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Tape Recovery – How Tape Works



The use of tape for data storage and data recovery in the computer industry goes back many decades. Tape provided a solid and robust means of storing code and data, along with a far lower cost-of-ownership than the available hard disk options.

Today the cost of hard disk has plummeted, but tape storage is still considered to be the best available form of long-term archival storage in terms of price and resilience.

Those of us who were born long enough ago can remember treading gingerly, and speaking in low-tones when passing the floor of the computer building where the hard disks were housed. Disks were unreliable, low volume, and expensive to run whereas to recover data from tapes was fast enough and likely to work.

The concept of “near-line” storage developed, and still exists in the world of mainframe, AS/400 and large scale UNIX computing. Years ago a request to recover a file would result in a message popping up on the computer operator’s screen to fetch the open reel tape labelled KV19473D and load it on drive 15. The data was recovered from the tape after only a short delay to the user.

These days the operator has been replaced by some form of robotic tape library, and the open reel tape by a tape cartridge that can be handled mechanically (for example IBM 3590 and TS1120, STK 9840, 9940 and T10000, and of course LTO Ultrium and DLT). This process developed into Hierarchical Storage Management, also named HSM, and allows for “infinite” storage (as infinite as you can afford space, tape drives and media).

With smaller systems, this includes some systems that would look pretty large today such as MicroVax, there was a more procedural use of tape data storage. Partly this was due to the cost of robotic equipment, but mostly as the rise of the mini and micro computer coincided with the start of the rise in lower cost more reliable hard disks and the concept of client/server and the daily tape backup as a source or data only required when a failure occurred and so to avoid requiring hard drive data recovery work.

Attempts at introducing HSM into this market, using intermediate storage such as Optical Disk and using tape for longer term archive, came and went throughout the 90’s but largely tape was used as a backup and retrieval medium.

How Tape Storage differs from Disk

Setting aside the material differences and the low-level recording technologies used the general concepts are no different between magnetic tape and hard disk. Each uses magnetism to encode data on a suitably receptive recording medium.

The real differences are in implementation and usage, and reflect the major physical differences between the two.

The short answer to “what is the difference” is that disk is a random access medium and tape is a sequential one. To go into greater depth, disks are generally pre-formatted with a known number of recordable “sectors” whereas tape is written on-the-fly.

The sequential access nature of tape reflects its physical character, it is long and narrow and to get to some data at the far end the drive has to traverse the length of the tape. With disk recording to recover any recorded sector all the drive must to is position the read head to the right track and wait for the data to spin past. So an access time of small fractions of seconds versus anything up to a couple of minutes, you wouldn’t get far implementing random access on tape.

The issue of formatting though is far from clear. Early open reel tapes, Exabytes and quarter-inch cartridges (the older version of SLR often known as streamers) had erase mechanisms that cleaned the tape ahead of the write head so recording was always to blank tape.

The smaller quarter-inch cartridges, DC2000 and more recently Travan, ADR and Ditto, were formatted with sectors (usually during manufacture). The very first DC2000 drives ran from the diskette controller in a PC and operated like diskettes. So in theory they were random access, but the practical access time would few people would live long enough to use them in that manner for a significant volume of data.

Newer tape formats (SDLT, LTO Ultirum, 3590, 3570 and many others), whilst not being pre-formatted with data sectors do have a lot of servo data written to them during manufacture and if they are erased become useless. This includes servo tracking data that is used to assist in the data alignment process now that the recording densities have increased and there is little or no space left unused.

One, often unwelcome, feature of tape storage is the concept of “the last thing you wrote is the last thing you can recover”. With a hard disk each sector is uniquely addressable. If data is written to sector 79 it has no impact upon sectors 78 and 80. With tape, as soon as recording finishes the drive determines that the last thing written is the new end-of-data. So if you have a tape containing 400GB and write 2MB to the start of it, there is just under 400GB sitting on the tape that cannot be accessed without recourse to a tape data recovery service.

In Data Recovery parlance this is over-writing or re-initialisation. Don’t be fooled into thinking that there is any chance of getting the data back that has actually been over-written, that is the stuff of science fiction, but the remaining but inaccessible data can often be recovered from the tape

The advantage that tape gives is that each file is usually stored contiguously and there are none of the frailties of file allocation tables involved when accessing the data.

This is all generally true, but there are no rules. Some tape recording formats (Legato Networker, NetBackup and ARCserve amongst them) take data from multiple sources and intertwine it on the tape (sometimes known as multiplexing or multi-streaming). As said earlier there is nothing to stop the development of random-access tape, but the shape is wrong and it would never catch on.

There are, however, compromises. IBM 3570 and STK 9840 attempt to split the difference between the two styles of recording. They use a tape cassette, so the tape is on two reels within the case rather then like DLT and Ultrium where there is a single spool and the tape is transferred to a take-up reel within the drive. The “start” of tape is actually in the middle, so at load time the tape is half way from either end, and the data is stored on multiple tracks so that the drive can position across and along the tape to locate data. So a nod towards random-access and faster access time than your average tape though the time to recover data from any single file is still generally considerably longer that with disk.

