Connect with us

Tech

Divorce As A Socio-Legal Process

Published

on

The family is a complex and dynamic institution in India. Families in India are undergoing vast changes like increasing divorce and separation rates, domestic violence, inter-generational conflicts, and social problems of the aged parents.

In contemporary research, divorce and re-marriage are viewed not as single, static events, but as part of a series of transitions, modifying the lives of children. In addition to the trauma of divorce itself, the transition related to divorce often involves geographic moves, the addition of step-siblings and a new set of extended family members.

Definition of divorce:

Divorce -partial or total – is the dissolution of a marriage by the judgment of a court. Partial dissolution is a divorce “from bed and board,” a decree of judicial separation, leaving the parties officially married while forbidding cohabitation. Total dissolution of the bonds of a valid marriage is what is now generally meant by divorce. It is to be distinguished from a decree of nullity of marriage, or annulment, which is a judicial finding that there never was a valid marriage.

According to the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, ‘any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce’1 on the grounds mentioned therein.

Among the Hindus, who form a major religious group in India, marriage is considered as a permanent, life-long and sacred union. For a Hindu in general, a Hindu woman in particular, marriage is a sacrament and hence unbreakable. Divorce was fairly an unknown phenomenon among the Hindus before the passing of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 and the Special Marriage Act 1954. The amendment to the Hindu Marriage Act in 1976 is an improvement on the previous legislation relating to marriage and makes divorce easier. There are certain matrimonial offences, which entitle the aggrieved spouse to file for a divorce, available under the matrimonial laws. These are cruelty, adultery, and bigamy. Divorce by mutual consent is available under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 differentiates the concept of ‘divorce’ from such other concepts as separation2, desertion3 and annulment4. A divorce is that process by which a marriage, recognized as valid, can be revoked in the lifetime of the partners who then revert to single and is free to remarry.

But in reality, divorce is a major life transition that has far-reaching social, psychological, legal, personal, economic, and parental consequences. The nature of divorce as a socio-legal phenomenon is very interesting and enigmatic. The present study is an attempt to learn the persuasive power of the social factors in determining the status of a divorcee.

Literature Survey:

Numerous studies in the sociological literature in the west have examined and analyzed the phenomenon of divorce and its implications. In India, considerable research on divorce has been documented, albeit on lesser scale compared to the west. The main reasons for the limited number of empirical studies on divorce in India, are the lower divorce rates, and lack of adequate data [Amato, 1994]. It has been found that various studies related to marriage, family and divorce have been conducted at various periods of time. These studies, despite offering vital insights into the subject, circumscribed their scope to the demographic and causative factors of divorce; the “pre-divorce” stage, which a crucial determinant is of “divorce process”, has not received adequate attention.

Demographic data on divorce

As per Census 2001, eight per cent of the total married population [Two per cent of the total population] in Andhra Pradesh is divorced. Four per cent of female population in Hyderabad city is divorced. Besides, there is an increase in the number of divorced also. Total number of divorced population in the city of Hyderabad increased to 7433 in 2001 from 2850 in 1991. Nearly half of the total divorced population in the city of Hyderabad and also Andhra Pradesh belong to the age group of 25-39 years.

Research Questions:

The present study is an attempt to scrutinize the influence of social factors on the process of divorce. The present study proposes to consider the following research question:

It is generally assumed that there will be adverse and far reaching social and legal consequences of divorce, especially among the Hindu women, because the Hindus have been traditional in their outlook and marriage is considered as a sacred union among the Hindus. Is this statement relevant for the contemporary, urban, modern and westernized outlook about the status of women?

The Location Of The Study- Twin Cities Of Hyderabad And Secunderabad:

Greater Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration, including the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad alone accounts for 24 per cent of urban population in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The population of Hyderabad district has gone up from 3145939 in 1991 to 3829753 in 2001. Hyderabad, now nicknamed as “Cyberabad”, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh is moving at a fast pace in the development of information technology and infrastructure.

Information technologies are drastically changing the way one conducts one’s activities. Yet, the social atmosphere in the state appears to be still feudal in outlook and practice. The median age at marriage at Hyderabad District, however, for female population is 15.3 years which is the fifth lowest in India and about 69% of females are married below 18 years.

Universe and Sampling:

The present study focused on divorce cases under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 decided and disposed of by the Legal Services Authority [Lok Adalats], and Family Court of Hyderabad as its universe.

A multi-stage sampling method is followed to select the sample. To begin with, the cases referred for divorce to the Family Court of Hyderabad by the City Civil Court Legal Services Authority are selected where the decree of divorce is granted by the Family Court of Hyderabad. A sample of 57 cases was selected by following the purposive sampling method. Once the cases are selected, the residence of the women-divorcees is taken into consideration to select the sample at the second stage. Data is collected from the women- divorcees residing at twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and the peri-urban zone surrounding the twin cities. A pre-tested interview schedule is used to elicit information from the respondents. Data on age, education, occupation, caste status, monthly income, details of marriage, details of marital disharmony, introduction of legal aspects of divorce and the personal experiences in this regard, post-divorce consequences as decided by the courts, life of the divorcee after divorce, and remarriage are collected by using the schedule. In-depth interviews also were made with selected respondents, family counselors, lawyers and the members of Judiciary dealing with divorce cases.

Socio-Economic Profile Of The Divorcee-Respondents:

The data is collected from 57 women respondents. Information pertaining to the socio-economic and cultural background of the spouses is important in as much as it could be related to their behavior pertaining to marital dissolution. In the analysis of data some of the socio-economic characteristics were taken as important variables in the process of divorce.

Age of the respondents is an important variable in the analysis of divorce. The largest group of the respondents (52.3%) belongs to the 26-35 years age group, followed by 42.3 per cent of the respondents falling in the 16-25 years age group. The data suggest that a majority of the marriages ends at young age.

