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Analysis of Risks to a Project Developer in a Term Sheet Or a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

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Project Finance has become an increasingly attractive technique for financing infrastructure projects in developing countries over the last twenty years. Furthermore, the use of project financing raises difficult legal issues with respect to the ability of developing countries’ governments to control the provision of public services that are intimately connected to these infrastructure projects. Project finance has several advantages, such as the opportunity for investors to participate directly in an otherwise inaccessible and lucrative-albeit risky-market and the ability to participate in high-risk investments without diminishing creditworthiness. Lenders for projects are primarily large international commercial banks, such as ABN Amro and Citibank, or multilateral lending agencies, such as the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). They will in no doubt, therefore, seek to put in some issues in a term sheet.

The first step in setting up a project financing usually involves the sponsors or developers forming a project company known as a special purpose vehicle or entity, which is designed to construct, own, and operate the project facility. Thus project finance benefits sectors or industries in which projects can primarily be structured as a separate entity from their sponsors or developers.

Thus it is the project company, which is the entity that is borrowing funds for the project. The lenders loan money to the project company with the assets and cash flow of the project acting as the security interest for the project loans.

Definitions and Meanings

European Investment Bank defines project finance as “a loan made primarily against cash flows generated by the project, rather than relying on a corporate balance sheet, the security value of the physical assets or other forms of security”.

A project developer is the sponsor or the borrower for the project.

A power purchase agreement (PPA) is an agreement which serves as one of the pre-requisites for the lender to borrow funds for a project. It is a contract that “there will be ready market for the project on completion”.

A term sheet is an outline of the principal terms and conditions proposed for the project and investment. It is not in itself a legal document but a sort of draft proposals subject for approval by all parties involved.

Types of Risks

In project transactions, there are typically numerous parties from different jurisdictions involved, and accordingly, the laws of many different jurisdictions are potentially applicable to any given transaction. Thus the uncertainties or fears expressed by each party translate to a risk of a sort. It becomes important that the terms sheet or the PPA or the PSA be analysed accordingly and where necessary, find the appropriate legal regulations or instruments to mitigate any risks.

Risks are different for each project – they are often country-specific, and differ depending on the kind of project one wishes to undertake.

There are, generally different kinds of risks with the magnitude being different from one project to another project. Some of the acceptable forms of risks that should be considered at all costs are as follows:

– Sponsor risks

– Pre-completion risks

– Inflation and foreign exchange risk

– Operating risks

– Technological risks

– Completion risk

– Input risk

– Approvals, regulatory and environmental risk

– Offtake and sales risk

– Political risks

Believe it or not, when all the risks-financial, construction & completion risks, technology & performance risks, foreign exchange & availability risks- are critically analysed, it could be deduced that they are to a greater extent linked to government’s policies; in other words, political activities or ideologies. Linking political risk to regulatory risk in most of his study, Louis T. Wells, Jr described Political and regulatory risks as a key impediment to private investment in the infrastructure sectors of developing and transition economies; and are defined as” threats to the profitability of a project that derive from some sort of governmental action or inaction rather than from changes in economic conditions in the marketplace: in each case, action or inaction by political authorities or their agents, rather than changes in supply and demand of goods and services, must be the proximate cause of the change in profitability”(Moran H Theodore ,1999). Planning and political risk occurs due to the long gestation periods of infrastructure projects. During these long periods, projects are vulnerable to changes in policy (Vickerman, 2002).

Despite the appeal of project finance, the extensive amount of political risk associated with it is very high. For this report, political risk is going to be mentioned and analysed most as the main risk to the project developer.

Political risk:

Generally, the main known political risks are the following:

-Expropriation:

The act of taking something from its owner for public use. There are many instances in the former eastern Europe and especially in Africa, where governments decide at the break of the day to take something from a private individual for the use and benefit of the public in the name of what they term as “people’s power” ,” revolution” and so on. This is very upsetting and makes project development a high risk to a project developer.

-Nationalisation:

Transfer of business from private to state ownership. This is not usually experienced in the west as in South America and Africa. Political ideologies in most part of these continents are influenced by one-party state cronies who believe in nationalism than in capitalism. There is the saying that “once bitten, twice shy”; most of these governments are in the developing countries and have the fear that as the west colonised them in the past it could happen again.

-Change of law:

The host government can change the laws overnight and this can affect a project. Sometimes for economic and political reasons, tax laws are enacted which might not be to the advantage of the project developer in terms of the cost increase to certain elements which could increase the purchase price of the product on completion and can jeopardise the PPA.For example an increase in the fuel tax can affect the supply of fuel to the project. Environmental-related issues are also to be blamed for reasons in change of law to please environmentalist pressure group and sometimes for political reasons. Any or all of these could one way or the other affect the project developer in an on-going project or proposed project.

Furthermore, there could be a breach of contract for political reasons.

Thus accordingly, Theodore, (1999) divided the political and regulatory risks that private infrastructure investments and for that matter the project developer are exposed to, into three overlapping categories:

a) Parastatal performance risks: risks of non-compliance with supplier agreements or purchase agreements by the government or government entities leading to political risk. This is to say that government agents or authorities will fail to honour their part of the obligation thereby politicizing the issue.

b) Traditional political risks: risks relating to political uncertainty, lack of Government support, delay in clearances (which primarily have to be taken from government authorities), currency convertibility and transferability, expropriation and breach of investment agreement. This could take any form from delaying permits to failing to sign licenses on time because someone is not happy because no gifts might have “passed under the bridge”. There is therefore, the tendency that the project developer will face this exposure, which lenders would not be happy with.

c) Regulatory risks: risks arising from the application and enforcement of regulatory rules, both at the economy-wide and the industry- or project-specific level. They overlap because they affect one or the other politically. Within emerging economies and under developing countries, regulatory bodies are being set up as independent bodies to minimise the political risk faced by the investors. However, in many instances, these so called independent bodies may come under tremendous pressures from their governments and tend to get influenced. For instance, a regulator, for political reasons, may make decisions relating to tariffs that render a project unattractive to investors, sometimes with the view to transfer the deal to a family friend or a political crony. This is a very common practice in Ghana.