Tape Storage Concepts

We can set aside the actual recording technique and put the clock back to the 9-track ½-inch open reel tape for the concepts involved in tape data storage and tape data recovery. This type of tape was predominant during the 1980’s and to an extent the drives that followed had to imitate the methodology followed in order to replace it. This means that an Ultrium drive, a DLT drive and a DAT drive all take data and give it back exactly as the open reel drive did, even though they use radically different recording formats.

With the open reel tape data was transferred to the drive as a sequence of data buffer loads named blocks. The drive would encode each of these with its own identification and error correction data, and with a gap in between each one. This inter-block gap is why you might sometimes hear people saying that they “used a larger block size to increase capacity”. On open reel tapes the gap was of a fixed size so the smaller the block size the greater the number of blocks required to store an amount of data. The greater the number of blocks, the greater the number of gaps and so capacity was lost. Then again, with older tapes the larger the block size the more chance of hitting an unusable area of tape so the whole thing was a bit hit-and-miss.

With modern drives the data block is merely what you send to the drive, and what you get back. Internally it is a matter of encoding and has little to do with how data is actually stored.

The above had a couple of exceptions, notably the earlier Exabyte 8mm helical scan drives. These split data into 1024 byte sections when writing to tape and would not share a 1024 byte storage unit between user data blocks. The consequence of this was that if you write 1025 byte blocks to a tape then each was written as 2048 bytes and the capacity of a tape was halved. There are exceptions to all rules.

Tape concepts

So, tape drives record to theoretically blank tape, have no pre-formatting, and if you record data at the start you have lost everything that you have overwritten and anything after the point at which you stop writing.

There is nothing either right or wrong with any of this, it is just they way they are. What tape gives you is high volume, low cost per gigabyte storage that you can drop on the floor, pick up and read afterwards. Don’t try that with a hard disk and then expect to be able to easily recover your data.

File Marks aka Tape Marks

These are a sub-divider that you won’t find on a disk. A file mark is a data pattern encoded by the drive and used to allow spacing to a particular position on a tape. You want to recover data from backup set 3, well the backup software doesn’t read through backup sets 1 and 2 first, it skips file marks and then starts to read and recover data once it has found set 3.

With 4mm DAT there is an additional type of file mark named as the set mark. This allows there to be two distinct types of data marker, though only Sytos Plus, SBACKUP and a few proprietary formats ever made use of this feature.

Helical Scan drives, AIT, Exabyte and DAT, encode file marks so that they can be found during high speed search operations. Normally, as with a video recorder, the tape moves slowly during reading. It would take 2 to 3 hours to position down the tape at reading speed so they kick the drive into fast seek and can then get to the next file mark in a fraction of the time. In video terms this is a “fast-forward” and enable fast access when recovering data from the tape.

Don’t be fooled by the name though. They sound like small little markers when actually they can be several megabytes in size on some types of tape.

End of Recorded Media

When reading from a tape you might encounter a condition named “End of Recorded Media”, sometimes reported as “Blank Check”. On older drives when recording completed the drive would erase a length of tape afterwards. Subsequent reading attempts would run into this length of blank tape and know they had reached the end. Modern drives encode a data pattern, similar in size to a file mark, that denotes the end of recording. Data recovery via normal means stops at this point, there is no way past and specialist recovery methods and technology need to be employed to gain access to this lost data.

Mainframe, and some midrange, systems did not rely upon the drive reporting that the end of data had been reached but relied upon their own devices. IBM systems would encode a double file mark, HP systems used a triple file mark. These patterns denoted logical end of data.

These systems will still rely on their logical mechanism for saying “that’s it”, but the drive will still do its own thing. The moment recording stops the EOD is written and that is that without professional data recovery assistance.

Block Modes

Variable Block Mode

Disks are typically formatted with recordable sectors each of 512 bytes. IBM for the AS/400 use 520 or 522 bytes. Tapes, of course, have to be different.

Modern tape drives can record in either fixed block of variable block mode. This is to enable them to plug into systems that have differing pedigrees.

Mainframe systems, for example IBM 380/390 and AS/400 (OK it is not a mainframe but it behaves like one), write data in chunks that were the correct size for their purpose. The label block at the start of an IBM Labelled tape was defined as being 80 bytes long, so an 80 byte block was written to the tape. Since 80 byte blocks were not a practical proposition when dealing with open real tapes the actual data was written in larger chunks limited in size only by available memory in either the system of the tape drive formatter.

Fixed Mode Recording

Smaller systems and cheaper drives tended to deal with data pretty much as they did with disk. It did not matter how big the data was it would be written out in equal sized chunks and the drives available in this market segment obliged. The early quarter inch cartridge drives would only record data in 512 byte sections. Smaller UNIX systems and PC systems have a tradition of recording in this manner still do. The only real difference between disk and tape here is that the tape block sizes for fixed mode recording have typically extended to 64KB or higher.