Education is another important variable associated with divorce. In tune with the general perception that more number of divorces accompanies higher level of education of women, it is reported that women with higher education took recourse to divorce to end marital incompatibility. In Becker’s theory of the union formation process it is argued that highly educated men tend to marry highly educated women and less educated men tend to marry less educated women [Becker 1977]. Though a number of studies link high rates of divorce to higher level of education, the proposition in the-Indian context, is not irrefutable. Pothen [1986] was not certain whether education hinders or promotes the incidence of divorce among Hindus. She agreed that it is hard to predict the restraining or corrective influence of education on divorce. The present study shows that, even though the percentage of those with college education is sizeable [55.8%] the analysis of data implies that higher level of education is not always accompanied by divorce.

There is much relationship between occupation and marital and familial life. Burgess and Locke [1950; 634] observed that ‘various studies seem to show that divorce is relatively high among persons engaged in occupations necessitating frequent absence from home, involving intimate contacts with the opposite se, and controlled relatively little by the community’. The percentage of women respondents working at the time of marriage and after is very low. The most important factors hindering women to seek employment are community customs and traditions. In spite of giving importance to education of the girls, many parents, husbands and other male relatives will not permit their women to work.

Most of the respondents are housewives. Their sources of income include rents accrued from their landed property or interest on the fixed deposits deposited by them at Banks or Chit Funds and Private financial institutions. The number of respondents having monthly income more than Rs. 20,000 is negligible [8 per cent].

The present study is concerning divorce among the Hindus. Among the Hindus, there are innumerable castes and sub-castes with marital restrictions and varied cultural traditions. It is seen that the highest number [42.3%] of divorces is from Brahmin caste. The Brahmin respondents are from the sub-castes of Niyogi Brahmins [23], Vaidiki Brahmins [9], Kannada-Madhwa Brahmin [2], and Srivaishnava Brahmin [4]. Urban residences, higher educational qualifications, detachment from their ethnic groups are some of the facilitating factors of social mobility among them. Nearly sixty per cent of the divorces among them took place for incompatibility, inability to adjust and lack of understanding on the part of the other spouse. Naidu, Kamma, Viswa Brahmin, Mera, Kapu castes, which are described as middle level castes, come next [36.9%]. The lowest per cent [4.5%] of the divorcees are Kshatriyas.

Each caste follows different traditions and values in the Indian cultural milieu. Some castes permit divorce while others do not, irrespective of the fact that it is legally sanctioned under the marriage laws. Hence, in view of the cultural heterogeneity, the rate of divorce is likely to differ from one caste to the other. Sample of the present study shows that divorce is now permitted by all castes and the highest rate is found among Brahmins. But, in many cases couples might have separated from each other and might not have approached the courts for legal divorce. In this context, it cannot be hypothesized that divorce is resorted to more by higher caste members than by lower caste members.

PRE -DIVORCE SITUATION:

How Marriage Alliance Took Place?

In most of the families in India matrimonial alliances are formalized by the parents and their criteria in weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed marriages are drastically different from that of the marriage partners themselves. Presently, ‘arranged by the parents- marriages’ can be considered as arranged-cum-love marriages. Matrimonial classifieds in newspapers or help of matrimonial associations are sought in arranged marriage when the family fails to find “suitable” spouses for their children.

Seventy three per cent of the marriage alliances in the present study were arranged. In majority of the cases, relatives are used as intermediaries. This shows the prevalence of arranged marriages. Taking help form the matrimonial associations seemed to be another popular method for the arrangement of marriage. Parents of the respondents approached matrimonial associations in 18.9 per cent cases in order to search for a good match. The role of matrimonial advertisements in bringing marriage alliance is very nominal [6.3 %].

The legal validity of marriage among the Hindus is determined by the performance of marriage rituals. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 has secularized the Hindu law of marriage in all respects except in one aspect. However, there need not be any doubt about one ceremony, viz., the saptapadi which is absolutely indispensable for the performance of a Hindu marriage by the shastric rites.

Under Section 8 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, there exists a provision for registration of marriages. The state of Andhra Pradesh passed the Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2002. The Supreme Court of India on February 15, 2006 ordered compulsory registration of marriages irrespective of religion. Despite the Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2002, most of the marriages are not registered. Only 12 per cent of the marriages are registered. The registration of marriage was done in most of the cases when there emerged a need to have a proper certificate of marriage, particularly to apply for Visa.

Duration of marriage:

The first one or two years of marriage are extremely important in the life of any couple. Some marriages survive for a longer life but some are dissolved in the early years of marital life. The data clearly shows that mostly the happily-married time has been too short and those who had some years of happily-married life are very small in number.

Age At Marriage:

Researchers consistently find age at marriage to be one of the strongest predictors of marital disruption and divorce. The present study reveals that young age at marriage in conjunction with lack of the capacity to avoid bickering in the marital life resulted in divorce.

Causes Of Divorce:

As legal dissolution of marriage, divorce is primarily a legal phenomenon. Family laws of any country formulate law for divorce in which grounds are stipulated under which divorce may be availed of. These legal grounds are not just isolated legal causes, but they do signify the socio-cultural view point also. Therefore, when we deal with the causes of divorce, we have to keep in mind the legal and sociological viewpoints.

A major factor likely to affect the level of divorce in a society is the commitment that others outside the marriage have to its continuation. If marriage is defined as private, of concern principally to the married couple and having little external impact, divorce is likely to be more readily available.

The present study analyses the causes of divorce at the individual level. Hence data on how disharmony in the marital life of the respondents began is collected. The data reveals that majority of the respondents consider marriage as an intense, personal and private relationship. In a sense marital life of the respondents’ caught in something of a pincer movement. On the one side, the more that is expected of marriage and the heavier the burden of hopes and emotions it has to carry, the less likely it is to be found satisfactory. On the other side, again because marriage is essentially concerned with personal happiness and fulfillment, the ‘support’ it receives from outside diminishes. There is less pressure for a couple, largely in urban society, to stay together because their break-up has little impact outside the domestic sphere and causes fewer ripples than it would in a traditional Hindu society.

Further important ‘structural’ factor related to the increasing divorce rate is the changed social position of married women in our society. Though men’s and women’s lives continue to be structured unequally, the social and economic opportunities now open to women are certainly greater than they were five decades ago. To this extent marriage ‘traps’ women rather less than it once did. In particular, the opportunities there are for employment or, failing this, the availability of supplementary benefit makes separation and divorce a more realistic option than previously.

