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J&J: Booster dose of its COVID shot prompts strong response

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J&J: Booster dose of its COVID shot prompts strong response

LONDON — Johnson & Johnson released data showing that a booster dose to its one-shot coronavirus vaccine provides a strong immune response months after people receive a first dose.

J&J said in statement Tuesday that it ran two early studies in people previously given its vaccine and found that a second dose produced an increased antibody response in adults from age 18 to 55. The study’s results haven’t yet been peer-reviewed.

“A booster dose of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine further increases antibody responses among study participants who had previously received our vaccine,” said Dr. Mathai Mammen, global head of research and development at J&J. The company previously published data showing its one-shot dose provided protection for up to eight months after immunization.

J&J said it is now in talks with regulators including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency and others regarding using booster doses of its vaccine.

J&J’s vaccine is approved for use in the U.S., across Europe and there are plans for at least 200 million doses to be shared with the U.N.-backed COVAX effort aimed at distributing vaccines to poor countries. But the company has been plagued by production problems and millions of doses made at a troubled factory in Baltimore had to be thrown out.

The J&J vaccine has been considered critical by numerous health officials to ending the pandemic because it requires only one shot, but fears about the easier-to-spread delta coronavirus variant have prompted numerous governments to consider the use of booster shots for many approved vaccines.

Last week, experts at the FDA recommended people 65 and older get a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine made by Pfizer-BioNTech while Britain previously authorized booster shots for people 50 and over in addition to priority groups like health workers and those with underlying health conditions. Other countries including Israel, France and Germany have also begun offering third vaccine doses to some people.

The World Health Organization has urged rich countries to stop administering booster doses until at least the end of the year, saying vaccines should immediately be redirected to Africa, where fewer than 4% of the population is fully immunized. In a paper published last week in the journal Lancet, top scientists from the WHO and FDA argued that the average person doesn’t need a booster shot and that the authorized vaccines to date provide strong protection against severe COVID-19, hospitalization and death.

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Congress members have ‘grave concerns’ over DOJ’s investigation into school board threats

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Congress members have ‘grave concerns’ over DOJ’s investigation into  school board threats

ST. LOUIS– More than 60 members of Congress have sent a letter saying they have ‘grave concerns’ with the U.S. Attorney General’s recent announcement to investigate ‘criminal conduct’ occurring at school board meetings across the country.

Earlier this week, Attorney General Merrick Garland directed federal authorities to hold strategy sessions in the next 30 days with law enforcement to address the increasing threats targeting school board members, teachers, and other employees nationwide.

U.S. Rep. Ann Wagner, U.S. Rep. Mike Bost, and U.S. Rep. Rodney Davis are among the Congress members requesting answers to five questions in order to gain more clarity on the Department of Justice’s intentions. They want a response by Nov. 15.

The letter to the Attorney General says, “While some of these meetings may get heated, most of the parents who have been attending these meetings have simply voiced their passions and concerns for the children and their futures.”

The letter also says, “While we agree with you that any threat of violence against these government officials should be condemned and investigated, no government official has the right to claim that a citizen may not peacefully speak out against government policies.”

The Congress members want answers to the following questions:

  1. What specific cases are you referencing in. your memorandum that rise to the level of “criminal conduct?”
  2. What criteria/behavior is the Department of Justice considering “criminal conduct?”
  3. What federal statutes do you plan to cite in your prosecution of these parents?
  4. WHo will be conductin the investiation into these cases? Please provide details on the roles of the FBI, United States Attorneys, State and local law enforcement, and any other entities that will be involved.
  5. Will you be looking into other cases of alleged intimidation of school board members who have attempted to end COVID-era policies?

In a memorandum, Garland said there has been “a disturbing spike in harassment, intimidation, and threats of violence against school administrators, board members, teachers, and staff who participate in the vital work of running our nation’s public schools.”

To address the rising problem, Garland said the FBI would work with U.S. attorneys and federal, state, local, territorial and tribal authorities in each district to develop strategies against the threats.

The letter also states, “While government officials should never be subjected to threats, they are not above criticism or disagreement from the citizens who elected them. If we are to live in a free society, it is your job as Attorney General of the United States to defend the rights of all citizens.”