Later drives have been designed to be backwards compatible with this more primitive format and with the more expensive drives that operate in variable mode, or to be plugged in as direct replacement for these drives and so can operate as either Fixed or Variable Block recording devices.

Block Numbering

Early drives relied on skipping file marks to position along tape, but later tape devices introduced the concept of block numbering. So each tape block has a unique number starting at 0.

This partly explains why the tape block sizes used have increased over time. The SCSI specification describes the block number using 3 bytes, a maximum of 16,777,215 blocks. With 512 byte blocks this would mean that the maximum capacity of tape would be in the region of 9GB, not very helpful if writing to an 800GB Ultrium 3 data cartridge.

Recording Techniques

Three fundamental tape storage formats have developed since the late 1980s.

Multi-track parallel

Helical Scan


Although the ground between parallel and serpentine formats has closed more recently with drives having elements of both formats.

½” open reel – AKA known as 9-track parallel

The drive records 9 tracks of data at once to the tape surface. Recording begins at the physical start of the tape (PBOT) and ends at the physical end of the tape (PEOT). This format developed from the punch card idea with the eight bit byte and a parity bit. So this is one byte at a time recording.

The capacity of these tapes is tiny by today’s standards. NRZI recording format managed a staggering 23MB at 800bpi on a 2400 foot tape. In its heyday, with a massive 6250 bits-per-inch the capacity rose to an impressive 180MB.

Helical Scan

We are all more familiar with helical scan than we might realise. It is a technology that was developed for video recording (VHS and Video8) and sound recording (DAT).

The tape is wrapped around a cylinder that contains the read and write heads. The tape moves slowly whilst the cylinder spins quickly with each rotation allowing data to be written and then read back to check (Read-after-write).

The name Helical scan springs from the patter described by the head passing along a slowly moving tape as “describing a portion of a helix”. (it is probably a more marketable name than “diagonal data”)

Exabyte Corporation took the Sony Video8 8mm recorder, added a SCSI interface and some additional checking and came up with a 2GB data storage format which was way ahead of its rivals, albeit briefly.

HP and Sony adapted developments in the audio market with 4mm media named Digital Audio Tape, added additional error correction and came up with DDS DAT. Sony later created AIT based, an 8mm helical scan format and even one of the STK mainframe drives used this technique.


The name arises from the pattern of the recording being forward and backwards for a number of tracks, apparently a bit snake-like in character (according to some imaginative marketing person).

Early drives had a pair of recording heads, one for forwards recording and one for reverse. The drive would record forwards until Physical end-od-tape (PEOT), reverse until physical beginning-of-tape (PBOT), then re-position the heads and repeat the process. Early drives recorded 4 tracks, the latest record hundreds and overlap with the parallel formats by recording several tracks simultaneously.

Equally parallel format recording drives now records along the tape forwards and then reverse so they have become almost serpentine.

In the data recovery context there is the issue that physical damage impacts multiple places in the recording since the drive passes across each area of tape. Of course this is only an issue if the tape snaps or becomes crumpled, and there is an argument as to how likely this is compared with helical scan devices which have a much more complex tape path. We have no intention of entering the affray between exponents of each style of recording.


Tape still has a major part to play in data security and the long term archival of important information. As a data recovery specialist I see both failed hard disk drives and damaged tapes, and whilst tape recovery comes with its own set of challenges that can make it a tortuous process, seldom is a tape a complete failure and the data recovery success rate is well over 95%.


5 Proven Ways to Make Money Online




There are endless ways you can use to make money online. Some will give you great returns while others will leave you working for pennies. If you are looking to make money online, here are the top 5 proven ways that you can consider.

Webinar Trainings

One of the ways you can make a significant amount of money online is through webinar training. A webinar is an online event held in real time. The people present are able to interact with each other and with the presenters by sending and receiving messages in real time.

If you are an expert in a certain field, you can use webinars to train people who are interested in what you offer. To be successful in webinar training, it is important that you have a recognized online presence in your niche or area or expertise.

Start an Online Course

Another way to make money online is by starting your own online course. Courses present a good source of passive income. When you create a course, you can sell it for many years to come with little to no updates depending on the topic.

It is easy to start a course and you can price it the way you want. According to, their instructors make upwards of $5,200 per month and most start making money immediately after launching their courses.

People are wired to seek education and skills, therefore, if you have a good course that really delivers value, it becomes easy to build a seven figure business with it.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is the act of selling products owned by others for a commission. You can use affiliate networks such as ClickBank and others or look for other online businesses and companies that have their own affiliate offers.

You can easily make money with affiliate marketing if you have a blog with a good following. You can sell products or services that would interest your blog followers and make passive income without much effort.

Drop Shipping

With drop-shipping, you sell products through your site to people who are interested without having to deal with inventory or delivery of the same. It is also a great way to make money online without a lot of investment upfront.

Become a Freelancer

Finally, you can become a freelancer and engage in lucrative ventures such as content marketing, digital marketing and advertising, web analytics, web design, graphic design and others. All of these are freelancing careers that are scalable and able to bring in a decent amount of income. Many people have built million dollar online business offering such services.