One further factor affecting the level of divorce is the legitimacy accorded it in a society. As more and more people have some experience of divorce, either at first hand or through someone close to them being divorced, the less opprobrium it carries. In this way, divorce has become a more normal and less remarkable life event-one to regret rather than condemn. As a result, there is now less pressure put on couples who are having marital problems to stay together. They are likely to see divorce as a reasonable solution if the marriage is in sufficient trouble rather than something to be resisted at any cost. The point here, of course, is that what is defined as ‘sufficient trouble’ to warrant divorce itself changes as divorce becomes more common. Though divorce is still traumatic and not entered into lightly, what was once held to be tolerable within a marriage may now be seen as sufficient reason for divorce.

The way in which divorce is thought to affect children provides an interesting indication of our social imagery of divorce. Presently divorce is still seen as harmful to children; however popular wisdom accepts that living with parents who are in continual conflict with each other can be even more damaging. Far better, it is now believed, for the parents to separate so that the child can be provided with a less tempestuous and more emotionally stable home life.

Basing on the complaints of divorced women, Goode [1956] formulated twelve themes that include non-support, drinking, incongruent values, and disagreement over authority, extra marital sex and neglect of home. The most frequently mentioned marital problems are communication difficulties, general incompatibility, not spending enough time at home, infidelity and disagreement over money matters [Cleek & Pearson, 1985; Kitson, 1992]. Attribution theory [Fiske and Taylor, 1992] suggests that people because of self-serving biases attribute problems to external rather than internal causes. Going by this theory the spouse is less likely to report marital problems caused by herself or himself. Amato and Rogers [1997] categorized the causes of marital dissolution as distal and proximal. Distal causes include age at marriage, education, race, wife’s employment, income etc. whereas proximal causes are anger, jealousy, dominance, infidelity, extravagance, substance use etc.

The present study collected data on factors which lead to marital disharmony. These factors are grouped into:

o Lack of understanding between the spouses

o Demand for dowry from the husband, and his parents

o Incompatibility

o Overwork [where both the spouses are involved, consequently not finding time to spend together]

o Involvement of parents of the spouses in all and sundry matters of the marital life of the spouses.

o Domestic violence.

The cause ‘lack of understanding’ describes the marital bickering resulted due to many factors. One such factor is change in the wife’s income and her educational attainment after marriage. Further education may be a stressor in marital life itself, but the relationship might also be due to reverse causation: Anticipating divorce in a low quality marriage may provide an incentive to obtain further education as a preparation for single life. Three of the wife-respondents felt that their insistence on continuing education even after marriage created friction in their marital life.

Gender role Attitudes and Division of Household work:

The women’s movement and increased numbers of dual-career couples have led to shifts in gender role attitudes–in other words, what a husband and wife expect from themselves and each other in their marital relationship roles. Traditional notions that a wife is expected to remain at home and take care of the house, children, and family, while the husband is expected to be the breadwinner and “head of the household,” have begun to decrease and more egalitarian notions (men and women are equal in all domains) have increased among both men and women Not only have gender role attitudes changed, but, concurrently, division of household work has also shifted. Although marital behaviors today are more egalitarian, wives are not satisfied. Why are women less happy in their marriages? One explanation may stem from the fact that an ideology of marital equality does not necessarily translate into an outcome of marital equality.

Sex-Role Perceptions of the Spouses:

Sex-role perceptions and attitudes towards working women are influenced by the cultural norms of gender equality which determine the position of women in society and their educational and economic status. In India, cultural norms favor women mainly in their domestic and marital roles [Rao and Rao, 1988]. If they work, they are regarded merely as secondary or supportive earners. Women’s employment does not alter sex – role perceptions mainly because of the prevailing culturally defined gender based norms. The present study reveals that sex-role perceptions of the respondents mostly dependent on cultural norms.

Husband -Wife Interactions:

There is variation in cultural ideas about proper husband-wife relations among the respondents. Moving from village to city is an important experience that allows people to assess cultural beliefs. The migration of the respondents after their marriage has created some confusion regarding husband-wife interactions.

Incompatibility:

One of the more puzzling aspects of marital crisis involves the issues of compatibility. At individual level, marriage is the bonding of man and woman on the deepest levels of life; and compatibility is vital for the union to succeed. One fourth of the respondents took incompatibility as a cause for their divorce.

Demands For Dowry:

Although dowry demands have been outlawed by the Indian government, these laws are seldom enforced and the practice of dowry is still widespread [VazL, Kanekar S., 1990]. Despite their condemnation of dowry, most women respondents seemed resigned to it, as they believed it affords young women an important degree of social legitimacy and security. For most respondents, managing a daughter’s marriage negotiations was an agonizing process fraught with tension and fear.13 per cent of the respondents said that the reason for the marital disharmony is demand for more dowries.

Overwork:

Five per cent of the respondents felt that there was hardly any time available for them to spend together with their spouse prior to their divorce. Where both spouses are working in BPO sector, because of the timings of their work they find that they overworked and do not have any strength to share communication regarding their marital life.

Involvement Of The Parents Of The Spouses:

Educated couples insist that they would like to have their privacy particularly in their marital life. They feel that intervention of even their parents is not acceptable. When parents or parents-in-law try to convince them in marital matters they decide to break the relationship rather than coping with it. 11 per cent of the respondents said that they could not solve their marital discord due to the involvement of their parents.

Domestic Violence:

Traditional rigid gender roles are one such cultural norm within various areas of India that may increase the likelihood of violence against women. These roles are defined in such a manner that sons are more likely than daughters to be of benefit to their parents, both financially and in other ways. Most of the respondents suffered domestic violence during their married life and expressed that domestic violence determined their decision to go for a divorce.

Causes of divorce can be quite complex and complicated. There is usually not one simple factor that causes the dissolution of a marriage. Family legal experts cite the following factors as major causes of divorce: poor communication, financial problems, lack of commitment, dramatic changes in priorities, and infidelity. Causes of divorce may also include physical, mental or emotional abuse, substance abuse, and lack of conflict resolution skills, unmet needs, failed expectations, and significant discrepancies in parenting.