Furthermore, infrastructure projects are subject to continuous interface with various other regulatory authorities that expose them to possible regulatory actions thus affecting their profitability. It is conceivable that explicit tariff formulae ensuring remunerative pricing at the start of the project can be negated subsequently by regulatory authorities on the grounds that tariff was too high. This issue is also very common in Ghana where the term “big elephant” has become synonymous with projects that have been abandoned over the years due to the above political reasons.

Nonetheless, the following risks can be argued to have their roots in one political activity or the other.

Legal risks

Following change of law in political risk discussed above, possible legal risks to a project developer include inadequate legal, legislative, and regulatory framework on sales tax, export & import restrictions, pensions, health and safety rules and penalties for non-compliance. Sometimes the case and administrative laws in the country concerned are not developed. These issues are of great concern to lenders and for that matter the project developer will have to deal with this risk.

Construction & completion risk

Another key risk is construction and completion risk. In the event when construction of the project is delayed for any reason whatsoever, the completion date might be affected.Levnders, therefore, focus upon cost & schedule overruns and time-delay risks of the project in great detail.

Sponsor risks

This risk deals with n two significant issues which banks are so much concern with. They are equity commitment and corporate substance (i.e. corporate strengths and experience).On corporate substance; banks consider that sponsor risk has something to do with completion date and for that matter completion risk. For this reason, whether or not the sponsor or project developer has sought pre-completion guarantees, the banks looks further by working with corporate sponsors with substantial technical expertise and financial depth. because of the belief that “one puts his money where his heart belongs”, regarding equity, lenders will normally require a contribution between 15% to 50% of the project cost to ensure the sponsor is committed to complete the project on schedule.

Financial risks

Financial risks usually cover interest rates, foreign exchange rate & availability risk, currency and inflation. Inflation really affects the project developer in a PPA for reasons like raising the cost of the project which can delay its completion due to lack of funds. Some governments are also skeptical about foreign investment in their country and sometimes prevent the repatriation of funds by foreigners outside. Devaluation and interest rate just like inflation can also affect the projects negatively especially when provision has not been made in the PPA for that. International funds are often cheaper than local ones, but given the fact that the energy generated is sold locally, and paid in local currency, using foreign loans creates exposure to the risk of currency depreciation.

Environmental risks

Global warming is becoming ‘national word’ if not a household word. Thus environmental risk is of great concern to both the government and a project developer because of the aftermath of certain projects like land degradation, pollution of rivers, and air. Lenders are concerned about their liability to meet vast claims arising out of pollution caused by borrowers and so demand high in a PPA.In a PPA, for example, the sponsor or the project developer is responsible to provide “reasonable and customary measures within its control required to ensure the protection and security of the site”. This goes to say that the project developer is responsible to secure regulatory and other approvals like licences and other local permits needed for the project. The significance of this is that until recently, project developers leave land unattended after exploratory activities and corporate social responsibility was not known to corporate bodies but now it is gaining roots. To please the locals, corporate bodies have to take extra responsibilities because of the aftermath of certain projects. This could even serve as guarantee for borrowers.

Offtake and sales risk

The uncertainty that the project will fail to take off and bring in adequate income to offset the cost of the project is known as Offtake and sales risk. When a project fails to generate the required income, lenders cannot be repaid. Sometimes the selling of the output to the market is also uncertain. Banks in effect have high interest in anything that might affect this risk and so will look for assurances in the business plan of the project developer. The onus of this risk is that the project developer had to make extensive market analysis to get to know the market demand for the product or output. It could be energy alright but if the macroeconomic situation of the country concerned is not sound, the income generated could not meet the investment. Ghana had a similar experience in the late 90s when the government in power decided to extend electricity grid to the rural areas where .It became a big issue as the villagers could not afford the payment of the tariff , the government could not pay either and the electricity corporation had to run a huge debt.

Technology & operation risk:

Technology risk is usually when the technology being applied or proposed for the project is “very new” and not really known by the lenders. Lenders are particularly concerned about such projects and will do anything to minimise such risk. Operation risk deals with the aftermath of the project and it running.i.e the risk that forecasted cash flows arising from the failure of operations of the project. Banks are not only concerned with the competency and financial capability of the contractor but also those who are going to run the project must apply the relevant technology for its day to day activities in order to generate the required cashflow.

– Others like local knowledge, customs of the local people, for example if it has to deal with hydro-related project, some river deities have to be pacified and the project could be delayed for the mere reason that some chiefs or local leaders might politicised the whole customary rites to the extent that the project cost might swell or even be called off.

Even though we are not analysing the responsibilities of the seller and buyer in a PPA, suffice it to say that both parties’ responsibilities are considered vital hence the need to have proper enabling environment especially politically in order to execute the project successfully. This will have to come about with the help of the Government in power.

Actually, developers have built up experience in negotiating PPAs and factor in time for negotiations which are necessary to get a satisfactory deal. Wind energy schemes are generally seen as a low risk technology, compared to other renewable energy technologies.

Nevertheless some developers have noted that PPAs are generally not long enough and that it takes time to find a suitable solution which can lead to delays. Most comments in relation to PPAs focused on the need to maintain certainty in the Renewable Obligation in order to avoid destabilising the market. One smaller developer noted that ‘political change is a big worry…we wouldn’t be able to finance projects if the RO changed’.

