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Arrokoth And The Many Mysteries Of The Primordial Sky



There is a distant, dim domain of everlasting twilight in our Solar System’s outer limits, where our Sun can glow gently with only a faint, feeble fire. This faraway region is named the Kuiper belt, and it is the home of the dwarf planet Pluto, its large frigid moon, Charon, and a multitude of other frozen objects that include a dancing sea of icy comet nuclei. Fragile and ephemeral, comets that come streaking inward towards the brilliant light and melting heat of our Star, are the fleeing refugees from this remote region of perpetual dusk. In February 2020, planetary scientists from NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto, and beyond, announced that data collected from this mission are providing new insights into how planets and planetesimals–the building blocks of planets–were born in our primordial Solar System. The New Horizons spacecraft soared past the ancient Kuiper belt object (KBO) Arrokoth (2014 MU 69) on January 1, 2019, providing humanity with its very first close-up view of one of those mysterious icy relics of our Solar System’s birth almost five billion years ago.

Using detailed data on Arrokoth’s shape, geology, color and composition–collected during a record-setting flyby that took place more than 4,000,000,000 miles from Earth–planetary scientists announced in February 2020 that they have been able to answer a longstanding question about planetesimal origins, and therefore they have made a major advance in our understanding of how the planets themselves were born. The team reports those findings in a set of three papers published in the February 13, 2020 issue of the journal Science. The scientists also presented their findings at a media briefing held at the annual American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting in Seattle, Washington.

486958 Arrokoth is the provisional name of 2014 MU 69, a trans-Neptunian object. It is a contact binary, 22 miles long, made up of a duo of icy primordial planetesimals that are 13 miles and 9 miles across. The two planetesimals have been nicknamed Ultima and Thule, respectively, and they are bound together along their major axes. Ultima is flatter than Thule, and it is actually an aggregate of 8–or more–smaller objects, each approximately 3 miles across. These smaller objects are believed to have fused together before Ultima and Thule met up and merged together. Because there have apparently been no–or very few–catastrophic impacts on Arrokoth since it formed, the history of its formation has been preserved in our Solar System’s deep freeze, far from the melting heat of our roiling Star.

Arrokoth is both the most distant and most primitive object in our Solar System to be visited by a spacecraft. It was discovered on June 26, 2014 by Dr. Marc Bule and the New Horizons Search Team using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of a hunt for the KBO that would become the target of New Horizons in its first extended mission. This discovery required the use of the HST because, with an apparent magnitude of only 26, Arrokoth is far too faint to be observed–except by the most powerful telescopes. The HST also has the capability to conduct extremely precise astrometry. This means that it can provide a reliable determination of an orbit.

Arrokoth was chosen over two other candidate KBOs, and thus became the destination of New Horizons’ extended mission beyond Pluto. With an orbital period of about 298 years and a low orbital inclination and eccentricity, Arrokoth is designated a cold classical KBO.

The provisional name Arrokoth itself comes from the Powhatan region of Virginia and Maryland, where Arrokoth’s discovery occurred. The HST and Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory are both operated in Maryland and are primarily responsible for Arrokoth’s 2014 discovery.

Pluto And Beyond

On July 14, 2015, after its dangerous decade-long odyssey through space, New Horizons reached its primary target in the Kuiper belt–the ice dwarf planet Pluto and its family of five icy moons–including its large moon, Charon, which is almost half the size of Pluto. New Horizons, after successfully making its historic closest approach to the Pluto system, sent back to Earth some revealing images of this faraway small world with a big heart.

For most of the 20th century, astronomers considered Pluto to be a lonely little world, where it dwells in the outer domain of our Solar System. However, this viewpoint changed back in 1992, when a second KBO was discovered in this region. Because of this discovery, planetary scientists came to the realization that Pluto is far from alone in this remote frozen region of perpetual twilight. Indeed, Pluto orbits our Star in the company of myriad others of its mysterious frigid kind. Since 1992, a multitude of other icy, rocky little worlds, very similar to Pluto, have been discovered by astronomers searching for these distant bodies. Some of the other distant denizens of our Solar System’s deep freeze also orbit our Star in eccentric orbits–just like Pluto. The dwarf planet Eris is one of the most important of these scattered disc objects. Discovered back in 2005, Eris is a bit more massive than Pluto, and its discovery is what forced planetary scientists to realize that Pluto is merely one of many. As a result, at that time, poor little Pluto was unceremoniously evicted from the pantheon of major planets, and is now classified as an ice dwarf–a mere dwarf planet, but a planet nonetheless. Prior to that, Pluto was classified as the ninth major planet from our Star.

KBOs are generally believed to be made up mainly of a combination of ice and rock. The Kuiper belt extends out from the orbit of Neptune to approximately 50 astronomical units (AU). One AU is equal to the mean distance between Earth and Sun, which is about 93,000,000 miles. Neptune’s average distance from our Star is approximately 30.1 AU–its perhihelion (when it is closest to our Star) is 29.8 AU, while its aphelion (when it is farthest from our Star) is 30.4 AU.

