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Reduce Cost of College With Lifetime Learning Credits



Lifetime Learning Credit

For 2015, there are two tax credits available to help you offset the costs of higher education by reducing the amount of your income tax. They are the American Opportunity Credit and the Lifetime Learning Credit.

TAX BENEFIT – For the tax year, you may be able to claim a Lifetime Learning Credit of up to $2,000 for qualified education expenses paid for all eligible students. There is no limit on the number of years the Lifetime Learning Credit can be claimed for each student. A tax credit reduces the amount of income tax you may have to pay. Unlike a deduction, which reduces the amount of income subject to tax, a credit directly reduces the tax itself. The Lifetime Learning Credit is a nonrefundable credit, so if the credit is more than your tax the excess will not be refunded to you. Your allowable Lifetime Learning Credit is limited by the amount of your income and the amount of your tax.

ONLY ONE EDUCATION CREDIT ALLOWED – For each student, you can elect for any year only one of the credits. For example, if you elect to claim the Lifetime Learning Credit for a child on your 2015 tax return, you cannot, for that same child, also claim the American Opportunity Credit for 2015. If you are eligible to claim the Lifetime Learning Credit and you are also eligible to claim the American Opportunity Credit for the same student in the same year, you can choose to claim either credit, but not both. If you pay qualified education expenses for more than one student in the same year, you can choose to claim certain credits on a per-student, per-year basis. This means that, for example, you can claim the American Opportunity Credit for one student and the Lifetime Learning Credit for another student in the same year.

CLAIMING THE CREDIT – Generally, you can claim the Lifetime Learning Credit if all three of the following requirements are met.

  • You pay qualified education expenses of higher education.
  • You pay the education expenses for an eligible student (a student who is enrolled in one or more courses at an eligible educational institution).
  • The eligible student is either yourself, your spouse, or a dependent for whom you claim an exemption on your tax return.

Table 3-1. Overview of the Lifetime Learning Credit for 2015

Maximum credit

Up to $2,000 credit per return

Limit on modified adjusted gross income (MAGI)

$128,000 if married filing jointly;

$64,000 if single, head of household, or qualifying widow(er)

Refundable or nonrefundable

Nonrefundable-credit limited to the amount of tax you must pay on your taxable income

Number of years of postsecondary education

Available for all years of postsecondary education and for courses to acquire or improve job skills

Number of tax years credit available

Available for an unlimited number of tax years

Type of program required

Student does not need to be pursuing a program leading to a degree or other recognized education credential

Number of courses

Available for one or more courses

Felony drug conviction

Felony drug convictions do not make the student ineligible

Qualified expenses

Tuition and fees required for enrollment or attendance (including amounts required to be paid to the institution for course-related books, supplies, and equipment)

Payments for academic periods

Payments made in 2015 for academic periods beginning in 2015 or beginning in the first 3 months of 2015

CANNOT CLAIM THE CREDIT – You cannot claim the Lifetime Learning Credit for 2015 if any of the following apply.

  • Your filing status is married filing separately.
  • You are listed as a dependent on another person’s tax return.
  • Your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is $64,000 or more ($128,000 or more in the case of a joint return).
  • You (or your spouse) were a nonresident alien for any part of 2015 and the nonresident alien did not elect to be treated as a resident alien for tax purposes. More information on nonresident aliens can be found in Publication 519.
  • You claim the American Opportunity Credit or a Tuition and Fees Deduction for the same student in same year.

QUALIFYING EXPENSES – The Lifetime Learning Credit is based on qualified education expenses you pay for yourself, your spouse, or a dependent for whom you claim an exemption on your tax return. Generally, the credit is allowed for qualified education expenses paid in same year for an academic period beginning in the same year or in the first 3 months of the following year. For example, if you paid $1,500 in December 2015 for qualified tuition for the spring 2016 semester beginning in January 2016, you may be able to use that $1,500 in figuring your 2015 credit.

Academic period. An academic period includes a semester, trimester, quarter, or other period of study (such as a summer school session) as reasonably determined by an educational institution. In the case of an educational institution that uses credit hours or clock hours and does not have academic terms, each payment period can be treated as an academic period.

Paid with borrowed funds. You can claim a Lifetime Learning Credit for qualified education expenses paid with the proceeds of a loan. You use the expenses to figure the Lifetime Learning Credit for the year in which the expenses are paid, not the year in which the loan is repaid. Treat loan disbursements sent directly to the educational institution as paid on the date the institution credits the student’s account.

Student withdraws from class (es). You can claim a Lifetime Learning Credit for qualified education expenses not refunded when a student withdraws.

For purposes of the Lifetime Learning Credit, qualified education expenses are tuition and certain related expenses required for enrollment in a course at an eligible educational institution. The course must be either part of a postsecondary degree program or taken by the student to acquire or improve job skills.

Eligible educational institution. An eligible educational institution is any college, university, vocational school, or other postsecondary educational institution eligible to participate in a student aid program administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes virtually all accredited public, nonprofit, and proprietary (privately owned profit-making) postsecondary institutions. The educational institution should be able to tell you if it is an eligible educational institution. Certain educational institutions located outside the United States also participate in the U.S. Department of Education’s Federal Student Aid (FSA) programs (such as Oxford University).

Related expenses. Student activity fees and expenses for course-related books, supplies, and equipment are included in qualified education expenses only if the fees and expenses must be paid to the institution for enrollment or attendance.

NO DOUBLE-DIPPING – You cannot do any of the following.

  • Deduct higher education expenses on your income tax return (as, for example, a business expense) and also claim a Lifetime Learning Credit based on those same expenses.
  • Claim a Lifetime Learning Credit in the same year that you are claiming a tuition and fees deduction for the same student.
  • Claim a Lifetime Learning Credit and an American Opportunity Credit based on the same qualified education expenses.
  • Claim a Lifetime Learning Credit based on the same expenses used to figure the tax-free portion of a distribution from a Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA) or Qualified Tuition Program (QTP).
  • Claim a credit based on qualified education expenses paid with tax-free educational assistance, such as a scholarship, grant, or assistance provided by an employer.

For each student, reduce the qualified education expenses paid by or on behalf of that student under the following rules. The result is the amount of adjusted qualified education expenses for each student.