Other good ways to make money online include starting a blog, becoming an online tutor, offering virtual assistant services and working with online business like Uber, Lyft and Amazon to offer driver and delivery services.

If you are looking to make money online, the time to start is now. If you are lucky, you might make money immediately; but for most ventures, you will need time to gain traction and start making a decent income.

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How Does QuickBooks Hosting Help To Save Your Enterprise Resources and Money?




From Purchase orders, receipts, bills, contracts, and invoices, a business generate a large amount of paperwork to complete the day-to-day transactions and business activities. Without organizing record-keeping activities, it becomes very problematic to make informed decisions, that may lead to detrimental results. Record keeping is time-taking and multifaceted activity and therefore to responsibly and effectively complete the process, it is necessary to understand how, where, in what order you are going to store and track your paperwork.

So, before making any decisions to solve your paperwork related tasks, it is quintessential to ask a few questions such as, how do you keep track of paperwork? What percentage of your files and documents need to be secure? How much time do you spend managing your documents?

Perhaps, you might be worried by the time and energy you spend maintaining and keeping documentary records timely and securely. So, how you can organize your documents effectively without wasting your time, efforts and money? Taking your accounting and tax software to the cloud provides flexibility with easy to use self-serving computing resources that relieves the need for hiring IT personnel.

The cloud provides many benefits to its users, but for the sake of brevity here we have mentioned 4 important benefits of the cloud:

Pay-As-You-Go Plans

Unlike in-house infrastructure and hardware hosting provides ease of use by providing flexible plans i.e. one can easily reduce or increase the hosting plan according to the current business needs. For instance, you deal with seasonal goods and in peak season your demand increases considerably and to effectively meet the demand you can easily increase the current bandwidth and thereafter can adjust accordingly. Therefore, you no longer have to bear extra costs of infrastructure and other handling and managing costs. Moreover, with the cloud, you get fast and regular automatic backups of your critical at more than one data center, which enhances the data security by eliminating risks from all types of mis happenings.

Bank-Level Security

Most of the cloud vendors provide industry-standard IT practices. Updated antivirus, firewalls and other crucial security measures make your data highly secured from various internal and external data risks. On top of that, your confidential business files are regularly backed up to make sure that your business files remain protected and safe. With the QuickBooks Cloud hosting, employees can access the business files according to their authority and therefore your critical data becomes more safe and secure.

Free Your Staff And Resources

Hiring a full-fledged IT support to take care of technical issues could cost you an arm and a leg. However, by hosting your software to the cloud you get free access to the IT team as and when you need the help. The cloud frees up your resources and money that you can invest in your core business activity. Moreover, you no longer have to bear the pain to carry thick business files to finalize business deals and to maintain and find them manually. You can readily access and maintain your documents online from anywhere in the world with the help of the required credentials of the cloud and a smart device.

Maintain Business Continuity

To maintain trust among the clients and customers it is essential to understand the significance of business continuity. Most of the cloud vendor such as Sagenext provides 99.99% guaranteed uptime to wipe out any type of visible chances of interruption. The cloud ensures seamless access to the data and business files which enhances business productivity and efficiency. Furthermore, with QuickBooks hosting you get a robust disaster recovery system without incurring any extra cost. With the cloud, your data recovery even in case of drastic disasters will be lightning-fast and safe.

Final Note

The cloud is a simple and effective way to add more capabilities to your existing business. With the cloud, you get mobility, efficiency, security, and a seamless system to manage your documents online. Simply, connect with an experienced hosting provider to introduce the desired speed and cost-effectiveness in your business.

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Save on Airfare Secrets Review – For Cheap Travels?




Save on Airfare Secrets is an e-book, written by Tony Morrison describes how to save money on airfare. It is about the insider tricks and secrets to save money on airline tickets. He was formerly an airline agent that was fired from his career job. He released this e-book about all of the airline secrets in order to get revenge on his boss.

Part I, covers the basic tricks of airfare travel. These are the more common tricks that you may or may not already know about. Part II, covers the better tricks of airfare travel. These tricks are less common to the general public. Part III, covers the advanced secrets of airfare travel. These tricks are rarely known to the general public. Part IV, covers miscellaneous travel tips. These tips do not deal directly with airfare, but will helpful in saving your money when you are traveling. Part V, covers the top secrets to cheap airfare. These tricks are known by very few. Travelers have to utilize these tricks to squeeze out some of the most amazing bargains on airfare travel.

The advantages about this e-book is that it gives a clear picture of reasons and tactics of how to buy airplane tickets with the lowest discount on a certain time of the week. You can save as much as hundreds of dollars to a thousand dollars more depending on how much you travel. Use alternate airports when searching for airfare. Most major cities have more than one airport to depart from. Always consider the alternative airports that can save you on your ticket. Something to note, however, is that if the cost of traveling to a farther airport outweighs the savings on your ticket, then the deal is not worth it. Before you jump on a cheaper flight package from a farther airport, try to factor in the additional costs of travel to that airport to have a clearer understanding of what would be the best flight deal.

