the hand, causing 3 deep puncture wounds to his index finger. While this may not seem like much, the injuries were indeed very serious. There were complications which resulted in significant pain, swelling, and surgeries. There was a decreased range of motion, as well. Some of the injury involved a permanent spinal cord stimulator.

A lawsuit was filed in this case, and a settlement was reached through the mediation process. As the victim was found to be on the property legally, the dog’s owners were found to be legally liable for the injuries sustained.

While every case is different, this is an extreme case, as they were significant injuries which affected the victim’s ability to work. If you have been involved in a dog bite attack, you will first off need to seek proper medical treatment and evaluation immediately. Even if the bite does not seem to be very serious, it is extremely important to have the wounds professionally treated. In this case, there were only 3 small puncture wounds, there was nothing immediately appearing that the wounds were as serious as they turned out to be.

You may be entitled to receive a settlement which would include monetary compensation for your pain and suffering, all medical expenses you have already incurred, funds to cover any future expected medical care, and lost wages due to the inability to work due to your injuries. Future medical expenses may include reconstruction or plastic surgery, physical therapy, and psychological counseling for emotional trauma.

Some cases are much smaller financially, but still have significant costs involved which you should not be responsible for paying. Your lost wages should be restored to you as well. If you were in no way negligent, or were legally on the property of the dog’s owner, you are entitled to receive proper remuneration for your injuries.

If you or a loved one have experienced injury by being bitten by a dog, you need to consult with an experienced and proven successful personal injury attorney experienced in dog bites.

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Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Stage 1) – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Stages and Treatment

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Symptoms

Stage 1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be present in a sufferer without showing any signs or symptoms. It is usually diagnosed when a doctor orders a patient to take a chest X-ray which is often associated with another illness. Symptoms may include: a persistent cough (smoker’s cough), shortness of breath, wheezing, and recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia. At this early stage, other symptoms are not usually present in a sufferer.

Diagnosis

Stage 1 NSCLC is localized (contained within the lungs) and has not spread to the lymph nodes or other organs in the body.

Stages

– 1 The cancer is localized within the lungs but has not yet spread to the lymph nodes.

– 1A (the tumor is 3 cm or less in diameter).

– 1B (the tumor is between 3-5 cm in diameter).

These stages may also be described with a system called TNM (T = tumor size, N = nodes, and M = metastasis [spread of cancer]). Example:

– 1A (T1N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is less than 3 cm (T1), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0).

– 1B (T2N0M0) Meaning that the tumor is greater than 3 cm (T2), with no nodes (N0), and no metastasis (M0).

Treatment

Surgery is usually considered as the primary option for Stage 1 lung cancer treatment where removal of the tumor may be done via various different techniques. These techniques may include: segmentectomy (removal of a small segment of the lung), lobectomy (removal of the lobe of the lung), or pneumonectomy (removal of the entire lung).

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may be used when either the location of the tumor is difficult to reach using traditional surgery, or when the general health of the patient is not at its best and considered that the patient would not be able to tolerate a full surgical procedure. VATS is also less intrusive on the patient than traditional surgery.

If the cancer is considered to be inoperable, radiation therapy may be used to treat it.

Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) is one treatment that may be considered. This is where the patient is first immobilized in a frame to stop any movement, then computer imaging techniques are used to identify precisely where the cancerous cells are. These cells are then in turn destroyed by being given high dosages of radiation.

Conventional radiation therapy’s are not usually recommended with Stage 1A lung cancer, although with Stage 1B, adjuvant chemotherapy (chemotherapy used after surgery to kill off any remaining cancerous cells) may be offered.

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What You May Not Know About Dog Bite Law

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If you have suffered a dog bite for any reason, especially when it has to do with someone else’s dog or negligence, you should absolutely get yourself a personal injury attorney. There is no debating the fact that in these types of cases, you truly do need great representation, as there is a high propensity of these cases which deal with a large amount of money. Furthermore, when you are dealing with dog bite injuries, there may be damage that has to be treated later on in a person’s life.

Because of this, it is absolutely imperative to get yourself a highly qualified personal injury attorney, who will be able to get you the best settlement possible. Many people tend to think that they can handle their own cases, but the reality is this is a huge mistake. You can just about guarantee that whoever’s dog it was that bit you is going to have a lawyer, who will likely bring out all of the stops possible to try and get their client off the hook.

If you do win your specific case and are awarded a settlement, it has been statistically proven that the sum of money you receive will be higher after paying your lawyer than it would have been if you are representing yourself.

There are all sorts of attorneys out there that know each and every dog bite law and defend people that have been attacked by another person’s dog and have suffered dog bite injuries. It is important to work with an attorney that truly does know each dog bite law by heart and has worked a lot of similar cases before. This will give you the highest chance of ending your case favorably, so make sure you do your research. Locating a great attorney is fairly easy online, so the best course of action is to search in your area and research the potential candidates.

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