Tax-free educational assistance. For tax-free educational assistance received in 2015, reduce the qualified educational expenses for each academic period by the amount of tax-free educational assistance allocable to that academic period. Some tax-free educational assistance received after 2015 may be treated as a refund of qualified education expenses paid in 2015. This tax-free educational assistance is any tax-free educational assistance received by you or anyone else after 2015 for qualified education expenses paid on behalf of a student in 2015 (or attributable to enrollment at an eligible educational institution during 2015).

Tax-free educational assistance includes:

  • The tax-free part of scholarships and fellowship grants
  • Pell grants (Scholarships, Fellowship Grants, Grants, and Tuition Reductions)
  • Employer-provided Educational Assistance
  • Veterans’ Educational Assistance
  • Any other nontaxable (tax-free) payments (other than gifts or inheritances) received as educational assistance.

Generally, any scholarship or fellowship grant is treated as tax free. However, a scholarship or fellowship grant is not treated as tax free to the extent the student includes it in gross income (if the student is required to file a tax return for the year the scholarship or fellowship grant is received) and either of the following is true.

  • The scholarship or fellowship grant (or any part of it) must be applied (by its terms) to expenses (such as room and board) other than qualified education expenses.
  • The scholarship or fellowship grant (or any part of it) may be applied (by its terms) to expenses (such as room and board) other than qualified education expenses.

You may be able to increase the combined value of an education credit and certain educational assistance if the student includes some or all of the educational assistance in income in the year it is received.

Refunds. A refund of qualified education expenses may reduce adjusted qualified education expenses for the tax year or require repayment (recapture) of a credit claimed in an earlier year. Some tax-free educational assistance received after 2015 may be treated as a refund.

Refunds received in 2015. For each student, figure the adjusted qualified education expenses for 2015 by adding all the qualified education expenses for 2015 and subtracting any refunds of those expenses received from the eligible educational institution during 2015.

Refunds received after 2015 but before your income tax return is filed. If anyone receives a refund after 2015 of qualified education expenses paid on behalf of a student in 2015 and the refund is paid before you file an income tax return for 2015, the amount of qualified education expenses for 2015 is reduced by the amount of the refund.

Refunds received after 2015 and after your income tax return is filed. If anyone receives a refund after 2015 of qualified education expenses paid on behalf of a student in 2015 and the refund is paid after you file an income tax return for 2015, you may need to repay some or all of the credit.

Credit recapture. If any tax-free educational assistance for the qualified education expenses paid in 2015 or any refund of your qualified education expenses paid in 2015 is received after you file your 2015 income tax return, you must recapture (repay) any excess credit. You do this by refiguring the amount of your adjusted qualified education expenses for 2015 by reducing the expenses by the amount of the refund or tax-free educational assistance. You then refigure your education credit(s) for 2015 and figure the amount by which your 2015 tax liability would have increased if you had claimed the refigured credit(s). Include that amount as an additional tax for the year the refund or tax-free assistance was received.

If you pay qualified education expenses in 2015 for an academic period that begins in the first 3 months of 2015 and you receive tax-free educational assistance, or a refund, as described above, you may choose to reduce your qualified education expenses for 2015 instead of reducing your expenses for 2015.

Amounts that do not reduce qualified education expenses. Do not reduce qualified education expenses by amounts paid with funds the student receives as:

  • Payment for services, such as wages,
  • A loan;
  • A gift;
  • An inheritance; or
  • A withdrawal from the student’s personal savings.

Do not reduce the qualified education expenses by any scholarship or fellowship grant reported as income on the student’s tax return in the following situations.

  • The use of the money is restricted, by the terms of the scholarship or fellowship grant, to costs of attendance (such as room and board) other than qualified education expenses, Scholarships, Fellowship Grants, Grants, and Tuition Reductions.
  • The use of the money is not restricted.

COORDINATION WITH PELL GRANTS AND OTHER SCHOLARSHIPS – You may be able to increase your Lifetime Learning Credit when the student (you, your spouse, or your dependent) includes certain scholarships or fellowship grants in the student’s gross income. Your credit may increase only if the amount of the student’s qualified education expenses minus the total amount of scholarships and fellowship grants is less than $10,000. If this situation applies, consider including some or all of the scholarship or fellowship grant in the student’s income in order to treat the included amount as paying nonqualified expenses instead of qualified education expenses. Nonqualified expenses are expenses such as room and board that are not qualified education expenses such as tuition and related fees.

Scholarships and fellowship grants that the student includes in income do not reduce the student’s qualified education expenses available to figure your Lifetime Learning Credit. Thus, including enough scholarship or fellowship grant in the student’s income to report up to $10,000 in qualified education expenses for your Lifetime Learning Credit may increase the credit by enough to increase your tax refund or reduce the amount of tax you owe even considering any increased tax liability from the additional income. However, the increase in tax liability as well as the loss of other tax credits may be greater than the additional Lifetime Learning Credit and may cause your tax refund to decrease or the amount of tax you owe to increase. Your specific circumstances will determine what amount, if any, of scholarship or fellowship grant to include in income to maximize your tax refund or minimize the amount of tax you owe. The scholarship or fellowship grant must be one that may (by its terms) be used for nonqualified expenses.

Finally, the amount of the scholarship or fellowship grant that is applied to nonqualified expenses cannot exceed the amount of the student’s actual nonqualified expenses that are paid in the tax year. This amount may differ from the student’s living expenses estimated by the student’s school in figuring the official cost of attendance under student aid rules. The fact that the educational institution applies the scholarship or fellowship grant to qualified education expenses, such as tuition and related fees, does not prevent the student from choosing to apply certain scholarships or fellowship grants to the student’s actual nonqualified expenses. By making this choice (that is, by including the part of the scholarship or fellowship grant applied to the student’s nonqualified expenses in income), the student may increase taxable income and may be required to file a tax return. But, this allows payments made in cash, by check, by credit or debit card, or with borrowed funds such as a student loan to be applied to qualified education expenses.

Something to consider is whether you will benefit from applying a scholarship or fellowship grant to nonqualified expenses will depend on the amount of the student’s qualified education expenses, the amount of the scholarship or fellowship grant, and whether the scholarship or fellowship grant may (by its terms) be used for nonqualified expenses. Any benefit will also depend on the student’s federal and state marginal tax rates as well as any federal and state tax credits the student claims. Before deciding, look at the total amount of your federal and state tax refunds or taxes owed and, if the student is your dependent, the student’s tax refunds or taxes owed. For example, if you are the student and you also claim the earned income credit, choosing to apply a scholarship or fellowship grant to nonqualified expenses by including the amount in your income may not benefit you if the decrease to your earned income credit as a result of including the scholarship or fellowship grant in income is more than the increase to your Lifetime Learning Credit as a result of including this amount in income.