The minimum investment criteria for renewable energy projects varied from respondent to respondent, but typically investors do not want to commit to projects until financial close or beyond, when all project risks have been satisfactorily mitigated in terms of planning, technology, performance and long-term revenue security (PPA). Some investors will look for a minimum project size, in terms of installed capacity or output per annum, whilst others will look for a minimum amount of debt to be provided at an internally acceptable rate of return.

Mitigating the Risks

In the World Report 2006 by UNCTAD,some key causes of delay were discussed.

Although of the perceived risks, no single element was unanimously highlighted from the responses as the most significant cause for delay. It was reported that, beyond planning approval, mitigating risks to enable finance and insurance to be secured is the next most significant barrier highlighted by all of the developers. The ability for a developer to raise finance is greatly affected by the perceived risks of the project and or the developer himself. Financial investors or lenders will typically require all risks associated with fuel supply, planning conditions, construction & completion, and wayleave rights, power purchase agreements, technology and the EPC contract mitigated prior to their participation, which would normally not be before project financial close has been reached. This will also inevitably be a concern to a project developer.

Nonetheless, the following approaches have been suggested as ways and means to reduce or eliminate the risks mentioned above. Among them are:

Track record of country:

With regard to political risk, the solution lies in having a stable political atmosphere in the country in which the project developer is investing. And because of the way some political leaders influence the populace with their ideologies, it id expedient that there is a sound legal framework like rule of law in place to combat the way issues are politicised.Sometimes it is clear that personal ideologies are made to take precedence over what will benefit the whole nation. Another mitigating approach is to have proper laid down investment and other financial regulations in place which can help out project developers reduce or eliminate political risk in a PPA.Local knowledge is also very important. A recent issue reported in the News and the Financial Times about locals in Ethiopia killing 9 Chinese workers among 74 people working in an exploration site in Ethiopia because of what the locals described as “not having their permission to mine in their territory”. This kind of issue could have been avoided should the Chinese knew about the local perception about their presence with regard to the project and adhered to. In most instances, sound macro-economic indicators i.e. sovereign credit rating, for reserves, trade balance, future government obligations are very important to lenders and provide guarantee to the project risks being minimised.

Insurance by World bank or credit export agencies:

The risks of a Government changing its position in terms of law could be covered on the political risk insurance market. Occasionally, export credit agencies enabled equipment suppliers to sell on credit by covering most of the buyers’ credit risk. The market for political risk insurance in developing countries is still small. This is because; first, significant South-South FDI is a recent phenomenon, and as a result, demands for political risk insurance from developing-country. Traditionally focusing on trade, export credit agencies (ECAs) in developing countries have not yet fully developed political risk insurance services for investors and their capacity to underwrite is limited. There are, however, indications that concerns about political risk and awareness of risk mitigators are growing as investors from developing countries seek out business opportunities in other developing countries.

Occasionally, export credit agencies enabled equipment suppliers to sell on credit by covering most of the buyers’ credit risk. But in recent years, several new risk mitigation instruments have become available.

Lease-purchase scheme:

The full package of risk mitigants used in typical project finance can carry a high cost, too high for smaller projects. But some of the concepts of project finance can be used even in rather small projects in order to reduce risks. For example, the “limited recourse” aspect of project finance has been used in a lease-purchase scheme for small hydropower plants in Cambodia. It works like this; local entrepreneurs prepare the project, showing that the proposed plant is economically and financially viable. On the basis of this feasibility study, they can then negotiate a power purchase agreement with the national utility, Electricité de Cambodge (EdC), and they would also sign a lease-purchase agreement for the hydropower plant; both will come into operation only once the plant has actually been constructed. On the basis of these two agreements, the entrepreneur can then obtain short-term construction loans from local banks and equipment suppliers – in other words, until the plant is constructed, the entrepreneur takes all the risks.

However, once the plant is operational, the lease-purchase agreement becomes operational: EdC buys the plant from the entrepreneur for the total of his construction loans, which can then be reimbursed. EdC leases back the plant to the entrepreneur, and deducts the payments due for the lease from the electricity payments it makes under the PPA. After a fixed lease period, the entrepreneur can buy the plant from EdC for a symbolic US$ 1. This scheme considerably reduces financing risks and, therefore, costs, and makes this form of renewable energy competitive with conventional energy sources. This scheme in my opinion will work not for small projects but also many projects in general considering the fact that the lease-purchase scheme becomes operational after the project has been completed.

Receivable-based finance:

The crux of the receivables-based financing structure lies in leveraging contractual obligations within the value chain. Receivables from the power purchaser or receivables from other partners in the chain can be used either as security or for directly meeting the financial obligations related to the renewable energy project.

Structured finance techniques:

Structured finance can help overcome some of these barriers and manage many of the risks, though not all (policy-and regulation-related issues need to be dealt with by Governments; limited local managerial capacity or poor understanding of renewable energy projects in local banks can be tackled by donor-funded capacity-building programs, etc.). Financial risks can be mitigated through the incorporation of certain elements into the financing structure (e.g. escrow accounts), while others can be shifted to third parties. The possibilities for shifting risk are improving. For example, the possibilities to shift risk to the capital market, through securitization, have much improved.

Structured finance techniques, which are widely used by financiers in the commodity sector to mitigate a series of risks, can help to reduce the “funding gap” for renewable energy projects, and can help Governments and aid agencies to improve the leverage that they achieve with their financial support. Several case studies illustrate how this can lead to successful projects. Renewable energy is a sector in full expansion -even though it is still far from replacing hydrocarbons as the major source of energy. Renewable energy offers great opportunities for developing countries, in particular for areas that are not immediately adjacent to existing electricity grids. However, private sector financiers are often wary of funding renewable energy projects – a sector with which they are often not very familiar and which carries certain risks. Governments and aid donors support the expansion of the sector, but often have difficulty finding sustainable models.