The action is in response to an urgent request last week from the National School Boards Association. The group, which represents school board members around the country, asked President Joe Biden for federal assistance to investigate and stop threats made over policies including mask mandates, likening the vitriol to a form of domestic terrorism.

U.S. Rep Mike Bost posted the letter on social media this morning saying, “Threats of violence against public officials are never acceptable and should be investigated. But parents have the right to peacefully and passionately express their concerns about their children’s education.”

Associated Press contributed content to this story.

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Police search for driver responsible for death of 75-year-old pedestrian

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Police search for driver responsible for death of 75-year-old pedestrian

ST. LOUIS – St. Louis Police are looking for a driver that left the scene of a deadly hit and run Thursday morning.

Investigators say a 75-year-old man was struck and killed on Gravois near McNair in south St. Louis.

The car is believed to be a silver Chevrolet Impala. Police said the driver stopped, made a U-turn, and then drove away.

FOX 2 will continue to update this story with more information as it becomes available.

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Colorado’s COVID hospitalizations “trend back up in the wrong direction” as new cases stop falling

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Colorado’s COVID hospitalizations “trend back up in the wrong direction” as new cases stop falling

Colorado public health officials raised concerns Friday that the number of new COVID-19 cases across the state has stopped falling, while hospitalizations of people with the virus rose over the past week following a steady decline that began in mid-September.

For the past few months, Colorado’s rate of new coronavirus infections was lower than the national rate, Dr. Rachel Herlihy, the state epidemiologist, said during a news briefing. Now, though, as cases fall more rapidly nationwide than in Colorado, the state and national rates are about the same: a 7-day average of around 200 per 100,000 people.

New cases are falling across most age groups, but have risen among children aged 12 to 17 in recent days, according to data from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

“About a week ago… we were seeing a clear declining trend in cases here in Colorado, but in the last week or so, that trend has reversed a little bit,” Herlihy said. “We’re not seeing a clear increase, but it does look like more of a plateau than we were hoping to be seeing at this point.”

Likewise, state health officials said, the statewide positivity rate — the percentage of COVID-19 tests coming back positive — has risen in recent days and is now at 7.22%. That rate, and whether it exceeds the 5% threshold, is considered a leading indicator of the virus’s trajectory.

“It is concerning to me that we have seen a rise in this percent positivity value in the last week or so,” Herlihy said.

Scott Bookman, Colorado’s COVID-19 incident commander, said hospitalizations of people with the virus across the state are beginning to “trend back up in the wrong direction.”

The number of people hospitalized with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 in the state hit a recent peak of 1,021 on Sept. 14, then started falling to a low point of 907 on Oct. 2. Since then, however, that figure has been going back up, reaching 990 confirmed and suspected cases on Thursday.

The state’s intensive-care units were at about 86% capacity on Friday, said Bookman, who stressed that people who’ve been vaccinated against COVID-19 are eight times less likely to end up hospitalized with the virus in Colorado.

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Denver may ease magic mushrooms laws further two years after decriminalization

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Denver may ease magic mushrooms laws further two years after decriminalization

Further easing of laws relating to psychedelic mushrooms, possibly using the drug for mental health therapy and training Denver’s first responders to better react to a psychedelic crisis are just three of several recommendations issued in a new report by the Denver Psilocybin Mushroom Policy Review Panel.

The panel that includes District Attorney Beth McCann, law enforcement officers and psilocybin advocate Kevin Matthews was formed after 2019, when Denver voters were the first in the U.S. to effectively decriminalize psychedelic mushrooms by declaring them the “lowest law-enforcement priority.”

“The panel unanimously agreed that decriminalizing psilocybin mushrooms in Denver has not since presented any significant public health or safety risk in the city,” it said in its report after a year of meeting and observing data. The report, first reported on by Westword, will be presented to a Denver City Council committee in November.

“This report to the best of our ability clearly demonstrates decriminalizing has not resulted in any significant public health or safety issues,” Matthews told The Denver Post. ” Because of that, Denver can now feel a little more comfortable with psilocybin decriminalization and really start to potentially embrace psilocybin as a therapeutic tool in addition to expanding civil liberties for personal possession.”