NON-QUALIFYING EXPENSESQualified education expenses do not include amounts paid for:

  • Insurance;
  • Medical expenses (including student health fees);
  • Room and board;
  • Transportation; or
  • Similar personal, living, or family expenses.

This is true even if the amount must be paid to the institution as a condition of enrollment or attendance.

Sports, games, hobbies, and noncredit courses. Qualified education expenses generally do not include expenses that relate to any course of instruction or other education that involves sports, games or hobbies, or any noncredit course. However, if the course of instruction or other education is part of the student’s degree program or is taken by the student to acquire or improve job skills, these expenses can qualify.

Comprehensive or bundled fees. Some eligible educational institutions combine all of their fees for an academic period into one amount. If you do not receive or do not have access to an allocation showing how much you paid for qualified education expenses and how much you paid for personal expenses, such as those listed above, contact the institution. The institution is required to make this allocation and provide you with the amount you paid (or were billed) for qualified education expenses on Form 1098-T. To help you figure your Lifetime Learning Credit, the student should receive Form 1098-T. Generally, an eligible educational institution (such as a college or university) must send Form 1098-T (or acceptable substitute) to each enrolled student by January 31, 2015. An institution may choose to report either payments received (box 1), or amounts billed (box 2), for qualified education expenses. However, the amounts on Form 1098-T, boxes 1 and 2, might be different from what you paid. When figuring the credit, use only the amounts you paid or are deemed to have paid in 2015 for qualified education expenses.

In addition, Form 1098-T should give other information for that institution, such as adjustments made for prior years, the amount of scholarships or grants, reimbursements or refunds, and whether the student was enrolled at least half-time or was a graduate student. The eligible educational institution may ask for a completed Form W-9S, or similar statement to obtain the student’s name, address, and taxpayer identification number.

CLAIMING DEPENDENT’S EXPENSES – If there are qualified education expenses for your dependent during a tax year, either you or your dependent, but not both, can claim a Lifetime Learning Credit for your dependent’s expenses for that year. For you to claim a Lifetime Learning Credit for your dependent’s expenses, you must also claim an exemption for your dependent. You do this by listing your dependent’s name and other required information on Form 1040 (or Form 1040A), line 6c.

Expenses paid by dependent. If you claim an exemption on your tax return for an eligible student who is your dependent, treat any expenses paid (or deemed paid) by your dependent as if you had paid them. Include these expenses when figuring the amount of your Lifetime Learning Credit. Qualified education expenses paid directly to an eligible educational institution for your dependent under a court-approved divorce decree are treated as paid by your dependent.

Expenses paid by you. If you claim an exemption for a dependent who is an eligible student, only you can include any expenses you paid when figuring the amount of the Lifetime Learning Credit. If neither you nor anyone else claims an exemption for the dependent, only the dependent can include any expenses you paid when figuring the Lifetime Learning Credit.

Expenses paid by others. Someone other than you, your spouse, or your dependent (such as a relative or former spouse) may make a payment directly to an eligible educational institution to pay for an eligible student’s qualified education expenses. In this case, the student is treated as receiving the payment from the other person and, in turn, paying the institution. If you claim an exemption on your tax return for the student, you are considered to have paid the expenses.

Tuition reduction. When an eligible educational institution provides a reduction in tuition to an employee of the institution (or spouse or dependent child of an employee), the amount of the reduction may or may not be taxable. If it is taxable, the employee is treated as receiving a payment of that amount and, in turn, paying it to the educational institution on behalf of the student.

FIGURING THE CREDIT – The amount of the Lifetime Learning Credit is 20% of the first $10,000 of qualified education expenses you paid for all eligible students. The maximum amount of Lifetime Learning Credit you can claim for 2015 is $2,000 (20% × $10,000). However, that amount may be reduced based on your MAGI.

The amount of your Lifetime Learning Credit is phased out (gradually reduced) if your MAGI is between $54,000 and $64,000 ($108,000 and $128,000 if you file a joint return). You cannot claim a Lifetime Learning Credit if your MAGI is $64,000 or more ($128,000 or more if you file a joint return).

Modified adjusted gross income (MAGI). For most taxpayers, MAGI is adjusted gross income (AGI) as figured on their federal income tax return.

MAGI when using Form 1040A. If you file Form 1040A, your MAGI is the AGI on line 22 of that form.

MAGI when using Form 1040. If you file Form 1040, your MAGI is the AGI on line 38 of that form, modified by adding back any:

1. Foreign earned income exclusion,

2. Foreign housing exclusion,

3. Foreign housing deduction,

4. Exclusion of income by bona fide residents of American Samoa, and

5. Exclusion of income by bona fide residents of Puerto Rico.

Phase Out. If your MAGI is within the range of incomes where the credit must be reduced, you will figure your reduced credit using lines 10-18 of Form 8863.

You figure the tentative Lifetime Learning Credit (20% of the first $10,000 of qualified education expenses you paid for all eligible students). The result is a $1,320 (20% x $6,600 eligible expenses) tentative credit.

Because your MAGI is within the range of incomes where the credit must be reduced, you must multiply your tentative credit ($1,320) by a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is $128,000 (the upper limit for those filing a joint return) minus your MAGI. The denominator is $20,000, the range of incomes for the phase out ($108,000 to $128,000). The result is the amount of your phased out (reduced) Lifetime Learning Credit ($1,056).

$1,320 x ($128,000 – $112,000)/$20,000 = $1.056

Claiming the Credit You claim the Lifetime Learning Credit by completing Form 8863 and submitting it with your Form 1040 or 1040A. Enter the credit on Form 1040, line 50, or Form 1040A, line 33.


Bitcoin (BTC) Price Expected to Fall With Launch of BTC ETF!



Bitcoin (BTC) Price Expected to Fall With Launch of BTC ETF!
  • Current Price of BTC around $55K solidly.
  • BTC Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) is expected to be launched very soon.
  • BTC ETF once launched will dwindle the price of BTC down.