The disadvantages of this e-book, Save on Airfare Secrets isn’t for everybody. You may need to be in a certain age group or have a certain occupation to take advantage of the discounted ticket. Glitches happen all the time – not with just airfare companies, but hotels as well. The chances of people buying tickets online are very slim due to computer malfunction. He had a customer getting $1143 ticket for $143 by exploiting loopholes in the computer that was something his boss Paul, still has nightmares about.

The e-book Save on Airfare Secrets reveals the true information’s the author present. Should you and your family go for a vacation trip, this book will help you to save time and the hassles. You will find Tony Morrison’s experience as a travel agent inside every page of this book.

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How to Become a Search Engine Evaluator and Make Money From Home




A hot topic these days is the side hustle or side job. Many people are looking to make extra income and want a flexible job that fits in with their life. An interesting opportunity to make money that not many people know about yet is as a search engine evaluator.

I have been working as a search engine evaluator for several months in my spare time. Since my daughter was born two years ago, I had a few different thoughts about income and working.

These two ideas stood out the most for me.

One: I wanted to increase my income. I wanted to be able to save more money for our retirement, and make regular contributions towards our daughter’s education fund.

Two: I didn’t want to take more time away from my daughter. I already work part-time outside of the home, and I didn’t want to increase that before she is in school. Whatever side hustle I have, needs to fit into our life as it is right now.

So I started brainstorming side hustle ideas. There were many businesses that I was not interested in; they just didn’t fit with my values. A job where I could set my own hours for the most part was attractive to me. It was important that it be a casual job – no rigid set hours for each week.

I ended up coming across a posting for a position as a search engine evaluator. I had never heard of this job, but I was open to looking into absolutely everything, to see if it fit my criteria above. A search engine evaluator rates and improves search engine results for the top internet search engine companies. Different tasks a search engine evaluator could participate in include web search, video evaluation, maps, local, automation projects, and others.

The requirements were that you are a person who is analytical, excellent at web-based research, and internet savvy. The job listing also state that they look for someone with a broad range of interests who also has specific areas of expertise. Some companies require a university/college degree for this position, but not all do. High speed internet is a must and some companies require a smart phone as well.

There are several companies that offer search engine evaluator or rater jobs. These include:

  • Appen (hires globally)
  • Leapforce (which has been recently acquired by its competitor – Appen)
  • Lionbridge (hires globally)
  • ZeroChaos (employs people in the United States only)
  • iSoftStone (hires globally)
  • Google (one of the few work-from-home positions offered by them)

Some companies require that you take and pass a qualification exam before you are offered a position.

Many of these companies also hire for the position of Social Media Evaluator. This is similar to a search engine evaluator position, but works with the major social networks.

This sounded like the perfect opportunity for me to try. It fit in with my goal to make more money, while at the same time not taking me away from my daughter more than I already am for my part-time work.

I applied to one company and didn’t hear anything back for a few weeks. I had actually forgotten about it by the time I heard back. Since this was side hustle money, it was never the plan for it to replace my regular income. I was invited to take the evaluation exam. With respect to the qualifying exam, my best advice is to take it seriously. Some people don’t find it too difficult but these people are in the minority. The majority of people who are offered to take the exam do not pass it on the first try. I dedicated a whole weekend to reading the provided material, and taking the exams (there are three parts to the exam). Even though I did pass, I would not say I found it easy. If you are interested in this position, study like you mean it.

After being offered a position, I had to sign a non-disclosure agreement. I mention that here because I am not allowed to disclose any confidential information including specific tasks and pay rate. I can relate some general information about the position.

There are positive and negative aspects to most jobs and a search engine evaluator position is no exception. For me personally, the pros absolutely outweigh the cons, but I include both lists so you can make up your own mind.

Search engine evaluator job pros:

  • Flexible schedule – You can make your own hours. Some evaluators work five hours a week, some work twenty five. You aren’t required to log on at specific times. This is why I can coincide this job with my toddler’s nap time.
  • Work from home – There is no commute to this job. Most jobs have the added time it takes to get to work, as well as transportation costs, which decrease the wage they are actually receiving per hour. With these positions, you can work in the comfort of your own home, trading rush hour traffic for working on your couch in your pajamas.
  • Interesting work – You are getting paid to research/learn about different things.
  • Pay – The wages for these positions vary, but are roughly $13-$15 per hour (USD).

Search engine evaluator job cons:

  • No benefits – You are hired as an independent contractor. This means you don’t receive any benefits or perks from the company. You are expected to provide your own computer, high speed internet connection, and sometimes a smart phone.
  • Frequency of pay – Most companies pay via direct deposit once a month. You have at submit your invoice to them each month so make sure you keep excellent records of time worked. If you need to be paid more frequently than once a month this might not be the job for you.
  • Responsible for your own taxes – Since you are an independent contractor the company won’t take taxes off your pay automatically. You are responsible for paying all your own taxes which again means you need to be very organized. A plus of being an independent contractor who works from home is that you should be able to write off some of your home office expenses.
  • Irregular work – A common issue with evaluators is that the workload is inconsistent from week to week. I found this to be the case myself. Some weeks I was able to work as much as I wanted (within the self-imposed limits of naptime!), other weeks there were no tasks available. If you need steady, regular income, this is likely not for you.