Divorce As Legal Process:

The present study found that, divorce by mutual consent is mostly used ground for seeking divorce.

Sometimes a trivial cause may lead to divorce. One of the respondents filed a case for divorce when her mother-in-law stated her wish to stay along with the couple. Another respondent refused to meet her husband as her consent for the marriage was not obtained by the elders before fixing the marriage. Since such trivial causes may not stand legal scrutiny, lawyers advise their client to file a case on mutual consent.

Considering Divorce As A Possibility:

Once it is decided by the respondent that he/she can no longer continue their marital life, they usually take the final decision. The process of divorce moves at a pace commensurate to each person’s ability to adapt to the physical, financial and emotional changes that divorce demands. Some people move quickly through these stages, others need more time to accomplish the tasks involved in a stage and to assimilate the information and the emotional experiences the stage encompasses.

Making the decision to divorce is the first step in the divorce process, and it is a complicated step. Once a person has made the decision to end their relationship, their next task is to tell their spouse they want to end the marriage. Most of the respondents took help from either their parents or friends to tell their spouse that they want to end the marriage. These discussions were not limited to the disclosure of their decision to end their marriage but also include a collaborative effort to redistribute the property, custody of children, prospects of remarriage and other related matters. All the respondents took an advice before seeking legal advice from the lawyers and filing a petition for divorce. More than half of the respondents took advice from their family members before filing a petition for divorce. Nearly twenty two per cent of the respondents shared their marital life-experiences with their friends and followed their counsel. 20.7 per cent of the respondents approached the caste elders seeking advice. Caste elders are still playing an important role in resolving matters related to family. The present study observed that some of the middle level castes are giving importance to the caste elders. Caste elders usually act as a quasi- judicial body in deciding domestic matters. Sometimes, they take the initiative to approach the court of record on behalf of a person.

Nonetheless, the present study found that empowered women are initiating the new wave of divorce petitions. They are not keen to fight the battle as victims of marriage under statutes; rather they prefer to settle things mutually on the basis of equality. The reasons are temperamental differences, financial issues and family interferences.

The present study indicates that in vast majority of the cases, it took up to two years to get the case finally decided. The prolongation of the case of some respondents was mainly due to the fact the spouses concerned were indifferent. The period of trial of divorce case was difficult for most of the respondents, especially women. Some of the typical situations experienced by the respondents include: anxiety about the future, disturbance in the home set-up, training, education and discipline of children, social stigma, non-satisfaction of sexual needs, economic non-support. The incidence of cohabitation during the pendency of the case was inquired into. It was found that majority of the respondents were already separated then the trial started. In few cases respondents had already got remarried and started cohabiting with the new spouse though it was illegal.

Custody Of Children:

One of the most pressing concerns in regard to divorce is the custody of children. The question of custody of children has been dealt with in Section 26 of the Hindu Marriage Act. In making an order in respect of the custody of child, the welfare of the children is the paramount consideration, not the rights of the parents. The respondents having children are not many. 28 percent of the respondents are having children. Of these most of the respondents are having only one child. Majority of the children are living with either with their mothers or parents of mother. It is found that not having children makes divorce easier.

POST-DIVORCE EXPERIENCES:

The present analysis observed that majority of the respondents went to their parents and trying to fill the gap in their lives by taking work more seriously or going in for higher studies. It is found that presently divorce is viewed by the divorcees as a mechanism which provides freedom from tensions and opportunities for career development.

Remarriage:

Conceptually it is useful to think of marital dissolution and remarriage as the component parts of a process that takes people back and forth between being married and not being married. There are two states [married and unmarried], and dissolution is the process or event that transfers people from being married to being unmarried while remarriage takes people in the opposite direction. Marriages end at the time of divorce.

Conclusion:

‘Divorce’, according to Lipman-Blumen [1977] is a life crisis which society does not promote, as a result of which social rituals marking divorce are largely absent. Blumen [1977] attributed the painful experience of divorcing to lack of institutionalized support for divorce, in the form of social rituals. Therefore it is recommended that some kind of mechanism in the form of social ritual to mark the transition from married to divorced status has to be evolved, in order to make the experience of divorce bearable for both the spouses, especially wife.

It is also recommended to start divorce counseling on a large scale to help the divorcing and the divorced overcome the stress and cope with the future situation.

Since the study is specific to the population, the findings cannot be generalized. The small size of the sample may not succeed in relating the study to the larger context. In view of globalization process of which disinvestment and privatization are corollaries, large scale retrenchments, cuts in subsidies, and shrinking social security are foreseen. In this backdrop the alienation process will gain momentum which will result in family life disruption. Therefore, it is suggested that further studies on divorce should take cognizance of the changed situation.

google news

Tech

Top 10 Tips For Beginners And Veterans – Escape From Tarkov

Published

on

Top 10 Tips For Beginners And Veterans - Escape From Tarkov

New at the legendary Escape from Tarkov? Or have you been playing it for quite a while now? In either case, a little help never hurts.

You might be unfamiliar with specific tactics that could enhance your game and make you better. But what are those? To know more about these ways to ace your game, visit Battlelog. Escape from Tarkov hack from their team is the best way to master the game. Plus, we also have these 10 tips and tricks for EFT below that you can check out!

1.  Master Maps One-by-One

Being a trader of all crafts and master of none never benefited anyone. And if you do that with Escape from Tarkov, you’ll never improve your skill. As a beginner, try not to divert your attention to various maps unless you’ve mastered one or two.

When you start playing EFT, begin by trying maps like Customs and Interchange. These maps aren’t too tricky and familiarize you well with the game. Once you’ve mastered them, move on to improving your fighting skills. But remember, learning maps one by one is the best way to become an expert.

2.  Pro-tip: Practice Offline

You’re an EFT pro, but that doesn’t mean you don’t need practicing occasionally. In fact, the more you practice, the better you’ll become. But practicing in the online mode isn’t a wise option. Because you will keep losing health and spend your money unnecessarily.