The beat around Bitcoin (BTC) is always a hot topic in the crypto industry. This is owing to the fact a solid portion and majority of the crypto industry is based solely on BTC. Indeed, recent times have been quite promising with the BTC. BTC crossed the $55K mark about a few days back, in the first week of October 2021. 

In spite of all this, the BTC Exchange Traded Funds (ETF) is expected to be launched very soon. This would be probably around the 3rd week of October 2021. With such a short period, many expect different outcomes upon the launch of BTC ETF.

 Apart from this, once the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) approves the BTC ETF, soon other attributes like BTC-based contracts and much more are expected to follow. Crypto analysts believe that this will lead to another all-time-high (ATH) for BTC, whereas others believe it will be vice versa. 

Analysts Predict BTC Surges with ETF

The SEC will almost completely approve the BTC ETF by October 20. In such terms, indulging the BTC to be traded like a stock upon the stock exchanges multiplies the outcomes in many aspects. 

Upon such approvals, the overall investment in BTC will rise again fueled by stocks profusely. This will in turn raise the price of BTC furthermore. 

Accordingly, many analysts term, likewise for the fourth quarter of BTC in 2020, BTC will reach its ATH in 2021 too. 

Fear of BTC Downfalls

On the contrary, certain CEOs of various financial institutions term that the recent surge of BTC price is completely driven by institutions and firms. On such a basis, the prices of BTC will not remain stable for a longer period. 

In addition, the approval of the BTC ETF many financial institutions CEOs predict will only lead to the dwindling down of BTC, same as at the end of 2020. 

Furthermore, the CEO of Pantera Capital, Hedge fund manager, Dan Morehead sarcastically says to buy such rumors and at the same time to sell the news in regards to BTC ETF.

Also, Morehead comments to remind him when the BTC ETF gets approved. This is so that he could move away from his BTC investments safely or even withdraw a major portion!

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TA: Ethereum Breaking This Resistance Could Spark a Significant Surge




Ethereum corrected lower below $3,500 against the US Dollar. ETH price remained supported and it is now eyeing a key upside break above the $3,650 resistance.

  • Ethereum started a fresh increase above the $3,500 resistance level.
  • The price is now trading above $3,550 and the 100 hourly simple moving average.
  • There was a break above a key bearish trend line with resistance near $3,560 on the hourly chart of ETH/USD (data feed via Kraken).
  • The pair could gain bullish momentum once there is a clear break above $3,640 and $3,650.

Ethereum Price Eyes Key Upside Break

Ethereum started a downside correction from the $3,634 swing high. ETH traded below the $3,550 support level and the 100 hourly simple moving average.

However, the price remained well bid above the $3,350 support. A low was formed near $3,375 and the price started a fresh increase. There was a clear break above the $3,500 and $3,550 resistance levels. Ether surpassed the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the $3,634 swing high to $3,375 low.

There was also a break above a key bearish trend line with resistance near $3,560 on the hourly chart of ETH/USD. The pair is now trading above $3,550 and the 100 hourly simple moving average.

Source: ETHUSD on

It is also well above the 76.4% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the $3,634 swing high to $3,375 low. An immediate resistance on the upside is near the $3,600 level. The first major resistance is near the $3,620 level.

The next major resistance is near the $3,650 level, above which the price might start a fresh surge. In the stated case, the price could climb towards the $3,720 level. The next key resistance might be $3,800.

Dips Limited in ETH?

If ethereum fails to continue higher above the $3,620 and $3,650 resistance levels, it could start a fresh downside correction. An initial support on the downside is near the $3,550 level.

The first key support is now forming near the $3,520 level and the 100 hourly simple moving average. Any more losses could lead ether price towards the $3,400 support zone.

Technical Indicators

Hourly MACDThe MACD for ETH/USD is gaining pace in the bullish zone.

Hourly RSIThe RSI for ETH/USD is now above the 50 level.

Major Support Level – $3,500

Major Resistance Level – $3,650

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Dohrnii Academy – A Novel Education Ecosystem for Crypto Investors




Dohrnii Academy bridges the gap between novice investors and the crypto market by providing a diverse learning curriculum that is immersive, intuitive, and engaging. The Academy serves as a bridge for investors who want to enter the crypto space but want to learn the basics before diving headfirst.

The Academy’s tenets are deeply rooted in its belief that financial empowerment is a fundamental right. They believe that the current education system is not adapted to the needs of the younger generations and that money management is a topic that is often overlooked in the traditional curriculum. The Dohrnii Foundation uses a deeply gamified approach to learning which also rewards users as they complete tests and quizzes. They call this learn-to-earn. Their system stands out as a game-changer in the education space as they reverse the traditional monetary flow, which usually makes the student pay-to-learn.

Features of Dohrnii Academy

Most first-time investors enter the crypto market with limited knowledge about this space, what moves the market or why it does so. The Dohrnii Foundation places the emphasis on giving access to high-quality content about what they believe to be fundamental bricks of any successful investor’s house: economics, finance, cryptography and blockchain; these are the modules the platform will focus on in the first phase of the project.

Built around these topics is a whole suite of features that the platform will offer.

  • Lessons – This feature focuses on two modules; the first is economics and finance, the second is cryptography and blockchain. The Dohrnii Foundation teamed up with university professors and lecturers to create high-quality lessons and ensure that the curriculum and the themes covered are on par with the best schools and universities. This section is also where you will find the learn-to-earn feature. As users progress along with the curriculum, they go through checkpoints to unlock different types of tests. If they succeed, they get rewarded with tokens.
  • Gamified learning – The Dohrnii team has put a lot of effort into ensuring an engaging and fun experience for the learner. Gamification of the learning boosts productivity through various elements such as peer competition, teamwork, point-scoring, and knowledge testing. The platform has several features focused on augmenting the experience of the learner, one of which is a “challenge” feature that lets users play and test their knowledge against each other, which could be fun!
  • Strategies and Investment Concepts – The platform is also an excellent tool for investors to learn or refresh their memory about crucial investment strategies and concepts. This section lets users navigate some of the most common methods, outlining the biggest mistakes people make while implementing them. They also show you the best investors in the world at that strategy; they call it “The best in the game” section.

Dohrnii stands out for everyday crypto users

The Dohrnii Academy sets itself apart as an education platform for equipping first-time investors and seasoned experts with financial literacy and the knowledge they need to improve their chance of success. Using innovative methods enables the platform to cater to both newcomers and more sophisticated investors by giving each of them an incentive to learn more about aspects of the market and develop their skills further. The platform is truly a revolutionary system as it uses the power of gaming to teach you something that will make a difference in your life.

