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How Does a Vending Machine Read Money?



Vending machines are ubiquitous in our society; people walk by them and use them every day. They are in offices, retail establishments, medical offices, public buildings, and sports facilities. People pull change and dollar bills out of the purses or wallets and pay to get food or drinks from an automatic vending machine. Did you ever stop to wonder how the machines knows what money you put in the slot? Did you ever wonder how the device knows whether you put in a one or a five-dollar bill?

For those of you who have contemplated the money-reading capabilities of vending equipment, the answers are really quite simple. Coins are read based on their obvious physical properties. Thickness, diameter, and ridges on the edge are the main characteristics read by a machines, but some advanced machines can also determine the chemical composition of a coin. For example, a quarter is 0.069 inches thick, 0.955 inches in diameter, and has 119 ridges around the edge. A nickel is 0.076 inches thick, 0.835 inches in diameter, and has a smooth edge, while a dime is 0.053 inches thick, 0.705 inches in diameter, and has 118 ridges along the edge. In an advanced machine, a coin passes through an electromagnetic field generated by an electromagnet; this creates an electronic signature based on its chemical composition. If this signature doesn’t match with a genuine coin’s signature, the coin is rejected by the device. Though it is quite simple to see how coins are read, paper money is a different matter.

Most people at some point in time wished that machines would read their one-dollar bill as a twenty, but unfortunately, this does not happen. Vending machines are smarter than they look and can tell what the denomination of the bill is without any issues (though we sometimes have difficulties getting a bill to go into the machine). Paper money printed in the United States contains many different security features designed to deter counterfeiters. There are also specific features which help with automated denomination recognition. One of the most common methods is through the use of a magnetic scan. Paper money is printed with magnetic ink which can be read by magnetic scanners. Another way that vending machines read paper money is with ultraviolet light. Vending equipment contains ultraviolet lights that scan inserted bills. These lights determine the value of the bill by reading the fluorescent response.

Some vending machines allow users to make purchases with credit cards and they read these cards like most other credit cards readers. They use a magnetic strip reader to measure and calculate the thousands of tiny magnets that comprise the strip on the back of the card. These tiny magnets, aligned in a specific way, convey information to the reader. When a credit card gets old, the integrity of the magnetic strip on the back of the card may have been compromised through damage or normal use; the magnetic strip reader can no longer read the information because the tiny magnets are no longer aligned correctly or some of them are missing.

Though it is human nature to seek ways to fool technology, vending machines, while not completely invulnerable to manipulation, are difficult to scam. Their technology is adept at reading all types of money and providing the correct amount of change. In a world filled with technological marvels, the good old vending machine still amazes with its simplicity and its near-perfection.

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50 Popular Beliefs That People Think Are True by Guy P. Harrison




50 Popular Beliefs That People Think Are True

Of course what is implied is that these beliefs are not true, or at least unproven. And as it happens that’s quite right, he sets about dismantling each of these beliefs. Harrison does this by assembling the facts, the evidence, the basis of the story. Where did it come from? Who said this? What evidence is there for this belief? With some beliefs like flying saucers, he is ready to believe, he does not dispute the possibility, but is waiting for reliable evidence, which he shows does not yet exist. Because something is not understood, that does not mean we should believe in some explanation that has no factual basis, like ancient Greeks thinking Zeus was throwing lightning bolts whenever there was a storm.

There are plenty of beliefs to consider. Here’s a list of a dozen.

You’re Either Born Smart Or You’re Not.

Astrology is Scientific

A Psychic Read My Mind

Atlantis is Down There Somewhere

Creationism is True and Evolution is Not

Stories of Past Lives Prove Reincarnation is Real

Ghosts Are Real and They Live in Haunted Houses

UFOs Are Visitors From Other Worlds

Area 51 is Where They Keep the Aliens

My Religion is the One That is True

Global Warming is A Political Issue and Nothing More

Television News Gives Me An Accurate View of the World

Well there are still about 40 more beliefs to be examined.

This is an interesting book, one that you can dip into at any chapter. First he gives a presentation of the belief, and then explains why it is false or unsubstantiated. That is, he gives factual evidence, not opinions.