So to practice, switch to offline mode. It’s the best way to learn how to fight Scavs well, how the maps work, and where extraction points are located. Keep polishing up your skills in the offline mode.

3.  Insurance Works in EFT too

Insurance isn’t just for your car and home anymore. In EFT, you can insure your weapons and belongings. This doesn’t mean that if the enemy loots you, you’ll get compensation for them. But it’s still advantageous because it often lets you have your weapons even after you die.

If you’re an experienced player, insuring your weapons is even better. If the enemy who loots it from you later dies, you can claim your weapons back. This way, you don’t lose those precious guns and rifles after a challenging game.

4.  Be Careful After Killing

You might be tempted to loot an enemy as soon as he dies. Even experienced players often do it. But this isn’t always a wise move.

When you kill someone, there might be some other enemy lurking around. And in your fit to loot the dead, you might not even pay attention to the enemy who’s hiding nearby. So after you kill, wait for a little to see if anyone surfaces or makes a sound. If you feel like the territory is safe, proceed to loot and move on.

5.  Be a SCAV friend when playing as a SCAV

Escape from Tarkov often lets you play as a SCAV. When you do, you don’t have weapons of your own. But you also don’t carry any liabilities. So even if you die in the game, you won’t lose essential weapons.

But here’s something every pro player knows that a beginner should too. As a SCAV, you shouldn’t attack other SCAVs. But why? Isn’t that foolish? Well, not really. In fact, doing that will attract negative attention to you and make the game difficult.

6.  Complete Quests – Lots of Them

Completing quests in a shooting game might sound lame to you. But it is an excellent way to gain experience and some other perks.

In Escape from Tarkov, you can complete various quests to get rewards and gear. Of course, some quests don’t reward you as much, and the items they grant aren’t helpful. But you can always trade them or sell them to stock up on weapons. Use the Flea Market for trading such goods.

7.  Go to Dorms

This tip isn’t really for beginners. But for experienced players, it makes the game thrilling and more rewarding.

Dorms are a dangerous location because they often contain the best loot in EFT. They are also home to the SCAV boss, and many players frequent this place looking for loots. But when you’re feeling up to it, raid a dorm to get the best loot possible.

8.  Switch between passive and aggressive style

This rule works for any combat game, but for EFT, it does wonders. As a player, you should have enough instincts to know when to play passively and go aggressive.

As a rule of thumb, be as passive as possible unless you’re faced with an opponent. Move around sneakily and make as little sound as possible. But once you’re in a fight, don’t shy away from landing a few hard blows of your own.

9.  Have a CMS Kit

In Escape from Tarkov, it will be too difficult to win if your limbs are dead or wounded. You have to reach an extraction point without your feet working properly. But recently, the makers added a surgical kit called the CMS to the game.

With the CMS kit, you can get your limbs healed quickly. It is a significant investment, and whenever you plan to go for combat, keep this one handy.

10.Know Your Sounds

EFT has an excellent sound mechanism. You can hear your enemies, and they can listen to you. In fact, everything from aiming a gun to moving makes a sound. So you have to be highly conscious.

While trying to ambush or kill someone, aim at them from as far as possible. This way, there’s little chance of them hearing you. Similarly, move stealthily to make fewer sounds. And no matter what, pay attention to enemy sounds too.

Conclusion

Whether you’re an expert veteran or a newbie at the game, you will benefit aplenty from these 10 EFT tips. Comment down below which one helped you the most in your game.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

Work Breakdown Structure and Outsourcing

Published

on

By

Every outsourcing project should create and make a WBS available to all its outsourcing staff. What is a WBS and how can it help you manage your outsourcing project? All projects consist of small tasks and quality control procedures. A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) breaks down all the tasks that must be performed on the project and estimates timing and resources for each task as well as the order the tasks should be done in. It pays to have a clear and effective WBS in all your outsourcing projects.

An effective Work Breakdown Structure starts with high level activities (these may be your milestones) and breaks these activities down into lower and lower levels until you’ve covered every conceivable step in the process. Before you ever begin work on a project, also confirm with your outsource staff that they understand the overview and the individual components of your WBS and give them the opportunity to ask questions. It is never helpful to assume that they have it all under control. It is preferable that if any questions or problems arise they do so before the project has even started.

An example of a WBS is if one of your milestones is submission of the first draft of chapter one of a book someone is ghostwriting for you. You would then break that down into its smaller steps, like research, outlining, and writing. These steps would then, in turn, be broken down into even smaller steps, like types of research, verification of facts, and so on.

For each low-level task, estimate time needed for completion, start and end dates, human resources required, and in what order each task should be completed. Obviously, facts can’t be verified until the research is done but you get the gist.

If you have the knowledge and background to begin a WBS during the planning stages for your project, please do so. Regardless of whether or not you’ve already started the WBS, work with your provider to nail down the details and finalize the breakdown.

A well thought out Work Breakdown Structure is of immense help to any project, small or large. It enables your freelance staff to work with confidence and it enables you to know that your outsourcers can carry out the work competently. A good Work breakdown Structure will also minimize hiccups, saving time, money and energy.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

Potential Cost Savings Associated With Legal Outsourcing

Published

on

By

“How much can I save?” “What is the cost of legal work done offshore?” “Please give me a quote for 100 hours per month for legal work done in India.” “What is your hourly rate?” “How much do you charge for ______?” These are the questions and requests directed my way at the beginning of conversation when someone contacts me about sending certain legal tasks offshore for completion.

Regularly I advise potential clients that the first question to be asked, either of a lawyer or someone potentially assisting in the outsourcing of a legal project, is not “how much?” Instead, at the outset, determination should be made whether those who would work on the project have the skills, training and experience to complete the assignment(s) in a quality fashion. This necessarily involves a clear delineation of the proposed undertaking and the expectations of the outsourcer. Further, what are the assurances of confidentiality? Can the time deadline for completion be met? What about conflicts of interest? These questions should be asked of every U.S. lawyer whose services might be retained. Likewise, they should be asked of every person or entity involved in outsourcing legal assignments. It should be noted that offshore lawyers are not licensed in the U.S. and do not provide “legal services” or advice. Foreign attorneys, working offshore, complete assignments under the supervision and review of qualified U.S. attorneys in generally the same manner as paralegals, summer law clerks or junior associates in the U.S. Indeed, the Code of Professional Conduct requires such supervision.