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Forget NFT Avatars, Owning and Trading NFT Colors Could Be the Next NFT Trend on OpenSea, Rarible and Foundation



Forget NFT Avatars, Owning and Trading NFT Colors Could Be the Next NFT Trend on OpenSea, Rarible and Foundation

In brief

  • New NFT project, BitColors, wants to give users the ability to own and trade colors as NFT tokens.
  • Just like with CryptoPunks, early adopters may be in for some massive ROI.

NFTs are still such a big deal

Following Beeple’s $69.3 million NFT sales in March, the digital art market appears to have gone into an overdrive mode. In the first half of 2021, the market for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) surged to $2.5 billion. Comparatively, the sales volume of the global NFT market was $338 million in 2020.

From investors spending millions of dollars on CryptoPunks to digital artists churning out new NFTs at a record pace, one could assume that the frenzy is only just beginning. However, some industry experts have argued that the NFT flame will eventually burn out. For instance, Litecoin’s Charlie Lee predicts that the value of most non-fungible tokens will eventually crash to zero as supply overwhelms demand. He wrote:

“The problem with NFTs is that they are non-finite tokens. There is zero cost to create an unlimited number of tokens.”

For some context, a non-fungible token is a crypto asset used to represent a tangible or intangible item such as an image, in-game item, real-life artwork, or even real estate. The properties and ownership of the NFT are recorded on a blockchain, allowing it to be traded as a stand-in for the item it represents.

Will Investors Lose Money?

The current NFT landscape is primarily a proliferation of a few successful collections like CryptoPunks and several others. To a large extent, these copy and paste projects do not bring anything new, instead, they rely on randomly generated avatars. Lee is right to an extent based on this argument.

On the flip side, it would be wrong to dismiss the entire NFT market on the premise of the proliferation of digital art and several CryptoPunk wannabes. That being said, the next million-dollar NFT project may not necessarily be a 24×24 pixel art image of misfits and eccentrics or a collage of 5,000 pieces. It might be something entirely out of the box.

Innovation will rule the scenes

Speaking of out of the box, a new NFT project is looking past digital art. The project, known as BitColors, features a collection of 1,000 handcrafted NFT colors. Thus they are creating a rabbit hole where users are allowed to own and trade colors.

BitColors is introducing a new angle to the NFT frenzy as there are currently no other projects like this. Considering its early-mover advantage, early adopters may be able to replicate the success of projects like CryptoPunks in the form of an exponential ROI.

Every color in the collection is handcrafted, with no artificially predetermined traits with no soul in them. BitColors users have the freedom to decide the value of each color based on their own feelings. In general, this appears to be an art project that might catch the attention of auction houses like Christie’s, Hermitage, and Sotheby’s.

Another interesting aspect of BitColors is the fact that it has kept the size of its collection at a relatively small number. With just 1,000 NFTs, the project is priming the future value of its tokens by introducing an element of scarcity.


NFTs are definitely here to stay. The underlying tech behind the sector packs such immense potential. Even though the rave of the moment is to try to buy an NFT at a cheap price and flip it for massive profit, the future of the sector and possible use cases will likely extend beyond what we are already familiar with. In the long run, only projects that bring something unique to the table will stand the test of time.


Image by garageband from Pixabay

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India’s First Sports NFTs By Cricketer Dinesh Karthik



India’s First Sports NFTs By Cricketer Dinesh Karthik
  • Dinesh karthik brings out India’s first sports NFTs.
  • These NFTs are based on Dinesh Karthik’s last ball six epic winnings.
  • Planned to be launched on October 12.

With many Bollywood actors bringing out their own non-fungible tokens (NFT), the NFT fever is all set high for India. In such terms, the famous and legendary cricketer Dinesh Karthik now enters the NFT league too. 

Last Ball Six NFT

Accordingly, Dinesh Karthik has made ready NFTs based on his epic last ball six victory over Bangladesh in 2018. This was during the Nidahas Trophy finals. It was a moment in history for Dinesh Karthik as he was under immense pressure. The match came down to 5 runs from 1 ball, to win the situation for India. 

With all the pressure built up with that single strike, Dinesh Karthik managed a six from the last ball, moving India to victory. 

Moreover, this NFT from Dinesh Karthik will become India’s very first sports-based NFT, once launched. In addition, the NFT will be an artwork and animation digitally rendered which will be of the last ball thrown, the strike by Dinesh Karthik, and also the celebrations after the six-hit. 

Furthermore, this NFT will be featuring Dinesh Karthik’s voicing of his mind thoughts, the pressure faced, and emotions while targeting the last ball for the six. Besides, the NFT will be launched on October 12 and will be sold at an auction though. 

Dinesh Karthik’s Views

Dinesh Karthik terms that particular moment as one of the greatest in his life. In order to preserve the essence of it and thought of making it immortal, Dinesh Karthik decided to make an NFT of it. 

In addition, the cricketer puts out that he wants everyone to feel the emotion and his struggles behind that last ball six hits. Also, he terms he wants to share the same with all his fans and most importantly to make the moment immortal.

Besides, Dinesh Karthik revealed that for this he made good use of the recent pandemic lockdown time to come up with this NFT project. The terms he has obviously done a vast amount of research and his brother-in-law, squash player Saurav Ghoshal helped him throughout the NFT journey. 

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Strategic Partnership Established with Pantera, IOSG, and Shima Capital – ViaBTC Capital Makes a Star Blockchain Investor



Strategic Partnership Established with Pantera, IOSG, and Shima Capital – ViaBTC Capital Makes a Star Blockchain Investor

Joined Forces to Explore the Promising Future

 In August 2021, ViaBTC Capital formed a strategic partnership with Pantera, IOSG, Shima Capital, and other institutions to fuel blockchain innovation.

With the vision of “making the world a better place through blockchain”, the strategic alliance focuses on blockchain infrastructure to accelerate the development of the cryptocurrency field. By leveraging strengths, the alliance scouts for innovative budding projects with great prospects and helps aspiring teams to succeed. Funds and resources are provided to developers with bravery and creativity. Together with these developers, the alliance can explore a new path that satisfies the growing demand of users, enhance technical strength, and facilitate commercialization.