Since working as a search engine evaluator I love that I can completely work around my daughter’s schedule. My main issue with this job would be that there are some weeks where there is very little work available. This is a minor concern for me because this is a side hustle, and not my regular income.

A search engine evaluator job might be a great side hustle for you too if you want a flexible work-from-home job that doesn’t involve selling anything.

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How to Earn Money at Home – $25,000 Overnight




Bored of cooking? Well if you don’t mind we can transform your kitchen into a bank! Yes we can. Hey we are not suggesting you to make a restaurant in your backyard but instead we would suggest all house wives of ways by which they may earn money sitting at home. I just found out that many people search for the answer of ‘How to make money at home’, on the internet. Well they really do not understand that they can make money in their kitchen itself by making some candies.

Just in case you do not think it is a worthy option, let us inform you that people make profits in turns of thousands of dollars from the business. There are many alternatives that you have; you may either prepare gift candies or normal candies. To be very frank gift candies would be a better option, as it is more costly than the conventional ones so you get to make a higher profit; but it should depend on the area of your business and its marketing policies. Extra effort too is not required, just like you cook in the kitchen you would even now cook but the only difference is that you learn how to earn money at home.

The best thing about this is that there is no investment involved. You earn money working from home, being your boss and maximizing your profits. What else can a person demand from their business? Try it out once and if proper marketing is done, you may even earn up to $25,000 overnight! So what are you waiting for, rush to the kitchen and start making money!

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Slogan For Selling – Earn Money by Writing Phrases




Now a days there are many different types of Online jobs available and some of them are very simple still you can make good amount of money. If I say you can make money by just typing simple phrases and sell those phrases for hundreds of dollar?

You might know that there is an industry which is not visible for everyone but it is a multi-million dollar. This industry is built on new creation and distribution of Writing Simple Slogan and Phrases and symbols. There are many companies and firms out there who are ready to buy those one-liners and pay big amount for that.

There is no experience needed for same. What you need is a little creativity and ideas to think differently and a PC or a Laptop to find out how it works?

There are many simple but money making symbols which sold for $1000 and some sold for $6000.

Don’t just start dreaming of this amount from first day. Go slow and you will unlock many ideas step by step. What you need to do is to be focused and keep brain storming. Look around in your daily life and get some idea and show those ideas to the potential customers.

Any Online Earning system will not give you profit overnight. You have to be constant and make your way out to make earning out of same. I am saying this because there are millions of people working from home and they all have their own story to sell. No one will ever release his/her secret of earning money online. They will guide you what they have done when they started but never share the secret of their success.

Let me give you an example. If I am making money from any specific system than that system will not surely work for others cause I myself discover that system.

I will give you the ideas of what sort of marketing strategies you can apply to help you to get stated and earn money. To get first sale is always difficult but that is the key! If you get the first sale over night than you are not going to spend more time to unlock the secret behind this and it will not stay for long.

OK let me get back to the point where I started. Talk about the Slogan Selling online Business.

It’s an Easy Step by Step system like A, B, C!

A. Write a Slogan – Ordinary Word, Phrase or Symbol

B. Upload Online – Put your Phrase up for sale and it will not take more than a couple of minutes.

C. Wallah! You get paid – You will earn cash when someone Use that.

So what are you waiting for! Search for your best possible Interest and get the Job!

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How to Identify the Best Web Hosting Provider




There are many web hosting companies out there offering their services. Simply enter a search into Google and you will be bombarded with thousands of companies claiming to have the best hosting packages. The trick is to be able to identify which company will be the best to go with when hosting your website.

First of all, remember to steer clear of companies that offer free web hosting. There is always a catch. Sure, you may not have to pay for hosting, but think about it carefully. How is the company covering their cost for hosting you? They are plastering advertisements all over your website! This takes away from the professionalism and attractiveness of your site, and will deter internet browsers. In addition to this, there is always a limit to your free hosting package. In some cases you may not be able to have lots of graphics or flash images on your site. You may have a very low space limit, which will be irritating if you are planning on having a large site with lots of information. Another downside is that these free web hosting plans may not supply you with an email account that you can use with your domain name. Sometimes they do, but they will only give you a handful of email addresses with a tiny amount of space.

Of course, if you just want a simple personal site without email addresses, perhaps a free web hosting plan will be convenient for you. On the other hand, if you want to start a business site, it is better to find a hosting provider that will offer you a specific package. What you should be looking for is a hosting provider that will give you a breakdown of their different packages. They will explain that for a certain price you will get this much bandwidth, this many email addresses and so on. A good hosting provider will have on call support via telephone or email that is prompt and responsible. Some good hosting providers even offer training courses to assist you in learning how to manage your site.