Cost savings achievable from outsourcing, however, seems to be the burning issue of the day. Large law firms, in particular, are looking for ways of cutting costs to maintain profitability or to even survive in challenging economic times. Dan DiPietro, client head of Law Firm Group of the Citi Private Bank, offered Storm Warnings (American Lawyer, Dec 2007) in observing “for the first time since 2001, expense growth actually outpaced that of revenue from January through June, depressing profit margins.” Sounding an ominous note, DiPietro observed that the biggest expense increases were in associate salaries and in occupancy and technology costs. His warning proved prophetic, as a number of old-line law firms closed their doors in 2008 including Heller Ehrman, Thelen LLP, and Thacher, Proffitt & Wood. Other large law firms are reducing staff and lawyers, including de-equitizing partners. Corporate clients are cutting the number of outside firms they engage, while pushing them to become more efficient. It is becoming increasingly apparent that difficult decisions are on the horizon for many law firms and their clients. Law firms want to retain their rainmakers, secure the best legal talent available and keep their profits per partner high. Clients want their overall costs for outside counsel reduced. How will these issues be addressed, particularly in a difficult economic climate? Outsourcing is one way of potentially confronting the challenges. Thus, the question, how much can I save?

Assuming the proper initial inquires have been made and adequately addressed, what are the cost savings reasonably attainable by an outsourcing U.S. law firm and its clients? Answering that question necessarily involves a comparative analysis of revenue and expenses. Suppose a large U.S. law firm wishes to consider outsourcing work that might otherwise be performed by one U.S. associate working exclusively for one of the law firm’s corporate clients. The junior associate bills 2000 hours annually at the lawyer’s hourly billable rate of $200.00, for a total annual cost to the corporate client (and income to the law firm) of $400,000. The law firm’s expenses chargeable against the income produced by its associate include the lawyer’s base salary ($160,000) and bonus (say $20,000) plus the associate’s share of overhead expenses for occupancy, support staff, benefits, marketing, recruitment, technology and other expenses. In its 2006 survey, Altman Weil, the well-regarded legal consulting firm, estimated average annual law firm expense per lawyer at $161,893. (Doubtless those expenses have increased since 2006, but, for the purposes of conservatism, we will use Altman’s 2006 number in our example.) Altman’s breakdown included promotion ($7,136), reference ($4,655), equipment ($9,299), occupancy ($25,879), staff ($55,147), paralegal ($17,911) and “other”($41,866). In the Altman survey, “other” includes malpractice insurance premiums and settlements, payments to former partners, recruiting costs, and other expenses not shown separately. Adding the associate’s share of expenses ($161,893) to the associate’s total earnings ($180,000) it is apparent that it costs the law firm a total of $341,893 to produce $400,000 in associate income. Let’s call it a $60,000 law firm profit attributable to the associate’s efforts. Put in other terms, it costs the law firm $171 per billable hour of the associate’s time to produce $60,000 of profit.

Now, assume the same 2000 hours were produced offshore at a cost of, say, $75 per hour instead of $171 per hour. (Higher end outsourced work such as legal research or writing might cost in the range of $75.00 per hour, while other kinds of work such as document review would likely be less. For purposes of our analysis, we estimate the overall offshore costs toward the higher end.) The actual cost to the law firm for 2000 offshore hours at $75 per hour would be $150,000 instead of $341,892. Further, the law firm’s client could be billed, say $240,000, for this work instead of $400,000. (Recent bar association ethics advisory opinions allow for a reasonable supervisory fee by the law firm, providing the client is advised of the off shoring and the Code of Professional Conduct, particularly Rule 1.5, is followed). The client would happily achieve a savings of 40%, while the law firm’s profit would also likely increase. Moreover, the law firm would require fewer associates at the ever-escalating salary structure (now starting at $160,000 base) for lawyers from top tier law schools. Because of overall lower costs and a fewer number of new associate hires, the firm would be able to more effectively compete for a reduced number of premier U.S. attorneys it decides to hire. Over time, partner equity and distributions would be shared with a fewer number of individuals. Thus, an outsourcing program for selected legal assignments, carefully implemented and supervised, can potentially result in greater client satisfaction and retention as well as enhanced law firm profitability.

In 2007 Mayer Brown, a 1500 lawyer Chicago based law firm, purged 45 equity partners. While denying any sort of crisis, James Holzhauer, chairman of the firm, commented on the move: “It’s necessary to manage a law firm like you manage any kind of big business and make sure you have the right staffing going forward.” Outsourcing, seen by some law firms as the enemy of law firm profits, may in fact be the opposite. Without doubt, even if some law firms are reluctant to change the traditional ways, their clients are not. In August of 2007 Bloomberg.com observed that “clients are pushing firms like Jones Day and Kirkland & Ellis to send basic legal tasks to India.” It is significant that this “push” came well before the global financial collapse of the last quarter of 2008. Regarding law firms, Holzhauer cautioned in March of 2007: “This (law business) is to a certain extent a fragile business. Our greatest asset is our people. If you’re not economically strong so that you can retain your best people and attract other strong people from elsewhere, a fragile business can have problems.”

Corporate clients are on a mission to reduce legal costs. Some of those clients would prefer to supervise the outsourced work in house, while others apparently are content with their chosen outside U.S. counsel overseeing the offshore work. Irrespective, legal outsourcing is on the table for consideration of cost control. “How much can I save?” is a question being asked by those who, a few short years ago, never imagined entertaining the concept of legal assignments being completed offshore.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

ICT Outsourcing Definitions and Types

Published

on

By

ICT outsourcing can be said as one of the current trends for companies around the world to do their business processes. It is estimated that ICT outsourcing starts in the early 1990s where Kodak uses external partner to handle its ICT resources. As Kodak does not have the expertise in ICT, they hire another company to help them handle the ICT resources. This phenomenon occurs because companies would like to concentrate their core business functions among other benefits. After merely 20 years, outsourcing is now needed by a lot of companies mostly at customer support and also back-office processes and this affects Malaysia as well. Currently, Malaysia is known as a main outsourcing hub for the world, where it is currently ranked third globally behind China and India in the outsourcing industry. This shows how significant outsourcing is to developing countries in Asia.