ViaBTC Capital has already worked with several investment institutions to support many potential projects in the very early stage. These projects include Qredo (institutional-grade infrastructure), Lunarcrush (media data aggregator), and Nabox (multi-chain WEB 3.0 wallet). Currently, ViaBTC Capital focuses investment on Web 3.0, Layer2, and DApp applications that combine DeFi, NFT and DAO. Through close cooperation with ViaBTC’s blockchain ecosystem, these projects can better grow their business, which, in turn, can nourish ViaBTC’s ecosystem, making a win-win situation.

Focus on development and win-win results to create a leading blockchain investment institution

ViaBTC Capital is a wholly-owned investment brand established by ViaBTC Group, a blockchain technology enterprise with 5 years’ experience in the blockchain field. Relying on ViaBTC Group’s abundant industry resources, gathering pools technology, talents, projects and capital in related industries around the world, and cooperating closely with Pantera, IOSG, and Shima Capital, ViaBTC Capital is believed to realize its journey toward a world-class blockchain investment institution.

Having engaged in the blockchain industry since its establishment in 2016, ViaBTC Group has set foot in every sector of the blockchain industry. ViaBTC Group is second to none in terms of the crypto business layout – its business includes ViaBTC Pool, the second largest mining pool in the world by hashrates, CoinEx Exchange, ViaWallet, and CoinEx Smart Chain, covering every aspect of blockchain industry from cryptocurrency issuance, circulation and valuation to the underlying technology.

ViaBTC will not only provide financial support but also offer a post-investment service by utilizing its industry resources accumulated for years. (eg. technology support, community promotion.) Backed by the strong international community of ViaBTC Group, ViaBTC Capital can be very helpful in marketing. ViaBTC has a strong relationship with top global investors, the invested projects are exposed to top venture capitals by our recommendation. Those projects even have opportunities of being listed on CoinEx Exchange. Mentioned resources and advantages are derived from the persistence and accumulation of ViaBTC over the years, and will also serve the ecosystem development of the entire blockchain industry as ViaBTC Capital grows. These efforts have vividly mirrored the long-standing commitment of ViaBTC Group to the blockchain vision–‘Faith drives the realization of the blockchain’. We are looking forward to meeting more like-minded friends and promote blockchain technology to a wider area.

Work together for an underlying infrastructure of the blockchain world

ViaBTC Capital’s strategic alliance partners are all veteran investment institution brands in the cryptocurrency industry.

Pantera Capital, a hedge fund founded in 2003 by Dan Morehead in Menlo Park, California, USA, provides investors with the full spectrum of exposure to the space, ranging from illiquid venture capital assets (including early-stage tokens and multi-stage venture capital equity) to more liquid assets like bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

IOSG Ventures, founded in 2017, is a community-friendly and research-driven early-stage venture firm across China, the US and Singapore. It focuses on open finance, Web 3.0 and infrastructure for a decentralized economy. Its portfolio covers many projects, including Layer 1 (NEAR, Polkadot, Cosmos), DeFi (1inch, Synthetix, UMA), with investment experience in 12 vertical industries.

Shima Capital is an early-stage global venture firm focused on supporting cutting-edge blockchain start-ups as well as a native blockchain investor with traditional VC experience. Its global team is based in California and abroad, and boasts keen insights into blockchain projects across the globe.

From now on, ViaBTC Capital will join forces with the three top mature investment institutions to provide high-quality blockchain projects with all-around solutions covering financing, technology, and resources. We will vigorously invest in the industry’s emerging start-ups and make full use of advantages including funds, technology, and the channel matrix, ViaBTC Capital will establish an investment ecosystem of quality, create a new strategic engine for the brand, enhance China’s position in blockchain investment, and make itself an accelerator for the innovation and development of the cryptocurrency industry.


Image by Anemone123 from Pixabay


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Leading Social Platform Chingari Continues Exponential Growth, Taps into Solana’s Blockchain With $19M Funding Round



Panther and BUMPER Protocol announce partnership to provide seamless DeFi user experience

Bangalore, India, 11th October, 2021,

Chingari, one of India’s leading short-videos sharing platforms with over 78 Million downloads, successfully completed a funding round that raised over $19 Million for its token round across more than 30 venture funds and individual investors. Some of the biggest firms in crypto investment participated in the funding round, including Republic Crypto, Galaxy Digital, Alameda Research, Solana Capital, Valor Equity Partners, Kraken Ventures, Blackpine, NGC, Coinfund, LD Capital, 11-11 Ventures, AU21, Cultur3 Capital, Long Term Ventures, Afton Capital, CSP DAO, among others.

Since its redesign in June 2020, many new apps such as Chingari, Roposo and Trell worked to fill the vacuum created by TikTok’s ban in India. Ever since, the number of Chingari  users have increased exponentially, surpassing milestones of 100k, 1M, 10M and then 50M – all in just six months. Spurring its growth is the creator-centric model, attracting top talent and generating intriguing content for its nearly 80 Million users. The platform won the ‘App Innovation Challenge’ by the Government of India, was mentioned by name in a speech given by the Prime Minister, and has one of the best metrics for India social media for Engagement Time, Video Watched, DAUs, and MAUs (daily and monthly active users).

The venture firms participating were enthusiastic about the roadmap of Chingari, the app’s meteoric rise in popularity in 2021, as well as the $GARI token developments made to date. Investors were especially excited about how Chingari is creating a mainstream use case for crypto in India. The tokens are powered by Solana’s high performance blockchain — making for the first major web2 company integrating web3 into its product.   

Andrew Durgee, Managing Partner at Republic Capital, stated:  “At Republic, we believe social tokens are an essential piece of the crypto community and creator economy. Chingari shares this vision and has taken innovative steps to bring that vision to life. Their creators and users will now be able to more truly monetize their own engagements and experiences.”

Sumit Ghosh, CEO of Chingari, said in response to the successful funding round: “The future of a platform lies in its creators. On one side, we have an immense talent pool that needs to be explored, and rewarded with an ethical amount of monetization. On the other side, while Crypto experiences a rapid expansion in India, $GARI is poised to make it mainstream. We are infusing the two, through robust strategies and incorporation of the most-promising industry advances.”

He added, “The result of this infusion is Social Tokens as the future of community platforms for Creator Monetization. It is reaching new milestones as we speak.”