UNCTAD has done considerable work on the use of structured finance techniques in developing countries, particularly for the commodity sector. Use of such techniques reduces the risks taken by the financier, including by shifting risk from the borrower to other parties who are more creditworthy, leaving the financier with performance risks rather than credit risks on the borrower. The general principles of structured finance and its potential uses for developing countries are discussed in several UNCTAD reports, as are some particular applications (e.g. warehouse receipt finance).

Turnkey construction contract:

With regard to construction & completion risks, a strong Turnkey construction contract is recommended with performance LDs to overcome cost and schedule overruns which could affect the project construction & completion. Lenders can also minimise this risk by analysing whether or not the various contractors’ area financially capable and that their obligations are covered by performance bonds or other third party sureties. In another report , another suggestion of fixed price EPC contract with delay LDs was provided to combat cost and schedule overruns. It further indicated that, a World Bank Study of 80 hydro projects studied, 76 projects exceeded their final budgets, with half of those exceeding the cost by at least a quarter. With a strong turnkey construction contract, this risk could be avoided. Another solution is putting in place a sponsor completion support in form of contingency facility, stand-by equity or credit by a credit agency.

Guaranteed-price PPA:

There should be long-term guaranteed power purchase agreement or contracts for projects to serve as a key element that can eliminate the price and volume risks from energy projects for example. Contracts could also be drawn such that banks are offered an outstanding Offtake agreement if the other party’s (purchaser) financial standing is not certain and the generator has the ability to set output pricing for the whole time of the contract. Finally on Offtake and sales risks, it is recommended that sponsors consider the fact that lenders will wish to take security to guarantee power and heat sale contract. Lenders could also be assured that should the volume and price risk surface again, the sponsor will be prepared to consider paying a portion of the debt.

On sponsor risks, the effect of reducing this risk is that an invitation could be extended to a more credit worthy sponsor for partnership in the project. Furthermore, smaller sponsors can have their governments guarantee some projects or approach a bank for structured finance after asking for a credit rating form a recognised agency and transfer the risk to a third party.

With regard to technology & operations risk, the project developer must try to reduce these risks and so must show that the technology is not new and has a high success rating. It should also be demonstrated that the contractor in charge of the building of the project is competent and conversant with the mtechnology.Operations and Maintenance of the project on completion must also be assured ion addition to the fact that warranties and guarantees have been thoroughly negotiated. This could be achieved by engaging the services of a recognised contractor with the relevant skills and competency. This is known to be highly acceptable by banks as reduced operation and technology risk.

Ghana has recently celebrated its golden jubilee of becoming an independent state dealing with its own affairs so to speak; however, politics has not changed much because politics is the ideologies of individuals. For that reason, so many people within one political party or government can bring different ideas to bear on the politics of a nation affecting project finance one way or the other. It is the inability of the synchronization or blending of these ideas that is really a matter of concern for political risk in project financing. If these could be suppressed or eliminated, then political risk and all the related risks can be mitigated. The list for project risk could be endless considering the fact that people as well as governments’ fear and anticipation are very uncertain.However; the risks could be somewhat minimised or eliminated.

Reference

1. Evaluation of PPP by EIB by (on line) (accessed on 10th February,2007)

2. Hoffman, S.L. (2001) the Law and Business of International Project Finance-a Resource for Governments, Sponsors, Lenders, Lawyers and Project Participants.2nd Edition, New York, Transnational Publishers.

3. HWWA Discussion Paper 263,January 2004 “Measuring The Potential Of Unilateral CDM-A Pilot Study”(on line) available from hm-treasury.gov.uk/media (accessed 10th February,2007)

4. Yescombe, E.R. (2002) Principles of Project Finance.UK, Academic Press.

5. “Proposed Credit to Bosnia and Herzegovina for 3rd Electric Power Reconstruction Project” available on www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDS content. Accessed on 10th February,2007)

6. abnamro.com/btcpipeline (accessed on 10th February,2007)

7. member.aol.com/projectfinance/ (accessed on 10th February,2007)

8. World Investment Report 2006.FDI from Developing and Transition Economies: Implications for development. available online (accessed on 10-02-2007)

9. “Barriers to commissioning Projects” 2005 by Land Use Consultants in association with IT Power for DTI & Renewable Advisory Board. available online(accessed on 20-04-07)

10. “Encouraging investment in infrastructure services: political and regulatory risks” by S.K Sarkar & Vivek Sharma, online

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Acala Partners With Blockdaemon To Launch Staking Derivatives For DOT, KSM

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Acala Partners With Blockdaemon To Launch Staking Derivatives For DOT, KSM

Acala, a DeFi platform that is built on the Polkadot ecosystem, announced its partnership with Blockdaemon. This partnership with a leading blockchain infrastructure platform is to support its first liquid staking derivatives for DOT and KSM.

Significantly, Acala’s DOT and KSM Liquid Staking, the first staking derivatives in Polkadot and Kusama ecosystems. It brings a new class of financial products and creates new cases for DeFi users and developers. The product which was released today is Acala’s Kusama-based blockchain, whereas the Polkadot-based blockchain is soon to be launched.

Additionally, over $21 billion in liquidity is staked on the Polkadot ecosystem currently. Whereas, Kusama has about $2 billion but these assets are locked which is unable to benefit from other DeFi applications. On the other hand, users have to wait for a long-period to redeem their assets. Polkadot (DOT) users have to wait 28 days and Kusama (KSM) users have to wait for 7 days. The significant reason for the Acala team to launch staking is to address these challenges and unlock billions of dollars in liquidity for DOT and KSM networks.

Acala partner Blockdaemon recently became a unicorn raising over $155 million in Series B funding round, with a $1.255 billion valuation, establishing it as the world’s largest blockchain infrastructure company. This funding round was led by SoftBank Vision Fund 2* while the participants were Matrix Capital Management, Sapphire Ventures, and Morgan Creek Digital.