Outsourcing Definition

Outsourcing is defined as a concept of contracting out part of the organization’s business process to a third party that has the specific skills and services. The third party must have the skills needed by the organization so that the outcome of the outsourced job is as expected. Outsourcing can also be explained as the movement of one or many business functions of a company including its assets to an outside service provider who gives a defined service for an agreed duration of time and payment on a written agreement.

From these two definitions, we can see that outsourcing can be defined with the following characteristics:

1. A company transferring one or many business process to a third party.

2. A third party has the skills and services required for the business process.

3. Has an agreement or contract between the two parties on the price and expected outcome.

Types of Outsourcing

Outsourcing can be separated into two types, namely total outsourcing and selective outsourcing.

The first one is total outsourcing, where the IT budget being used to pay the external vendors is approximately 80% or more than the total. For outsourcing activities that only took less than 80% from the total IT budget, it will be called as selective outsourcing. It is named as ‘selective’ because the company will select only one or several IT functions to be outsourced to a third party.

Aside from these two main outsourcing types, there are also other types of outsourcing that are usually the sub-division from these two main types like insourcing and transitional outsourcing.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

Medical Transcription Outsourcing – The Great Advantages

Published

on

By

If you haven’t started outsourcing your medical transcription work, it may be time you start considering this option. This process includes taken information that is dictated and putting it into a text format so the information can be put into records for patients. You’ll actually find that there are many advantages to going with medical transcription outsourcing. Here is a look at a few of these advantages that your medical facility will appreciate.

One of the main advantages to going with medical transcription outsourcing is the time that you will save. There are many types of reports that must be done in clinics and hospitals, such as consultation notes, discharge summaries, physical reports, lab reports, and more. Having to take care of these files on your own can take a lot of time. Instead of doing this in-house, you can simply send files to a transcription company and once they are transcribed they can be sent back via the web. Outsourcing gives medical facilities the ability to focus more on core activities that are important, such as patient care.

High end security is yet another of the benefits of going with medical transcription. When you send these files to the company, they are sent securely on the web. Then they are transcribed into a format like HTML, ASCII forma, MS Word, or other formats. Then the files are going to be returned through a process that is password protected so only those who are authorized are able to access these files.

When you choose a company to take care of this for you, you can be assured that the transcriptionists working on your projects are highly skilled in the profession and they have a good understanding of the rules for producing these records. Transcriptionists that understand the terminology helps to ensure that your reports are done error free.

Of course, the cost is definitely a big advantage that you’ll enjoy when you go with medical transcription outsourcing. There are many companies that provide you with low cost outsourcing, which can save your medical facility a lot of money. Instead of trying to take care of transcription within your facility, hiring the work out can save money and ensure you get your records completed as quickly as possible.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

How to Succeed With Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)?

Published

on

By

As outsourcing becomes an indispensable part of corporate business strategy, especially during economic downturns, BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) has emerged as an important driver of IT Enabled Services. In very recent years, it has progressed from being considered for limited peripheral activities to encompassing very critical business activities that contribute to strategic advantage.

Though traditionally cost reduction has been the key driver for all outsourcing activities, other drivers such as speed of development, flexibility, expert skills and political maneuvering are equally important, if not more.

To succeed with Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), you must first research and determine if outsourcing should be pursued at all – an initial understanding of the expected size and nature of the deal is a must at this stage. This phase is known as the Assess phase as the involved parties try and establish senior stakeholder expectations at this stage. At the end of this phase, stakeholders should have clarity on the expected benefits, costs and risks of the potential engagement.

Next comes the Prepare phase which encompasses the vendor selection process. More often than not, organisations roll out RFPs (Request for Proposal) documents to find the right outsourcing partner. Fundamental elements of all other phases are defined and agreed upon in this Phase.

Evaluate phase is the third stage of the outsourcing lifecycle and it focuses on structured and thorough evaluation of the proposals received from vendors. At the end of this phase, you should be able to negotiate with selected vendors.

This phase paves the way for the Commit phase which is essentially the pre-contract stage. The Commit phase is by far the most resource intensive and commercially crucial phase as the deal design is finalized and the transition plan is developed in this phase.

Next comes phase 5 which is the Transition and Transform phase. In this phase, a robust transition plan is implemented. In addition, a reporting mechanism is also brought in place at this stage of the outsourcing lifecycle.

The Optimise phase, which comes next, focuses on managing the vendor relationship efficiently, tracking the vendor fees against the original proposal and monitoring contractual obligations. In principal, this phase is an ongoing one until the contract is renewed, renegotiated or exited.

When implemented properly, outsourcing contracts are likely to bestow immense benefits on organisations. No wonder that BPO is seen as a disruptive force that has huge impact on the cost-structure of nearly any industry and that is why it is not easy for organisations to ignore it. The hype around BPO may subside soon, but the business advantages that come with it are here to say as it enables many enterprises to succeed.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

Payroll Outsourcing

Published

on

By

Payroll outsourcing is a very common and growing practice these days. Payroll is an important business function that deals with the process of paying employees for services rendered. Payroll outsourcing can be defined as the accomplishment of a payroll task by some external agency. There are many reasons why companies outsource payroll, but the most prominent benefit lies in the fact that it often saves money. Basic payroll outsourcing services include calculating paycheck and tax obligations for each employee, printing and delivering checks, and providing management reports.

Every business owner knows that handling payroll can be a headache. Preparing payroll internally can cost valuable hours of employee time every pay period, and require expensive accounting software and training. Besides, the person handling payroll of an organization internally needs to keep up to date with changes in personnel, deadlines, and tax requirements on an ongoing basis. Payroll outsourcing is an affordable way to take away these burdens, because it is a time-saving and cost-effective alternative to internal payroll processing.