A good, reputable website hosting provider will have a portfolio of sites that are hosting with them. If it makes you more comfortable you can contact one of their clients to find out how reliable their support is.

Beware of hosting providers that force you to sign a contract for hosting. They may wish to tie you into a hosting package for a year, with the payment requested up front. If you commit to this, you may find after a month or two that you are not entirely happy. Perhaps there are frequent email problems and the support desk of your hosting provider is never available. You may find that your site is sometimes down without warning, or you run out of space and are unable to contact anyone to purchase more. A good web hosting provider will allow you to pay for your hosting on a monthly basis, with the option to opt out whenever you wish. You can also pay up front if it is more convenient for you, but are able to get refunded if you are not happy with the service anymore.

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Love Quotes – Why They Are Popular Among the New Generation?




How often have you scanned the web for good quotations on love? If Google is to be believed, quotes on love are searched for in the internet a staggering 2,240,000 times every month by people across the globe. In the U.S alone, the term “love quotes” is being searched for 823,000 times. Undoubtedly, quotes on love are extremely popular. And they hold a special charm for the newest generation.

It is surprising to consider the enormous popularity of love quotes and sayings among the newest generation. The present generation, it seems, has been born and brought up with the luxury of mobile phones and chat apps that allow them to send text messages in the shortest possible forms. These messages often care nary for proper grammar, punctuation and spellings. The older generation, which has grown up reading the works of Browning, Shelley, Austen and their ilk, often gets curious to think what makes time-honored sayings on love appeal to such a generation. The answer is, perhaps, not hard to find. For the newest generation that is more into dating and casual flings than its predecessors, short love quotes have a greater attraction. Some of the main reasons for the popularity of love quotations are:

• These make lovely status messages

• These can easily be sent to the person one loves

• These help easily convey romantic feelings without expressing them directly

• These help convey to the world whether a person is ready for a new relationship

Above all, quotations have a particular charm that is irresistible to any romantic person. A beautiful love quote touches the heart and makes one remember his/her sweetheart. Such quotes are also attractive to people who have not experienced romance and rouses in them a desire to experience this emotion and look for a lover.

With the World Wide Web now at your service, you can easily get quotes and sayings on love whenever you need them. There are thousands of blogs, forums as well as websites that boast of beautiful quotes about love. Even micro-blogging and social networking websites like Facebook, MySpace and Twitter have various people dedicating their profiles to posting quotes about love. You may find beautiful love quotes being posted round the clock in these profiles to make an impression on other users and gather more followers. You can find nice love quotes to send to your sweetheart, or a friend, your parents or a family member. The internet is always there for your service.

Looking for nice quotes on love to read and share with dear ones? Avail some rare as well as famous love quotes and sayings.

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The Newest Lengths Thieves Will Go to in Order to Steal Your Identity




There is no shortage of news stories on identity theft. That’s because identity thieves will go to any lengths to acquire your information. Once they do, they can use it in endless ways, like the poor woman who went to apply for FEMA assistance only to discover someone had applied for and received payments in her name.

There are a lot of ways identity thieves get ahold of your information that you probably already know about. We rely on companies to use software that assures identity vulnerabilities aren’t overlooked so your info is safe when you shop, you probably know not to click on questionable links in unfamiliar emails, and you know not to give your personal information over the phone when someone calls asking you to confirm your account.

Even if you’re careful, you can still become a victim of identity theft because thieves are going to new lengths to get your information.

Monitoring Your Credit

Identity thieves often get ahold of a little of your information before they go the final mile and decide your identity is even worth stealing. With just a few bits of personal information, thieves can open credit monitoring accounts with the top credit bureaus so they can see which accounts you use, and which ones you don’t.

Then, they will choose a card that you don’t use and have a new copy sent to their address. Specialty cards are especially popular, like cards from furniture stores and clothing stores, because many people open these cards to get the initial deal, then never use them again.

Pinpointing Where You Live

Not only do thieves want to see if there are any accounts you aren’t using, they may also want to see if you’ve got enough wealth to even make it worth their time. After all, it’s much more lucrative to steal the identity of someone in an upscale neighborhood than someone living in an apartment on the bad side of town.

Many identity thieves will use websites like Google Maps and Zillow to find out where you live and see exactly what your house looks like before they decide who to target.

Hacking More Than Just Computers

Computers are a popular device to hack because much of the work we do and the bills we pay are on the computer, but there are other devices that hackers can target. Some of them might surprise you.

Cell phones are a popular target, especially since they can be hacked without you having to click on a single questionable link. Tablets can be hacked too, but so can surprising devices like:

  • Smart TVs
  • Smart refrigerators
  • Baby monitors
  • Thermostats
  • Security systems
  • Voice activated systems
  • Garage door openers
  • Smart cars

Even stranger devices have been hacked. Medical devices are hackable, and one hacker even managed to hack into the aquarium thermometer at a casino. Hacking that one item enabled them to extract information from the casino’s high-roller database.