After completing its primary mission of a flyby over Pluto and its moons, the New Horizon spacecraft was maneuvered for its future flight over the distant Arrokoth.

Arrokoth And Its Many Mysteries

Arrokoth, as the most remote, primitive, and purest object ever explored by a spaceship, has a unique story to tell us. This remote little object has enabled planetary scientists to make important progress in their understanding of how planets formed in the primordial Solar System. The first post-flyby images obtained from New Horizons in 2019 revealed that Arrokoth is actually composed of two interconnected blades with smooth surfaces, as well as the same composition. This indicates that it is most likely a pristine object and, as such, it provides valuable information about how it was formed.

These interesting new findings contribute to the many historic accomplishments of an important mission. NASA’s discoveries obtained from New Horizons have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of how planetary bodies were born in our Solar System–as well as in distant planetary systems beyond our own.

In the future, the New Horizons team plans on using data with greater resolution. The scientists are also planning to use sophisticated supercomputer simulations in order to create models of how Arrokoth may have formed billions of years ago.

Their analysis has already revealed that Arrokoth’s “binary contact” lobes were originally two separate objects, orbiting close to each other at slow speeds. Ultimately, the duo gently collided and merged together to form the 22 mm body observed by New Horizons.

This information indicates that Arrokoth was born during the gravitational collapse of solid particle clouds in the original primordial solar nebula that gave birth to our Sun and its family of planets, moons, and other objects, about 4.56 billion years ago. In dramatic contrast to a high-speed collision and hierarchical accumulation, the particles that created Arrokoth merged together gently when the cloud collapsed. This indicates that Arrokoth, and other similar objects inhabiting the ancient Solar System, gradually increased in size to form ever larger and larger bodies. In a way that has been compared to how fossils show the way species evolved on our own planet, lingering planetesimals like Arrokoth reveal how planets evolved in our own Solar System–and beyond.

Arrokoth would not look the way it does if it had formed as the result of a violent collision in our primordial Solar System. Instead, evidence indicates that it formed as the result of a more complex and gentle ballet in which the two dancing planetesimals slowly orbited one another before their dance gravitationally drew them both together, thus forming the two lobed single planetesimal observed today.

Two other important lines of evidence support this scenario. The uniform surface composition and color of Arrokoth reveal that it formed from materials dancing closely to one another, as predicted by local collapsing patterns within clouds. This contrasts with a model indicating that it formed from material located in more widely separated regions of the primordial solar nebula.

In addition, the flattened shape of each of Arrokoth’s two lobes, as well as its very narrow polar alignment and equator, indicate that it was born in an orderly cradle. Also, Arrokoth’s smooth surface suggests that its face has been well preserved in our Solar System’s dusky deep freeze since the end of the era of planet formation. This means that Arrokoth displays physical properties indicating that it formed as the result of gradually and gently merging objects that formed near one another in the solar nebula.

The three papers published in the February 13, 2020 issue of the journal Science are based on ten times more data than the first reports that were published about the new findings. Together the papers provide a more complete portrayal of Arrokoth’s mysterious origins.

New Horizons continues to observe objects dancing in the distant Kuiper belt. In the summer of 2020, the New Horizons team plans to use a large telescope on Earth to hunt for additional KBOs that can be studied–and also search for other potential targets for the spacecraft.

As of this writing, the New Horizons spacecraft is 7.1 billion kilometers from Earth. It is still operating normally, as it soars through this unexplored, frigid twilight region at speeds of almost 50,400 kilometers per hour.

New Horizons Principal Investigator Dr. Alan Stern explained their reasons for giving Arrokoth its name:

“The name ‘Arrokoth’ reflects the inspiration of looking to the skies, and wondering about the stars and worlds beyond our own. That desire to learn is at the heart of the New Horizons’ mission, and we’re honored to join with the Powhatan community and people of Maryland in this celebration of discovery.”

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How Can Automated Social Bookmarking Build Backlinks?




Automated Social Bookmarking
The only traffic I like to experience is the one that drives to my blog. There are several ways to get traffic to your site be it paid or free. I like to get free (organic) traffic, and one way to help drive traffic to your blog and/or article is automated social bookmarking. It is a process that enables you to submit your article to several social bookmark sites in one submission.

Why do I need to Social Bookmark?
If you are an Internet marketer, there is no doubt that you need social bookmarking to add to your repertoire. Social Bookmarking sites such as Technorati, Digg and allow you to add links to sites they like and visitors can grab those links and add it to their personal lists, thus making your site viral.

This concept is such a fantastic way to gain traffic to your sites. For this magic to happen, you have to bookmark your URLs yourself and hope others acknowledge and share your links. If you bookmarked in Digg, users will have to vote your posts up.

If you have enough people vote for your entry, it can make it to the front page of the bookmarking site. Hitting the front page will expose you to thousands of visitors. What can you do with this traffic? Hopefully, you are prepared with a funnel of some sort. Social Bookmarking sites are very sensitive, so it is important that you keep this in mind. ONLY SUBMIT CONTENT THAT IS NEWS WORTHY! Basically, do not use these sites for a sales-pitch of your product or service. Make sure you are providing value. Even you do not have content that is not shared by others, it still will help you with back links and indexing your site. So, it is a win-win situation.