More so, the latest round funding will aid Blockdaemon’s international expansion, which allows the firm to hire high-class talents. Furthermore, the new funding will enable the firm to make strategic acquisitions to supplement its already robust technology stack.

First Liquid Staking Product

A product which is launched today on Karura parachain is the first Liquid Staking product of Acala. It is KSM Liquid Staking (LKSM), which allows users to stake their KSM while maintaining access to its liquidity.

Moreover, users will receive LKSM when they stake KSM on Karura but then it also includes staking rewards. Currently, those who stake KSM for LKSM will earn approximately 16% APR in staking rewards. On the other hand, they can also enjoy the benefit from LKSM being an unlocked token that offers access to KSM liquidity for other DeFi uses.

In addition, LKSM offers low staking minimums, where early unbonding allows users to exit staking positions instantly. Users don’t require to wait for 7 days unbonding time, since users can unbound any time for a small fee.

Acala Partners Blockdaemon As First Validator

Blockdaemon is the top blockchain infrastructure platform for node management and staking. Exchanges, custodians, crypto platforms, financial institutions, and developers use Blockdaemon to bridge stakeholders to blockchains. It enables users to transact, earn and stake via nodes with security, scalability, and reliability.

Acala announced the first validator in its Liquid Staking Validator Program, Blockdaemon which will run validators for the KSM Liquid Staking pool. From today, Blockdaemon offers the KSM Liquidity Staking pool participants low commissions and no-slash guarantee.

However, the Acala team is kicking off a new liquidity mining program to reward the community. Users can earn rewards in two ways, where they can stake KSM for LKSM and earn by staking newly minted LKSM or offer liquidity for new LKSM/KSM pair. Moreover, the participants who want to join the Liquid Staking validator program can apply and validate on Polkadot and Kusama.

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Green Beli Raises $1.1M for its Eco-Friendly NFT Gaming Project

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Green Beli Raises $1.1M for its Eco-Friendly NFT Gaming Project

Undoubtedly, climate change has brought numerous problems to the world. The activities of man, which mainly centers on industrialization, have created a grave issue that will only take the combined efforts of everyone to solve. Although we can’t dispute the countless benefits of industrialization, the climate is the one paying the repercussions of human affairs.

The past year has seen world leaders clamor about addressing climate change and set up targets to save the world from the frequent forest fires, coastal flooding, extinction of animals, rising sea levels, carbon emissions, and so many more. However, more collaborative efforts are desperately needed to effect the kind of change that is required.

Technology and industrialization are often accused of worsening the climate. While this is true, technology can still play a huge part in making the change the whole world clamor. Rather than pointing fingers, technology should be deployed as a way to correct the climate. This is where blockchain comes in.

Funding initiatives amassed major traction from investors

Green Beli may be relatively new to the scene, but it still addresses the problem the world has been facing for decades. Founded in 2019, Green Beli’s mission is to promote an eco-friendly lifestyle and reduce plastic wastes by engaging in campaign awareness through the media. Green Beli has contributed immensely to the environment, and now, it has come out with a new project known as the Green Beli NFT Game.The project also envisions combining the Green Map, the genesis project with the game, therefore building a green metaverse. The have fascinating plans for a greater contribution to the NFTs & Gaming ecosystem.

The latest project is Green Beli’s way of raising funds to promote its eco-friendly activities. Green Beli commits at least 30% of revenue from the sales of tree seeds, land & NFT items, or 10% of the total Green Beli Ecosystem Fund, allocated to community and environmental initiatives. The game is based on the concept of saving the world one tree at a time and utilizes the blockchain platform to achieve its goal. The characters are in the form of Green Hero NFTs – Fire, Earth,Wood, Water and Metal. These trees are upgradable and come in different rarities

The funding round witnessed participation from BSCStation, Basics Capital and some of the biggest names in the blockchain venture capital. Onebit, FIM Ventures, AU21, X21, and Momentum 6 were some of the prominent names involved. Green Beli raised $1.1M funding, highlighting the ecosystem growth around environment and sustainability. Green Beli was also selected as one of the top 6 gaming projects in Game2Blockchain event accelerated by Axie Infinity, Tomo Chain, Kyber Network and other partners.

An NFT marketplace is available in the game that allows trading between various players. Players can purchase NFT items and lands where they can grow trees. Growing a collection of trees qualifies you for PvP, and you can farm to earn more rewards. Plus, you can boost the stats of your trees with Fusion.

Revolutionizing the NFT Gaming Landscape with Solid Roadmap

Green Beli NFT Game uses GRBE tokens as a medium of exchange. After the successful IDO on BSC Station, the token is currently listed on leading BSC DEX, Pancakeswap. It is the game’s native token that allows the purchase of items in-game. These tokens can also be offered as a reward. The game’s growth will positively impact the token’s price and as you amass more trees, you could earn profitably. In addition, GRBE tokens will be given out, and new ones will be created to maintain the game’s growth and its price. Green Beli’s current plan of action also involves preparing an open Tree for Seed Sale with 20.000 Seeds by the September end.

 

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Newly Added Crypto Assets: DAOS, RVL, ARATA

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Newly Added Crypto Assets: DAOS, RVL, ARATA

As the crypto world evolves, the investors for crypto tokens are gradually increasing. The number of users that the crypto industry has gained is enormous which is achieved within a decade. As users surge up in the count, on the other hand, the launch of new tokens is also surging in number.

Significantly, the crypto market initially began to witness new coins in a month which took the next step to weeks. Recently, the market witnesses new coins each day whereas, after the boom of crypto space people began to witness new coins every few hours. This routine has become usual and still, the crypto market leads the digital world.