The report’s recommendations are as follows:

  • Train City and County of Denver first responders to recognize and safely respond to people undergoing psychedelic crisis;
  • Produce educational public service announcements to inform the public about safety, responsible use and available risk reduction services;
  • Create a data collection reporting system for any interactions involving psilocybin for ongoing public safety monitoring;
  • Make sharing and gifting of psilocybin without purchase among the lowest law enforcement priority;
  • Make the communal use of psilocybin among the lowest law enforcement priority;
  • Expand voting panel members to be more representative of Denver’s diversity;
  • Determine how psilocybin therapy can be applied to address mental health issues in Denver.

According to data from the Denver District Attorney’s office, there have been only 47 cases related to psilocybin in Denver since decriminalization was adopted in May 2019 (compared to 44 cases in 2018 alone), the report said.

Thirty-two percent of the cases since decriminalization were dismissed by the district attorney, 6% went to sentencing, 11% have warrants issued and 51% remain open, the report said.

Eleven percent of arrests were for psilocybin or psilocin only, while the rest included additional illicit substances, the report said. Of the five arrests involving psilocybin or psilocin only, 60% were arrests for amounts greater than for personal use.

Matthews hopes to see public education campaigns about safe use of psychedelic mushrooms in the form of billboards, mailers or television advertisements, he said.

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Disabled vet fights to drive his mobility device on the road in front of his work

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Disabled vet fights to drive his mobility device on the road in front of his work

MASCOUTAH, Ill. – A disabled vet says police are keeping him from driving on a main road to his job because of his special mobility device.

The road in question is in Mascoutah, Illinois where Harper Road becomes North 6th. It’s also a state highway that leads to the middle school where James Poggi works.

He left work Thursday driving his typical 300 yards of the stretch which lies in a 20-mph zone. His total drive home is about a mile and a half.

“Suddenly it’s illegal,” he said of the drive on North 6th.

Poggi is a disabled veteran who lost his leg in the Afghanistan war. He credits his side-by-side utility terrain vehicle with getting him moving again. He said the key is its simplicity, explaining, “There’s no buzzers. There’s no beeping. The only noise there is the horn when I make it.”

Police issued him a warning notice last week for driving a side-by-side on a state highway.

Poggi said the officer added, “… that if I continue driving my mobility device to and from work on the road behind me, that they would impound my mobility vehicle and that if I stood in the way of it being impounded that I would be arrested.”

He says the Mascoutah police chief found him an alternate route, but he’d have to drive the wrong way in the school parking lot. Poggi said it’s not a safe option because “We’ve got bikes coming at us, we’ve got parents with strollers, with dogs, we’ve got cars.”

One-way arrows point the opposite way of where Poggi would have to drive at times to avoid North 6th.

It is against the law in Illinois to drive all-terrain and utility terrain vehicles on state highways. Poggi insists he should be allowed access under the American’s with Disabilities Act.

Fox 2’s Chris Hayes asked civil rights attorney Hugh Eastwood, who said, “Certainly to the extent that a local law enforcement official takes the position that federal law somehow doesn’t apply – that wouldn’t be correct.”

He says it’s not a black and white issue, where the ADA allows anything.

“No one is arguing for a right to put a wheelchair on an interstate highway or something that would obviously be unsafe. The key is reasonableness,” he said.

Mascoutah Police Chief Scott Waldrup says that’s how he’s tried to approach this issue – with reasonableness.

“I have great compassion and admiration for Mr. Poggi and his service to our country,” he said.

Waldrup says he’s consulted his city attorney and others about doing the right thing.

“I haven’t found anybody that has cited any lawful reason for me to disregard this state law,” he said.

He says he’s now come up with a new possible accommodation, saying, “We would be more than willing to let him pull his vehicle into this parking lot right here, come across the grass here (over the curb), and drive 30 to 40 feet up to that entrance up there or 50 feet, and then he could make a 90-degree crossing there and go right into the entrance (of the school).”

Poggi doesn’t believe it’s practical and fears it’s no safer, adding, “I simply want to avoid all of that. (I want to) use the traffic control devices and drive 150 to 300 yards (on N 6th) and get to work.

Attorney Eastwood says that if the veteran and the police chief cannot agree, it will take a federal lawsuit and a jury to decide. Poggi says he intends to sue.