With the funds raised, key features will continue development for the Chingari platform. Near-term roadmap milestones include testing of the blockchain live, Chingari Integration beta, and the upcoming $GARI token sale. The token is a critical piece of the platform, enabling creators to set up their own ecommerce space that includes physical merchandise, their NFT creations, and the ability for fans to fund their favorite artists. Token owners will also help guide the future of the platform. This round of funding is an important and positive step towards realizing Chingari’s vision as a global leader in  blockchain-based Social Infotainment.

About Chingari:

Chingari is one of India’s leading short-videos sharing platforms with over 78 Million downloads. With 30 Million monthly active users, it offers users the option of downloading & uploading videos, chatting with friends, interacting with new people, sharing content, e-shopping, watching movies on Chingari Multiplex and browsing through the feed.

With Chingari, users enjoy:

  • Videos customized just for them
  • Hyper-realistic AR filters
  • Massive Song Library
  • Content in more than 20 languages

Chingari won the award for ‘The Most Popular Social Media App’ at the recently held ‘Times Business Awards 2021’. This prestigious honour has been a major motivation to shape Chingari’s onward journey to continue surprising users with the finest in entertainment, technology & innovation.

Chingari’s token $GARI, powers India’s only blockchain-based Social Infotainment platform.  With its launch, Chingari aims to revolutionize Creator Monetization in the market, while enabling creators to hone their skills.  



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6 Ways to Generate 100 Free Mortgage Leads in 20 Days




Could you use some free mortgage leads? If you’re new to the mortgage business or a veteran loan officer who is a little short on cash, you’ll be happy to know there are several ways to generate free mortgage leads.

That’s right. Even if you’re dead broke, you can still generate good, quality, pre-qualified mortgage leads at no cost. Just keep reading and I’ll share 6 powerful steps to generate free mortgage leads.

1) Create a powerful unique selling proposition (USP)

If you don’t currently have a unique selling proposition – Find one. What makes you different from all the other mortgage lenders out there? What makes you better? Why should a prospect use you over a competitor? Answer these questions and you will have your unique selling proposition.

This is an important first step because you will need a strong USP to generate free mortgage leads using the tips below.

2) Find joint venture partners

Offer a referral fee of $100 to $1000 for any referral resulting in a funded loan. Offer this opportunity to all friends, family, neighbors, anyone and everyone.

Can you call the past clients of a co-worker to generate referrals? If so, you could split the commissions generated from your efforts.

3) Give free seminars

Arrange to present your USP to others to produce referrals. Here are some ideas:

1) Contact the sales manager at real estate offices to present your USP at a realtor sales meeting

2) Contact human resource managers. Give a free seminar to employees of a company.

3) Present your USP to CPA’s or financial planners to create referral relationships.

4) Contact divorce attorneys and offer your services to their clients.

5) Contact relocation companies

Do you need some ideas for how to successfully approach these professional? If so, visit the following web page and download three sample approach letters:


4) Write Articles

Write articles about mortgage products, rates, no closing cost loans or no money down financing. Then submit your articles to article directories with your contact information at the end of the article. Here are the article directories I recommend:


Try to include the following elements in your articles:

1) Useful information – a must!

2) A text link to your site.

3) A lead generating offer relating to the subject mater in your article.

Provide a link to a web page on your site where the reader can get a complementary special report or something else of value.

If you submit just two articles a week to the sites listed above, after one year you would have 100 articles all over the internet. If you publish useful information, these 100 articles could easily generate hundreds if not thousands of free mortgage leads daily.

5) Start your direct mail campaign

Borrow money from a friend or family member and start a mail campaign. Use a credit card or borrow a credit card to get started.

If you borrow money or a credit card, offer that person a split of the commissions generated from the project.

6) Cross sell

Once you get a client using one of the 5 tips above, impress them with your extraordinary customer service skills and generate a testimonial. Use that testimonial to create a referral relationship with:

* HR manager at their work

* Listing real estate agent and that agents entire office

* Selling real estate agents and that agents entire office


* Financial planner

* Insurance agent

* The seller of the home on a purchase transaction

* Title Company

* Real estate appraiser

* Neighbors

There you have it. Use these 6 tips to help jump start your mortgage business.

For more helpful mortgage lead generation tips and advice visit the Mortgage Marketing Blog at:


Please feel free to reprint this article as long as the resource box is left intact and all links are hyperlinked.

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Picking the Right Mortgage Broker




About half the deals that I do are with mortgage broker that I recommend. The other half is a toss-up. Meaning I never know who I am going to get to work with. Yes, work with. A lot of buyers think that they will be the only ones working with their lenders, however as a real estate broker, I put in a lot of time with them as well. It’s my job to make sure that they have all the documents necessary for the sale, as well to make sure that our mortgage approval deadline is met.

The deadline that was created in the offer is of utmost importance to everyone involved. Sellers are already nervous, so to ask for an extension could potentially kill the deal. They are not obliged to extend. It’s up to me, if I am in that situation, to convince the sellers and their real estate broker that we are still on track to get the mortgage approval, even though we haven’t gotten it yet.

One of my jobs is to stay in collaboration with the listing broker. If I keep them in the loop every step of the way, they will be understanding of what is happening if I have to ask for an extension. Normally it’s in the best interest of the seller to continue with the offer rather than drop it for the next one. However if you got the accepted deal while in a multiple offer circumstance, the situation isn’t stable. The seller doesn’t want to lose time dealing with you when they might have another buyer who has been bugging them for a chance.

Time delays in an offer

When I receive an offer or create one for my buyers, we normally see 10-14 calendar days for financing for a residential property. Over the years, I have been finding that banks are taking much longer to approve the financing. They have stricter criteria and more red tape, which creates more delays. Many buyers may not have their files complete with their mortgage broker as well, which also creates time delays.

“I’ve experienced hundreds of interactions with mortgage brokers, and there have been instances that could have easily been avoided with the right questions from the start. On one deal I did, the mortgage broker was from Calgary. He didn’t know our laws, the time difference was an issue and he didn’t speak French. It was horrible for me and my clients.”

Questions to ask yourself about your mortgage broker

– Do they live in Montreal (know the Quebec laws and speaks French)?

– Will they be available or will they be on vacation or away?

– Will they take care of your case 100%, and not pass it on to an assistant or let the bank deal with it all? (Meaning will they represent you fully and take care of you completely)

– Are they available on weekends for emergencies?

– Do they work for one bank and their products, or are they independent and work with all banks?