Payroll actually commences with the worker signing up with a company. A typical payroll report contains items such as gross hourly wages and gross salaries, bonus payments including stock given as a bonus, overtime pay, severance pay, per diem and travel allowance, and contributions to deferred compensation by employees.

Today, payroll outsourcing is a vital part of an organization’s payroll and benefits functions. This will improve employee satisfaction and enable the organization to focus its assets on mission-critical areas. The market for payroll outsourcing services is competitive and there are a number of key points, such as speed, accuracy and ease of use, to consider when opting to use a payroll company.

Though payroll outsourcing may prove highly valuable for many organizations, it also has many drawbacks. It is essential that every company precisely assess its requirements to determine if outsourcing is a feasible alternative.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

Why Hire an SEO Content Outsourcing Firm?

Published

on

By

Every small and big company has a website today. A website has all the information about the products and services a specific company has to offer. Websites make the selection process easy for the customers. But what if the customers are not able to access or find the website? This can ruin the company’s business, bringing in losses. Exposure can really help a company sail through.

There are some major elements which can be added to a website to make it more popular, user-friendly and search engine friendly. These elements include the right animation, pictures, colors and content. Content is one of the most important elements of a website. SEO based content can bring in amazing results. A good SEO content outsourcing firm can help you earn more money. Along with this, it can:

· Help in search engine optimization of your website

The search engine optimization process depends on the website’s content to a great extent. An SEO content outsourcing firm can make your website’s content rich and interesting. Along with this, its experts put a lot of relevant content in the website to make it search engine friendly. SEO content writing also includes producing keyword rich content which helps in the link building campaigns. The usage of latest keywords related to your products and services can help search engines read your website’s content more often. This will make the search engines display your company’s website in the first few search results when a user types in a related keyword.

· Help in link building campaigns

The SEO content writing firms offer an array of services today. These services include SEO content writing as well as article writing. The latter basically helps a website get more exposure. The articles written by the experts of these companies are submitted on various article submission websites. This helps in the process of your website’s link building. Article writing services can help your website receive more traffic which can ultimately help you get more customers.

· Help people to know your company better

A good SEO content outsourcing firm can help people understand your company better. The website content and company related articles can be used to express your mission and vision. You can even use these platforms to share the background of your company. All these things may help the customers connect with your company.

SEO content writing and article writing services can help you earn people’s trust. They can bring in huge traffic, high conversion rate and many other benefits. You can use these services to set up your company’s rapport and to make it even more popular internationally. So, hire an established SEO content outsourcing company and gear up to earn the profits!

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

Things to Consider When Outsourcing Support Functions of Your Organization

Published

on

By

Outsourcing is defined as hiring a third party provider to take care of certain non-core areas of business like technical support and customer care support. By outsourcing support functions of a company, one can save on a lot of skilled manpower that can be used to develop core areas like business development while at the same time cutting costs by outsourcing without compromising on the standards of excellence of the company. Technical support and customer care support are the two main areas where large companies or even relatively new startups outsource.

Usually, technical or IT support is outsourced to other countries to cut costs. This can prove beneficial to the company in the perspective of a long term contract. But at the same time, this requires a lot of careful planning and research. Some of the main points to be bare in mind while outsourcing these tasks are outlined briefly below.

In the extremely competitive business environment of today’s world, outsourcing supportt especially customer support is a crucial factor in determining the position of a company among its peers. While outsourcing customer support services to a service provider, one should always research the credentials and client history of the company. This gives a fair idea of the company’s standing and what you can expect from it. Also, one needs to determine whether the company holds regular accent training classes to make its employees familiar with the language they are required to speak in.

Outsourcing support of the technical kind is a very lucrative option for companies since many countries offer highly skilled technical expertise which can be utilized to further the company’s prospects in a global environment. But you should always do a thorough background search on the level of competence in technical areas of a business and the best way to do it is to visit the place personally and get a first hand account of the way things are done. Also, one can ask the service providers to complete a few projects on a trial basis and a fair judgement of the service can be done to analyze their potential.

Before outsourcing support of any business process the first factor to be considered is whether it is a viable option for the company. Sometimes, certain companies spend more on outsourcing than on the core areas of the business like business development. A detailed analysis of the company should be done and after considering the various risk factors and the benefits, a final decision should be taken in the light of the company’s future plans.

Another point to be taken into account is the commitment of the service provider in executing the projects in time. There is a difference in the time between any two countries which could lead to a lot of confusion in the setting of the deadlines. The company should have a strict policy in case of assignments submitted late or projects not done satisfactorily. If all factors are kept in mind, then the company can have a very lucrative future due to outsourcing support.

google news
Continue Reading

Tech

TPF Outsourcing – What Does It Mean And Why Are More Businesses Doing It

Published

on

By

When was the last time that your made a major purchase or even a small purchase for that matter? Do you remember what took up most of the businesses actual man hour time when you made the purchase? If you stop to think about for a moment, it was when you were completing the transaction or paying for what you were purchasing that occupied the most amount of time of the person or business that you were dealing with.

TPF – Transaction Processing Facility

TPF stands for “transaction processing facility” and this, in simple terms means anywhere in a business where the actual money and paper work is changing hands. This, in most businesses that you visit on a daily basis would be the main focal point of their operation many times. It is the “front office” or the “check out counter”.

It All Makes perfect Sense

TPF outsourcing is the means by which a business hands the responsibilities of this mundane task to a source that is outside of the main business operation. If you stop to think about it, it makes perfect sense, because once a customer or client has made the decision to patronize an establishment, the job of the business should then shift to finding more customers or clients and also servicing the customers or clients that are active.

TPF Outsourcing for the Travel Industry

The travel industry is one area where TPF outsourcing has began to take hold in a big way for a number of reasons. One of the big reasons this is so, is because unlike other business where the customer or client leaves after they have made a purchase. In the travel industry the client has to be dealt with after the purchase is made. In simple terms TPF outsourcing in the travel industry frees up the businesses to fly the planes instead of manning the ticket counters.

google news
Continue Reading

Trending