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Police need help identifying three men caught stealing from Chesterfield Mall

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Police need help identifying three men caught stealing from Chesterfield Mall

CHESTERFIELD, Mo. – Chesterfield police are asking for the public’s help in identifying three men seen stealing from Chesterfield Mall last month.

The suspects were caught on camera walking through the back halls of the mall. One man is seen looking directly at the camera.

Police say they entered multiple stores and left with merchandise Sept. 26.

Chase Callahan’s store-sanctioned sneaker collection was one that was hit by thieves according to mall security.

Callahan said theft isn’t new but this time it’s too close for comfort.

“They were only maybe a hundred feet away from our back doors so one slip of accidentally leaving a door open and we could have been on the edge of some stuff going down,” Callahan said.

The men are seen on security cameras walking the back halls of the loading area for the mall.

One suspect looked directly at the camera.

“I can imagine they were trying to walk all along these areas,” Callahan said. “Usually these doors automatically lock, as long as they’re closed so what I imagine is it was perched up.

“I hate to say but the one night they forgot to close the doors someone came in and takes advantage of it.”

Chesterfield police say the thieves went through multiple stores making it out with stolen merchandise, which is a concern for the handful of stores left in a nearly empty mall.

“If I was to lose or people were to break my cases or anything, these cases are so hard to find right now and the cards are not able to track it,” Mystic TCG store owner Eden Salinas said.

Another store owner said that despite the lack of crowds, his shop was targeted as well.

The developer, the Staenberg Group, has no comment at this time.

“Most of them are just sole proprietors trying to just get their name out there, start somewhere small, and having this happen to them really sucks,” Callahan said.

Police are hoping to find the three men responsible and get the stores some justice.

The mall is set to shut down in 2023.

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Rockies podcast: On Bill Schmidt’s hiring as GM, deals for Antonio Senzatela and C.J. Cron, club’s offseason forecast and more

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Rockies podcast: On Bill Schmidt’s hiring as GM, deals for Antonio Senzatela and C.J. Cron, club’s offseason forecast and more

In this packed edition of the On The Rox podcast, Denver Post sportswriters Kyle Newman and Patrick Saunders break down an array of topics with the Rockies’ 2021 season fresh in the rearview.

What’s to make of Colorado hiring Bill Schmidt as GM? How should fans rate the deals handed out to right-hander Antonio Senzatela and first baseman C.J. Cron? What’s the latest update on Trevor Story’s free agency forecast? Who needs to break out for the Rockies to contend in 2022?

Those questions, plus analysis on Nolan Arenado’s postseason struggles, are addressed and more.

Subscribe to the podcast
SoundCloud | iTunes | Stitcher | RSS

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Ben Roethlisberger is off to a poor start in 2021, but Broncos aren’t underestimating Steelers QB

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Ben Roethlisberger is off to a poor start in 2021, but Broncos aren’t underestimating Steelers QB

Ben Roethlisberger has played poorly early this season, but the Broncos are wary of proclamations that the veteran quarterback has completely fallen off ahead of Sunday’s showdown in Pittsburgh.

The future Hall of Famer’s QBR is 36.6, fourth-worst in the NFL, in part because he’s dealing with pectoral and hip injuries. The 39-year old looked especially bad in last Sunday’s loss to Green Bay, with eight inaccurate throws.

Broncos coach Vic Fangio isn’t buying that Big Ben is near the end.

“There’s a narrative out there that (Roethlisberger’s) gone down and I don’t see that,” Fangio said. “I’ve been watching this guy a long time. He’s still capable of doing everything he’s always done. He throws a great deep ball and has good pocket feel. I don’t buy into that narrative at all.”

Fangio’s comments aside, it’s gotten to the point where Steelers’ coach Mike Tomlin had to re-iterate this week that Roethlisberger is still the team’s starting quarterback.

Roethlisberger is 109-of-170 for 1,033 yards, with four TDs and four interceptions. The Steelers’ backups are Mason Rudolph (5-4 in nine starts for the injured Roethlisberger in 2019 and ’20) and Dwayne Haskins (3-10 as a starter for Washington in ’19 and ’20).

Roethlisberger told Pittsburgh reporters that he’s “got to find ways to be better with my lower body” to improve upon the accuracy problems that plagued him against Green Bay — and his overall inefficiency through the first four games. In addition to to Roethlisberger’s poor QBR, his passer rating this year is 78.9, compared to 93.7 across his 18-year career.