Similarly, the newly added coins for the day are CyberTime Finance (DAOS), REVIVAL (RVL), and Arata (ARATA). These coins were added to the list just a few hours ago. Investing in new coins might generate a gain for investors but at times the price may fall and lead to disappointment.

Issued On Blockchain Of BSC

All these three tokens DAOS, RVL, and ARATA operate on the blockchain of the Binance Smart Chain (BSC). At the time of writing, the price of DAOS, RVL, and ARATA are $0.0114, $0.000000002992, and $5.85 respectively.

Additionally, DAOS is actively available in the ApeSwap exchange where the trading pair is DAOS/WBNB. Similarly, RVL is available in PancakeSwap (V2) with trading pair RVL/WBNB. ARATA is currently traded in DODO BSC and PancakeSwap (V2), its trading pair is ARATA/WBNB.

As these coins are issued on the Binance Smart chain, they may reach highs real soon. However, for the past few hours, the price chart of the coin has been in a downtrend. Consequently, this trend won’t continue as it has a high possibility to march towards an uptrend. If investors think that these coins will reach heights then it’s price may boost in the near future.

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dYdX Derivative Decentralized Exchange Trade Volume Gained Tremendously

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dYdX Derivative Decentralized Exchange Trade Volume Gained Tremendously
  • dYdX derivative DEX trade volume gained tremendously.
  • dYdX provided over $4.3 billion worth of trades.
  • The trading volume of dYdX has gained by 19,700% over the past 6 months.

dYdX, a popular derivatives decentralized exchange has seen a tremendous gain in trade activity. The derivative DEX surrounding a renewed Chinese crypto crackdown has circulated this year. For the first time generating more volume than Coinbase’s spot markets.

As per Coingecko, dYdX provided over $4.3 billion worth of trades, overtaking Coinbase’s $3.7 billion in volume by roughly 15%. In the Monday tweet, the founder of dYdX and Coinbase former employee Antonio Juliano celebrated the milestone.

Accordingly, the expanding growth of decentralized derivatives exchange dYdX comes among renewed concerns based on the threat heavy-handed Chinese regulation could pose for the global crypto sector.

Moreover, Beijing increases the crackdown on crypto-assets by prohibiting all cryptocurrency transactions on Friday. Cryptocurrencies are not authorized and cannot be used as currency in the market, stated by the people’s Bank of China. On Sunday, in a tweet Colin Wu reported of China-based crypto has mentioned, a recent gain in demand for decentralized exchanges (DEX) and other decentralized finance (DeFi) products among Chinese users.

Furthermore, in June the largest crypto exchange Huobi Global has prohibited domestic derivative tradings. And also shut down its China-based exchange operator as compulsion from Beijing derived before stopping all new registrations for Chinese users on Friday.

Henceforth, according to CoinGecko, in late April the trade volume of dYdX has just remained $22 million but for the past 6 months, it has tremendously gained by 19,700% concerning daily exchange trade volumes. 

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Treat Your Credit Cards With Care And Attention

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Nearly all credit cards these days provide limited liability insurance, should the card be lost or stolen. This means that usually, you only have to pay the first £50 of any loss. But should not mean that you don’t look after your credit card, it is essential to safeguard the card itself and your credit card information.

Even if it won’t cost you much money, the loss of your card, can cost you a lot in time and hassle. Also information obtained from the credit card can be used in identity theft scams, which can seriously hurt you financially.

Simple card theft may be the easiest problem to resolve, although it is not without difficulties, online theft can be a much more complicated issue to resolve. If you lose or cancel your card, any regular payments will not be paid when the new card is issued, as payments are card specific, not name specific. In addition, you will have to wait several days for your new card to arrive in the post.

Taking care of your credit card when using it online is very important. First, you should guard against what are known as “phishing” e-mails. These official looking e-mails are perfectly constructed to duplicate e-mails from your bank.

They will often say there is some problem with your card that requires immediate action, to avoid cancellation. There will be a link that takes you to a page, which on the surface is identical to your bank’s official page. You will then be asked to enter your ID, password and credit card number.

The criminals now have all the information they need to raid your real credit card account. Some of these sites will go further, requesting even more detailed financial information that they can use to milk you, the credit card and the bank. If you are not sure that the email came from your bank, or even if you are sure. Go directly to your bank’s page and see if there is a message for you, do not use the link in the e-mail.

When shopping online great care needs to be taken when giving your credit card number to a site that is not very well known. You should also check contact details, to make sure there is a phone number, a full physical address, as well as a contact e-mail.

When making payments online, you need to be sure that it is a secure site; there will be a ‘padlock’ image in the bottom part of your browser. The website address is will begin https not http, the ‘S’ means it is a secure page.

It is best to avoid websites that store your credit card information, this means that others may have access to this information may be able to use it to their own ends.

Hackers have been known to target companies that have huge numbers of stored credit card details available for them to steal and sell on to criminal elements.

You should also take great care of the card itself, large numbers of people lose their cards every day leaving them at petrol stations and restaurants. It is also important to keep your card covered. It is so easy these days for people to take a photograph of the card using a mobile phone.

You should not give out your card number over the phone to companies or individuals that you are not completely familiar with. If someone calls you out of the blue with some fantastic offer that seems too good to be true, it probably is, they may well just be fishing for your credit card details.

Do you really need to carry all of those cards around? Many people will carry 5, 6, 7 or more cards in their wallets or purse, the more cards you carry the more you have the lose. Try to just to take with you just the ones that you intend to use that day.

If you did lose your cards or they were stolen, could you remember all of them? It is important to take photocopies of the cards, along with the emergency phone number from the back of the card and keep them in a safe place at home. That way, if they are lost you can quickly call all the companies and be sure that all of them are cancelled.