– Which banks do they have personal relationships with. This helps to have pull if they need to ask a favour for a rush job.

– For expenses, make sure from the start that the bank evaluation is paid for by someone else besides yourself, preferably the bank. Some mortgage brokers have special deals with notaries or movers, helping you save money.

These questions are to help you chose the best person to work on your team. Yes team. When buying, your team consists of your mortgage broker, your real estate broker, a notary, insurance broker and your building inspector. For all of these professionals, you will either be using a recommended person or doing research to find the best deal. Deal = price + service.

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Can This Project Eliminate Wrapped Tokens from the DeFi Markets?




Wrapped tokens are being widely adopted because they enable crypto traders to leverage their assets on multiple blockchains or distributed ledger technology (DLT) platforms.

For instance, Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC), which are BTC tokens that have been “wrapped” into another token format, may be used on the Ethereum blockchain to conduct transactions involving smart contracts.

But it might now be possible to completely eliminate these so-called Wrapped tokens from cryptocurrency trading. With this new approach, platform developers could significantly lower the time, effort, and costs associated with conducting DeFi-related transfers. By effectively removing the need to wrap tokens, transactions could become a lot more efficient, because the process of actually wrapping tokens is quite cumbersome, particularly for novice traders.

Native Cryptocurrency Tradable Without Wrapping Tokens

Portal’s cross-chain decentralized exchange with atomic swaps has been specifically created to remove the requirement of wrapping tokens. This is possible because the virtual currency of incompatible blockchains or DLT networks can be traded natively and without needing to interact or involve a risky third party.

Atomic swaps are basically automatic exchange contracts that enable different parties to trade tokens belonging to separate blockchain networks. Often called atomic cross-chain trading, this approach effectively eliminates the requirement for centralized services when performing cryptocurrency trades.

As noted by its developers, Portal is a self-hosted, Layer-2 digital wallet and cross-chain DEX that’s deployed on the Bitcoin blockchain. It supports atomic swaps between Bitcoin or BTC and other cryptocurrency tokens in a fast, secure, and private way.

In September 2021, Portal acquired $8.5 million through a fundraising round so that the project’s team can implement a self-sovereign and uncensorable DeFi solution that’s built on top of the Bitcoin network. Currently, the DeFi ecosystem is dominated by Ethereum, however, the Bitcoin blockchain is also quite large and has enormous network effects that can be leveraged by traders and investors in the DeFi space.

It’s worth noting that Portal’s investment round included participation from prominent investors like ArringtonXRP Capital, Coinbase Ventures, MarketAcross, OKEx, and

Michael Arrington, Founder at ArringtonXRP, has explained that decentralized cross-chain bridging remains one of the most difficult tasks in the blockchain industry, particularly as several different DLT networks begin to gain considerable adoption.

Arrington added that Portal’s Bitcoin-native approach to multichain transfers could potentially provide an alternative and viable bridging mechanism to the growing number of on-chain traders.

This should allow traders to conduct a wide range of crypto transactions that wasn’t possible before, due to incompatibility issues.

Brain Johnson from Republic Capital has noted that interoperability is an important attribute for blockchain or DLT platforms, which will allow them to transition into the wider financial services industry. He pointed out that Republic Capital has made a strategic investment in Portal since they are interested in their approach to supporting atomic swaps. By leveraging the Bitcoin network’s robust security and using it as an anchor, the Republic Capital team believes that Portal is in a suitable position to create a useful set of bridges to the DeFi ecosystem.

By developing these bridges, DeFi transactions should become more widely adopted, and could even encourage more institutional investors to gain exposure to this nascent space.

Leveraging Trust Minimization Guarantees of the BTC Blockchain

Portal plans to provide adequate speed and sufficient liquidity usually available on centralized trading platforms and intends to offer the “trust minimization guarantees of Bitcoin.”

From spot markets to options, peer-to-peer lending and borrowing, all utilizing on-chain, P2P contracts and without needing third-party custody requirements, Portal intends to assist users with leveraging BTC’s potential to start to really decentralize finance.

At the core of Portal is its Layer-2/Layer-3 technology, called Fabric, which is an open-source toolkit for creating censorship-resistant layers on top of Bitcoin’s base layer.

Fabric enables completely private, off-chain smart contract execution for digital asset issuance, peer-to-peer swaps, staking, liquidity, derivatives, and several other applications.

Eric Marindale, CEO at Portal, added that by providing a fast, peer-to-peer, Layer-2 exchange — with speed that’s usually only available on centralized exchanges but with a high level of privacy — Portal is in an ideal position to deliver on the promise of “self-sovereignty for everyone.”

Eric also mentioned that the majority of centralized exchanges are really not “decentralized” DEXs, as they claim. They are actually just custodially wrapped tokens and usually have censorable ecosystems that “all threaten Bitcoin’s promise of self-sovereignty.” Meanwhile, Fabric tech “enables Layer 3 privacy on cross-chain transactions and eliminates the need for centralized custodians,” Eric noted.

Ensuring that End-Users Maintain Control Over their Assets

Martindale stated that they believe that Bitcoin provides the financial infrastructure that the free, uncensorable internet-of-the-future will be developed on, and although they’re starting off with only a P2P exchange, their mission is to become “The Platform for decentralized, peer-to-peer human interactions… be it communications, financial transactions, or social media.”

The platform utilizes Bitcoin’s “hash time-locked contracts” to make sure that the users retain full control over the digital assets “offered up in trade, preventing counterparty risk and loss of funds.”

It also aims to reward anonymous, “self-interested” third-parties “to intermediate transactions between mutually untrusting peers while guaranteeing security.”

The platform has received funding ahead of Portal’s upcoming public token sale, which is scheduled to be conducted on during this month.

As noted by its development team, Portal is a DeFi service that’s built on Bitcoin. It aims to  make DeFi truly “unstoppable with anonymous, zero-knowledge swaps via the first true cross-chain DEX that’s genuinely trustless.”

It has been designed to “eliminate minting wrapped coins (ie wBTC, wETH) or risky staking with intermediaries.” With Portal, DeFi becomes a solution that “anyone can provide, maintaining anonymity within open, transparent markets with a security model as robust as Bitcoin mining.”

As explained by its creators, the Fabric protocol is Portal’s Layer-2/Layer-3 tech that “enables building censorship-resistant communications, media and one-click cross-chain swaps, all on Bitcoin.”


Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay
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