USB Charging Stations

It’s not just your devices you have to look out for. You also have to look out for the outlets where you plug in your devices.

Juice jacking is a creative way hackers are gaining access to personal information. Instead of targeting your device, they target the USB port where you plug your device in. The ports you have at home are relatively secure, but the ports you find in hotel rooms and in airport lobbies are not.

Criminals load malware on public charging stations, then the devices that are plugged in are infected with that malware, providing them with all the personal information that’s on your device.

Going Through Your Garbage

A lot of people pay a lot of attention to their security online, but many people are getting lazy when it comes to the classic ways information is stolen.

Dumpster diving thieves are still out there! That means you have to focus on ways to keep your identity safe when you throw your trash away. Shredding paper that contains your personal information is still recommended.

Keep an eye on what you throw in the actual trash, but you also have to keep an eye on items you put in the recycling bin. Thieves are more than happy to go through both!

Identity thieves are still placing phone calls and sending out emails, but they can do a lot more today than they ever could before. By staying informed, you can better protect you and your information from criminals.

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React Native Vs. Swift: Choosing The Right Mobile App Development Technology In 2021



hire iPhone app developer
React Native Vs. Swift

Getting torn between the native and unique hybrid app development technologies during iOS app development is quite common amongst merchants trying to take their digital solution to mobile devices. However, before you can hire iPhone app developer, getting clarity regarding such decisions is crucial to ensure your business’s success. However, doing so isn’t a game of head and tales a proper analysis of your business requirements, budgets, and user expectation is a must for you to make the right choice. It will not only ensure long-term scalability but also will guarantee a manageable iOS application for your business.    

If this dilemma is the current roadblock for your iOS app development process, stay tuned! With this blog, we will take an in-depth look into the popular hybrid and native app development technology- React Native Vs. Swift. A detailed comparison between these two technologies will help you make the right choice for catering to your business-specific needs. Moreover, it will also help you choose a suitable iOS app development company for manifesting your ideas in reality. To get started, below is a detailed introduction to each of these technologies.

Introduction To React Native

React Native is a Hybrid app development technology that helps merchants in creating cross-platform mobile apps that works using the same business logic. It is a javascript-based mobile development framework that uses React as its core technology. It has strong community support and is backed by Facebook.  

Pros Of React Native:

  • It allows developers to use the same business logic for different platforms, which makes the development process faster and more efficient. 
  • React Native also allows Hot Reloading making the review process much easier for developers. It improves the development process and reduces the chances of run-time bugs as well. 
  • This technology also empowers iOS app development services to use fast debugging and testing tools for providing efficient mobile applications.

Cons Of React Native: 

  • React Native does not fully support the rendering of native UI elements. It can make providing fully native navigation challenging for developers.
  • The framework also does not support multi-processing and parallel threading. As a result, it can significantly slow down the performance of your iOS application.

Introduction To Swift 

Swift is Apple’s official technology for the iOS app development process. It is a programming language that facilitates the development of high-speed and intuitive iOS applications. This technology can easily blend in with Apple’s Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks to help merchants in crafting unique apps for their business. It is has a huge community of iPhone app development company and receives regular updates from Apple. 

Pros Of Swift:

  • Swift sports a readable and easy-to-maintain codebase, which makes the process of iOS app development faster and more manageable for developers.  
  • It has an easy-to-use syntax and also comes with a built-in error handling system to enhance the testing process. 
  • It helps developers in handling issues such as memory clogging by supporting dynamic libraries. 

Cons Of Swift:

  • It lacks support for hot reloading, which can negatively affect the developer’s experience. 
  • Debugging compile errors using the LLDB services available in Swift can be quite a time-consuming process. Instead, developers need to use Xcode.

React Native Vs. Swift: A Detailed Comparison

From the discussion above, we can easily conclude that with the help of both React Native and Swift, merchants can build amazing and out-of-the-box iOS applications. Below is a detailed list of differences between these two technologies that make them suitable for catering to different business needs:  

  • React Native makes the development process much cheaper as you don’t have to create separate apps for different platforms. Whereas, since Swift doesn’t support Android OS choosing it for app development costs much. 
  • React Native offers hot reloading, which helps merchants in making faster changes and application updates. Since Swift lacks this feature, it takes a longer development time as compared to React Native.
  •  React Native does not support rendering of a variety of Native features, whereas Swift is the official technology it provides a full-fledged native navigation experience. Hence we can conclude that Swift offers a slightly better navigation experience to users as compared to React Native. 
  • React Native uses JSX syntax, which does not have a well-defined architecture, whereas Swift offers a readable and easy-to-use syntax and codebase. It makes Swift a better fit for creating enterprise-level and complex iOS applications. 

To Wrap Up

React Native and Swift are both amazing technologies for creating iOS applications. However, both of these technologies cater to unique and different business needs. For example, React Native can be a great choice for medium-scale apps, whereas Swift can easily be used for enterprise-scale mobile applications. So, access your overall budget and business requirement before choosing between React Native and Swift. It will help you in having smooth app management and easy scalability according to your business needs in the long run.


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