Statements should be checked thoroughly as soon as they arrive, you should be looking for unusual transactions, and anything else that looks out of place. If you are uncertain about any charges, call the credit card company and ask them to verify the payment. The worst that can happen is that you realise, that you did to spend all that money.

If your credit card statement is late arriving in the post this may be a normal delay, or it could be an indication that someone has their hands on your statement, somewhere between the company and you.

After you’ve finished with your statement, shred it, don’t just throw it away, and don’t just rip it up. Make sure it is totally destroyed; the same is true for your credit card receipts, any credit card applications. Even ones that you didn’t fill in and any other credit related paperwork.

Keep your card and its details, as safe as you can it may not save you money, but it will certainly save you a huge amount of inconvenience.

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Top Gainer Of The Day In The Market: PERP

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Top Gainer Of The Day In The Market: PERP
  • The top gainer cryptocurrency of the day is PERP.
  • PERP has surged nearly 60% within the past 24-hours.
  • The platform understands the importance of new partnerships and updates.

Among the growing technology, blockchain is the significant tech that is integrated into most of the platforms. Blockchain technology offers users security and high-speed transactions at a low cost. Significantly, one of the use cases of blockchain technology is decentralized exchange. DEX has also risen in popularity and adoption.

DEX is a type of crypto exchange that allows transactions directly via online securely without intermediaries. As it does not require a third party or intermediary, DEX has captured the interest of investors to choose this technology. Similarly, Perpetual Protocol (PERP) is also a decentralized exchange that has been listed as the top gainer of the day.

Perpetual Protocol is a decentralized exchange (DEX) that offers highly efficient liquidity provisioning as well as up to 10x leverage for makers and takers. The goal of PERP is to make powerful trading tools more available to the general public.

Current Market Status

At the time of writing, the trading price of PERP is $17.15 with a trading volume of $283,119,944 in the past 24-hours. According to Coinmarketcap, the price value of PERP has soared to 58.63% within a day and holds 81st rank. Moreover, the current circulating supply of PERP coins is 68,700,000.

Trading Chart of PERP

The chart displays the bullish pattern for the past 24-hours. The price value of PERP has skyrocketed from $10.67 to $18.85 within a day. With the 7-day statistics, the price has risen to 22% but however, PERP’s price is still 30% lower than its ATH. Moreover, it is available in top exchanges like Binance, Mandala Exchange, OKEx, FTX, and ZT.

Furthermore, PERP made it to reach this level with so much effort from its network. The platform has covered the attention of seekers in the crypto market which led to price hikes. Moreover, on September 25, Perpetual Protocol conducted an AMA session on “why partnership and integration”.

As a matter of fact, the platform focuses on building new partnerships and integrating technology as well as features to its ecosystem. Thus, the advancements and updates from the network might grab the attention of investors which results in a price surge. However, the users had their sweet spot for the past couple of days and they expect more highs. If the trend continues then it may also crack its ATH level and set-up a new all-time high.

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Debt Consolidation Loans: Taking Control Of Your Credit Card Debts

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As anyone who has ever owned credit cards will attest, card debt can build with surprising speed. It only takes a few months of missed payments to create a card balance that is almost too much to handle. But when it happens, there is a solution. A debt consolidation loan can clear it all in one payment.

The challenge of clearing unsecured credit card debt is admittedly a tough one, with the slightest delay increasing the scope of the undertaking. With the average American professional owning as many as 4 credit cards, it can mean a total debt of between $20,000 and $40,000

The only real solution is to swiftly clear the debt, so as to leave no room for any further delays. But is a debt consolidation program really the most effective solution to the problem?

The Nature Of Credit Card Debt

Credit cards are an essential tool for all of us. Even if we are not too fond of weekly shopping sprees and luxurious spending, we use cards to book cheaper air fares, hotel rooms and for bargain online shopping. The problem is that it is only a matter of time before a debt consolidation loan is needed to deal with the consequences of using the card.

Of course, clearing unsecured credit card debt is not cheap, but the advantage of using a single loan sum to do so is that the immediate debt is gone, and the replacement debt is easier to manage. For example, a $10,000 loan can be repaid over 3 years for much less per month than the minimum payment the card company would have demanded.

However, while a debt consolidation program seems ideal for dealing with credit cards, only personal discipline can keep any future card activity under control and prevent a similar situation from developing.

Added Advantage of Consolidation

Of course, there is more to clearing a debt than simply alleviating the immediate financial pressure. There are several positive aspects to getting a debt consolidation loan, with the potential to pay off more than just existing credit card debt means the financial situation can be improved completely.

When any debt is paid off, it is registered in your credit record and the credit score is adjusted. This means that by clearing unsecured credit card debt your future loan terms can be improved greatly. This includes a lower interest rate, and a high loan limit.

Also, by buying out the existing debts and replacing it with a more manageable debt structure, extra cash is actually freed up. This is especially true when the terms of the debt consolidation program include a longer loan term, with monthly repayments often 50% that of the original repayments combined.

Debt Consolidation Companies

There are two ways to secure a debt consolidation loan. The most obvious is to approach a lender – either traditional or online – and apply for a loan for the specific purpose of repaying existing debts. Generally, lenders are happy to accommodate, but the loan sum is usually limited so is fine for up to $30,000.

For larger debts, it is a good idea to approach a debt consolidation company. These companies take care of the smaller details involved, and sometimes negotiate reductions with the creditors. Also, clearing unsecured credit card debt is only part of the total sum covered, with personal loans and mortgages included, if desired.

Repayments are made to the company, which add on a fee for their services, and in some cases the debt consolidation program practically controls spending until the debt is cleared. However, the debt is cleared and that is the welcome point in the first place.

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Some Factors Bank Managers Consider Before Granting Loans

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There are many factors which may influence the granting of loans by most Bank Managers and a number of them are outlined below;

1. The type of Account The Customer operates: Although non-account owners get loans, loans are normally given to current account owners more than those who operate savings accounts.