How Does Automated Social Bookmarking Play a Role in Back Links?
The process I explained to you for submitting your URL can be time-consuming. To put that statement into perspective, there are hundreds of social bookmarking sites. How long do you think it will take you to submit to each and every site? You do not have to submit to all, but there are a substantial amount of sites you want to submit to. For me, it would take too long… especially since my time is limited because of my wife and four children.

This is where automation comes in. There are services that makes submitting your links in a simple and quick manner. I am talking about typing in your link and then hitting the submit button. The service does the rest for you. If you have never heard of Onlywire, an automated social bookmarking service, well, now you have, and you should try it out. It is a FREE service.(For a certain amount of submissions per month)

Onlywire has simplified my life for me. Now, I am able to submit to numerous sites with one click. Think about how much traffic you will be able to achieve now. You will be building backlinks that you never thought you can get!

Get those backlinks by using an automated social bookmarking service. You will be ecstatic when your site is indexed faster and you are ranking higher and getting to the 1st page of Google. This is a great way to build organic traffic. Please take action and do not hesitate to contact me if you are in need of assistance.

Helping You Succeed,

Louis Mair

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When Are Letters of Administration Needed?




Letters of Administration are required when a loved one dies intestate. They allow the administrator the same rights as an executor who is probating a will.

This means that once the letters of administration have been granted, the administrator will be given letters to give to each financial institution where the deceased holds accounts. These letters will enable the administrator to access their loved ones finances.

Letters of administration are needed in most cases where a loved one dies intestate but not all. For example if all your loved ones finances are held in joint accounts with you, you will not need to apply for letters of administration. The bank will normally just require proof of death, to transfer the assets into your name.

Also if your loved one has assets of less than £5000 after funeral expenses, you will be able to access their bank accounts without letters of administration. Some banks allow assets of under £10,000.

As there is no executor, when a will has not been made, it is important to understand who is entitled to apply for the letters. The law states that this is to be decided in the following order, depending on surviving relatives:

• Civil Partner or Spouse – excluding Common Law Partner

• Children

• Sons or Daughters of the Deceased’s Children

• Parents, Brothers and Sisters

• Grandparents

• Aunts or Uncles – but not their spouses

It is important to note that children under the age of 18 are not entitled to apply for letters of administration alone, and if there are children under the age of 18 and no civil partner or spouse, it is important to seek legal advice from a solicitor or a specialist probate service.

What If The Legal Administrator Does Not Want To Deal With The Estate?

At a time when they are grieving, it is understandable that the person legally entitled to administer the estate would find it difficult to cope. Fortunately they do not have to do so at all. Even the initial application for the letters can be dealt with by a chosen representative.

Dealing with the estate of a relative can be difficult, particularly if they have died intestate. And intestate death often means tracking down the deceased’s finances and even those who are entitled to a share of the estate.

So it is wise to appoint a legal expert to deal with the administration of the will before you apply for the letters. A legal expert would normally be a solicitor, or a specialist probate service. They will do everything on your behalf including dealing with the initial application, finding the deceased’s assets, tracking down any money owing to them and paying any bills.

They will also be able to track down the whereabouts of those entitled to a portion of the estate, according to the law, calculate taxes owing and distribute the proceeds of the estate.

So using a specialist probate service can save you a great deal of time, trouble and stress and it may be worth appointing one to apply for letters of administration on your behalf and deal with the administration of your loved ones estate.

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How Can A Fireplace Blower Keep Your Home Warmer?




Having a fireplace in your home is not only beautiful to look at when you have a fire burning and logs crackling, but it is also a great source of warmth and heat as well. To help spread that warmth around the room, or rooms, you can add a fireplace blower. Here is a closer look at how a fireplace blower works and how it can help heat your home this winter.

How does it work?

One of the biggest concerns with having a fireplace has always been the fact that it doesn’t really heat up a room too well. Unless you have a way of blowing the heat out into the room, it will only keep a small area warm. Well, this is where a good fireplace blower will come in. It takes the heat that is generating from the fire and distributes it out into the room. The blower can do this by sitting in front of the fire in order to heat the entire room, or in a doorway to help heat more than one room. Of course, you will always want to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for placing it the right way.

How does it really help?

Keeping warm air from the fireplace circulating throughout the room or home is a great way to reduce heating costs and get the maximum amount of efficiency out of it. It will not have any effect on the combustion of the fire, only in distributing the heat produced.

How do you install it?

Installing a fireplace blower isn’t overly difficult as long as you have a power source handy in which to wire into. Generally speaking, blowers are installed at the same time the fireplace is built, but that doesn’t mean you can’t still have one. It may just be a little more expensive in doing so. The job can be accomplished by a do-it-yourselfer, or in most cases, having a company come out and do it for you.

You can find all different types and styles of fireplace blowers on the market. There are many websites that offer online catalogs to browse through as well. Prices range from very affordable to more expensive depending on the model and size. You can easily find one to fit the size of your home.

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