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New, and no bids required: At Heritage Todd Creek and Inspiration, Lennar has big ranches ready at good prices

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New, and no bids required: At Heritage Todd Creek and Inspiration, Lennar has big ranches ready at good prices

In a fall market where buyers are getting top dollar for their outdated 2-story homes but are then having to bid up the price of ranch-style houses to replace them, you can come see two ranches that are ready for move in now, in an age-55-plus master-planned community—no bidding required.

“I can’t believe the prices that people are paying for older ranches that still have laminate countertops,” says Tina Dinkel at Lennar’s Heritage Todd Creek, off E-470 at Quebec in Thornton.

She and Cindy Ditallo can show you two big ranches ready to go now, with better size than the resale houses you may be seeing, each brand-spanking new.

That includes an ‘Oxford’ ranch—1,749 sq. feet with an oversized deck and a day-lit garden-level basement, backing to mature trees and no other home. It’s priced at $609,900—just $35,000 more than a median-priced resale house was selling for in the 11-county Denver metro area last month.

They’ll also show you a Hepburn ranch, 2,156 feet with a big deck and a full-wide 3-car garage, at $750,000, and some other ranches underway for later delivery—time to get your place ready for sale.

All of that was looking good to John and Beth Thomas from Arvada’s Lakecrest area, who were touring those homes Monday. They’d seen the house next door to theirs sell overnight, over price—but were wanting something new, and weren’t finding anything in Arvada like Todd Creek’s age-55-plus lifestyle.

Lennar creates that sense of community at two master-planned communities around town. At Heritage Todd Creek, homes are adjacent to an Arthur Hills-designed golf course, matched to a clubhouse that’s a very active scene now, with lots of clubs and activities created by a full-time lifestyle director.

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Nobel Peace Prize awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov

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Nobel Peace Prize awarded to journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov

MOSCOW — Journalists Maria Ressa of the Philippines and Dmitry Muratov of Russia won the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize on Friday for their fight for freedom of expression in countries where reporters have faced persistent attacks, harassment and even murder.

Ressa and Muratov were honored for their “courageous” work but also were considered “representatives of all journalists who stand up for this ideal in a world in which democracy and freedom of the press face increasingly adverse conditions,” said Berit Reiss-Andersen, chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

Ressa in 2012 co-founded Rappler, a news website that the committee noted had focused critical attention on President Rodrigo Duterte’s “controversial, murderous anti-drug campaign” in the Philippines.

She and Rappler “have also documented how social media is being used to spread fake news, harass opponents and manipulate public discourse,” it said.

Muratov was one of the founders in 1993 of the independent Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta, which the Nobel committee called “the most independent newspaper in Russia today, with a fundamentally critical attitude towards power.”

“The newspaper’s fact-based journalism and professional integrity have made it an important source of information on censurable aspects of Russian society rarely mentioned by other media,” it added, noting that six of its journalists were killed since its founding.

Ressa, the first Filipino to win the peace prize and the first woman to be honored this year with an award by the Nobel committee, was convicted last year of libel and sentenced to jail in a decision seen as a major blow to press global freedom.

Currently out on bail but facing seven active legal cases, Ressa, 58, said she hopes the award will bolster investigative journalism “that will hold power to account.”

“This relentless campaign of harassment and intimidation against me and my fellow journalists in the Philippines is a stark example of a global trend,” she told The Associated Press.

She also pointed to social media giants like Facebook as a serious threat to democracy, saying “they actually prioritized the spread of lies laced with anger and hate over facts.”

“I didn’t think that what we are going through would get that attention. But the fact that it did also shows you how important the battles we face are, right?” she said. “This is going to be what our elections are going to be like next year. It is a battle for facts. When you’re in a battle for facts, journalism is activism.”

Muratov, 59, said he sees the prize as an award to Novaya Gazeta journalists and contributors who were killed, including Anna Politkovskaya, who covered Russia’s bloody conflict in Chechnya.

“It’s a recognition of the memory of our fallen colleagues,” he said.

“Since the Nobel Peace Prize isn’t awarded posthumously, they came up with this so that Anya could take it, but through other, second hands,” Muratov said, referring to Politkovskaya.