2. The Amount Involved: If it is a large sum of loan, the Bank Manager will consider whether if such an amount is removed, it will not affect the financial standing of the bank.

3.The Past Financial Dealings of the Customer with the Bank: one with sound past financial dealings with a bank has a higher chance of getting a loan and vice versa.

4. The Purpose for which the loan will be used: financially yielding projects are considered more buy bank managers in order to make sure that the loan will be used for projects that will yield profit so that it will enable the borrower to repay the loan.

5.The Collateral Security Offered:These collateral securities which are fixed assets must be the things the bank can sell easily and more than the value of the loan given.

6. The Period of Repayment: The period of re-payment of such loan is very important because, the Bank would not want its loan to be tied down for a very long time in spite of the fact that it changes interest on the loan.

7. The Customers Referee: The referee must be one who is well known to the bank and who will guarantee that in case the borrower defaults or becomes insolvent, that he will repay the loan.

8. The Earning Power of The Customer: The person’s earnings vis-a-vis the amount to be given out as loan are some of the determining factors in granting and issuing loans.

9. The Sources of Re-payment: The Bank Managers will also like to know the possible sources the customer intending to borrow loans has for repaying the loan.

10. The Present Government Policy on Bank Lending: A Customer may fulfill all the “Conditions” but if government policy on lending is credit squeeze, the Bank will not grant the Loan and vice versa.

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Bitcoin – A Secure Investment for the Future

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Bitcoin is an online digital currency, just like a dollar or a pound but with a few exceptions. Introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009, Bitcoin engages in a peer-to-peer payment system where no intermediaries exist and goods can be securely transferred between any two people on the planet. It is associated with a heavy network of computers and the unit of currency for the Bitcoin system (appropriately called Bitcoin) can be simply acquired by joining the vast network. Bitcoin provides a fast cheap and secure transaction alternative but few are willing to take the jump for it. So the one million dollar question still lingers, is Bitcoin a secure investment?

Bitcoin is only a few years old, an interesting creation that has awed many and for the record, has attained a name in the top financial charts. Its popularity has spanned and it has led some of the top businesses like Virgin Galactic to consider it as an acceptable source of payment. Bitcoin prices increase at rates of up to 10% and continue to dominate as the alpha of the market and this has made many interested in investing in it.

Another special feature of Bitcoin is that it does not have a central bank and neither does a central government control it. It’s a global currency and its creation and existence lies behind a complex and geeky mathematical algorithm that enables it to shadow government related mishaps. Cases of political instability and government absurdities that plunge the economy down to shame and lead years of investments in a currency down the drain do not occur in the crypto-currency system. This creates a secure and friendly investment opportunity with low inflation risks.

The Downside

With an ever-amazing upside, crypto-currency also has its downs. As mentioned, this thing is still taking baby steps; and with that comes great uncertainties. Bitcoin prices are volatile; currently increasing sharply and can fluctuate at 30% to 40% in a month. The world is still surprised at its emergence and there exists very few Bitcoin holders and Bitcoin. This leads to unanswered questions and cold fear among people as investing in a new unpredictable ‘gold mine’ can yield devastating effects. Its newness brings forth lack of regulations and scares off potential investors.

The enigma surrounding the Bitcoin system is a major factor to be considered. Anything can happen and everyone participating in the Bitcoin market is on a high alert. China in December 2013 eliminated the use of Bitcoin and this led to a drastic drop to its value from $1240 to $576 in just three weeks. Programmers also determine the functionality of this global currency and many question the thought of risking their finances for some group of geeks. This prevents many from venturing into the system and increases the risk of Bitcoin investment ever so highly.

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Credit Card Origination – Automation

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Within the realm of credit card origination, automation is key. Financial institutions that can’t keep up with today’s increasingly time-sensitive consumer are going to lose that consumers business to an institution that can.The whole idea behind automation in credit card origination is speed.

Because credit cards’ simple nature and wide appeal, credit card origination is a high volume, low risk undertaking. In these types of situations, automation is crucial. Because they are comparatively low risk, credit cards can be automatically originated through a credit decisioning system with virtually no manual intervention. This allows financial institutions to dramatically increase the number of applications they can process without having to change their system or process at all.

Because credit cards are a popular, high volume business, financial institutions require an efficient automated process for originating, approving, and issuing credit card products. This means that every aspect of the credit card origination process must be fully streamlined so that the customer experience is as fast and easy as possible.

There are many credit decisioning solutions in the marketplace that meet the basic requirements for an automated origination system. However, there are additional requirements for an automated credit card origination system that are driven by the unique characteristics of credit card products as mentioned above.These requirements address the need for a credit card origination solution that is fast, streamlined, and comprehensive.

The first requirement that a credit card origination solution should support is Straight through Processing. Straight through Processing allows a decision engine to process credit card applications from beginning to end in a completely automated fashion. Any time a manual review is required, the system can drop the application into a manual review queue. Once the manual review is completed, the application can immediately be re-introduced into the automated process right were it left off. Straight through Processing allows financial institutions to efficiently process the high volume of applications generated by their credit card origination initiatives.

The second requirement involves the end of the credit card origination process. Once a customer is approved for the product and the account is booked to the appropriate system of record, the consumer wants to start using their new card. Unfortunately, most banks can’t fulfill this desire. The account may be created, but the consumer will not have the actual credit card for a couple weeks. Instant issuance allows consumers to start using the card the second after their account is created. Either by providing an interim credit card (like a receipt) or by actually printing off the final card at the point-of-sale, financial institutions can enable their customer to start utilizing their product immediately.

These two additional, credit card specific, requirement for an automated origination solution enable financial institutions to realize the best practices needed for the competitive credit card origination market.

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