According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 17 media workers were killed in the Philippines in the last decade and 23 in Russia.

Muratov said he would use part of his share of the 10 million Swedish kronor (over $1.14 million) prize money to help independent media as well as a Moscow hospice and children with spinal muscular problems. He said he wouldn’t keep any of the money himself.

Former Soviet leader and 1990 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Mikhail Gorbachev used some of his award to help fund what would become Novaya Gazeta. He congratulated Muratov, calling him “a wonderful, brave and honest journalist and my friend.”

Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov also praised Muratov as a “talented and brave” person who “has consistently worked in accordance with his ideals.”

But Mikhail Ulyanov, Russia’s envoy to international organizations in Vienna, tweeted that Novaya Gazeta’s editorial policy “has nothing to do with strengthening peace” and that “such controversial decisions diminish the value of the Prize.”

Moscow-based political analyst Abbas Gallyamov said the award marked “a painful strike to the Russian authorities … because the freedom of speech and the principles of independent journalism are an evil in the eyes of Russian authorities.”

As part of a new crackdown on independent journalists in Russia under President Vladimir Putin, the government has designated some of them “foreign agents,” saying they received funding from abroad and engaged in undescribed “political activities.” Muratov said he asked government officials who congratulated him if he would now also receive that designation, but received no reply.

The state RIA Novosti news agency quoted lawmaker Alexander Bashkin as saying the Nobel wouldn’t fall under the definition of foreign funding under the bill on foreign agents. Hours after the prize announcement, the Russian Justice Ministry added nine more journalists to its list of foreign agents.

Muratov on Friday denounced the foreign agent bill as a “shameless” attempt to muzzle independent voices.

Referring to the hopes by many in Russia that the prize should go to imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, Muratov said he would have voted for him if he were on the committee, saying that he admires Navalny’s courage and adding that “everything is still ahead for him.”

Some critics have questioned if honoring journalists respected the will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel and its original purpose to prevent war, but Reiss-Andersen said freedom of expression was essential to peace.

“Free, independent and fact-based journalism serves to protect against abuse of power, lies and war propaganda,” she said. “Without freedom of expression and freedom of the press, it will be difficult to successfully promote fraternity between nations, disarmament and a better world order to succeed in our time.”

She also cited the danger of misinformation and attacks on journalists by leaders denouncing them as purveyors of “fake news.”

“Conveying fake news and information that is propaganda and untrue is also a violation of freedom of expression, and all freedom of expression has its limitations. That is also a very important factor in this debate,” she said.

Media rights group Reporters Without Borders celebrated the announcement, expressing “joy and urgency.”

Director Christophe Deloire called it “an extraordinary tribute to journalism, an excellent tribute to all journalists who take risks everywhere around the world to defend the right to information.”

“Journalism is in danger, journalism is weakened, journalism is threatened. Democracies are weakened by disinformation, by rumors, by hate speech,” said Deloire, whose group has worked with Ressa and Muratov to defend defend journalism in their countries and comes under regular criticism from authoritarian governments.

After the announcement, the Nobel committee itself was put on the spot when a reporter asked about its decision to award the 2019 peace prize to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who has since become entangled in a domestic conflict with the powerful Tigray region.

“Today, I will not comment on other Nobel laureates and other issues than we have on the table today, but I can mention that the situation for freedom of press in Ethiopia is very far from ideal and is facing severe restrictions,” Reiss-Andersen said.

In other awards announced this week by the Nobel Committee:

— The medicine prize went to Americans David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries into how the human body perceives temperature and touch.

— The physics prize went to three scientists whose work found order in seeming disorder, helping to explain and predict complex forces of nature, including expanding understanding of climate change.

— The chemistry prize went to Benjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan for finding an easier and environmentally cleaner way to build molecules that can be used to make compounds, including medicines and pesticides.

— The literature prize went to U.K.-based Tanzanian writer Abdulrazak Gurnah, for his “uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee.”

The economics prize will be awarded Monday.

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Gera reported from Warsaw, Poland, and Rosario reported from Manila. Kostya Manenkov in Moscow, Masha Macpherson in Paris, Jan M. Olsen in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Frank Jordans in Berlin contributed.

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Read more stories about Nobel Prizes past and present by The Associated Press at https://www.apnews.com/NobelPrizes

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