Yet there is another aspect to this book; someone who believes in Creationism– that the world is only 6,000 years old and was created in six days–is not going to be convinced by any amount of factual information. Their beliefs are not evidence-based, but faith-based. People who believe in many of these beliefs do so not from logical, scientific, reasoned information, they do it from emotional convictions, or accepting the word of some authority. Facts are not going to disturb their beliefs. And yes, they have a perfect right to their beliefs as all of us have.

We can understand that, because most of our beliefs become set with emotion, and once that happens it is hard to shift them. For example, most of us vote for one political party, and will do so all our lives no matter what happens. It is the small number of swinging voters who actually decide who wins elections.

Harrison met a woman in California who carried a sandwich board which proclaimed the world would end on May 21, 2011. She believed that 97% of the world’s population would be destroyed; only the faithful, the chosen, would be taken to heaven. Despite all his arguments, she was utterly convinced of her belief. The Judgement day had been proclaimed by Harold Camping, but when it failed to occur he told his followers, it was an “invisible Judgment Day” and the actual date of destruction had been revised to October 21, 2011. Even after this, many of his followers still believed in his prophecy.

This book is interesting reading, particularly if you are prepared to listen to what is presented. For example, “A Flying Saucer Crashed Near Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947… “ Personally, I have always had doubts about this, possibly it could be right, yep, I saw some blurred photo of a Martian, but was never quite convinced either way. It is nice to get some unbiased information about something that so many people believe in.

Reading this book will expand your understanding of life. It gives you both sides of many issues, and teaches you to consider the facts, the science if there is any, without swallowing some internet story without thought.

Harrison points out that good sceptics don’t accept any wacky claim that comes along without evidence, but neither do they reject wacky claims totally. There is always a door left open, waiting for evidence.

Harrison discusses some of his own experiences, which leads him to understand why people believe things that are not true. He tells of his college days when he lived in an old two-storey house. Often he was alone in the upstairs section, but he would hear creaking noises, as if someone was walking around downstairs. When he investigated, he found nothing. Although he logically came to accept this, his emotions often cried out with fear. So when he hears of people believing that a house is haunted, he feels some sympathy, some understanding.

He makes an interesting point about miracle cures by evangelical preachers when he points out that although there have been many thousands of people who say they are cured from various illnesses, in all history there has never been a case of an amputee being restored. The cures are all on the inside. He once went to a religious meeting and wrote about an elderly woman who was taken up to the stage, blessed, and cured of cancer. He wrote this case up for his newspaper. But the following week she died. The newspaper editor told him not to run the story of her death. So people were misled.

Harrison explains how we accept some of these beliefs. Think of a stage magician, he is not using magic to perform these miraculous tricks. He is using Tricks! Smoke and mirrors, psychological tricks, false panels. Sure, you can enjoy the “magic” but don’t for a minute believe in his “magical powers” just because you don’t understand how his tricks are done.

In this book, each belief fits into a larger pattern, such as Magical Thinking, or Strange Healings. At the end of each chapter he provides a list of books that give evidence about each belief so that you can follow-up with some more detailed information.

If you read this book, it is certain that you will broaden your mind, and learn to think more objectively. You will be more aware, not sceptical, but less unsuspecting.

Finally, he provides a theory as to why people continue to believe unproven, discredited beliefs.

“… it is important to be aware of how we perceive and assess the world around us. We know that humans are pattern-seeking creatures. Without even trying, we naturally attempt to connect the dots in almost everything we see and hear. This is a great ability if you are trying to catch a camouflaged bird in a tree for your dinner… But pattern seeking also leads us to see things that are not there… which might waste our time and maybe get us into trouble… we also have a tendency to automatically make connections and find patterns in our thinking. This is one reason that unlikely conspiracy theories are able to take root and blossom in the minds of so many people.”

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Finding the Right Govt Job Is Now Easy




Are you aspiring for state govt jobs? or, are you a central govt jobs aspirant? You can choose to appear for either one or both depending on your qualification and skills. Each year government recruitment drives ask for candidates to apply for hundreds of different posts. Getting government jobs has its perks. In addition to high salaries, there are other benefits like Grade Pay and pension facilities after retirement. All these and lots more attract aspirants from across the country to apply for these jobs. Whether you are applying for SSC group D jobs or civic volunteer jobs, you will definitely be entitled for a list of benefits. But govt job examinations are highly competitive and sheer hard work cannot bring you a job, if you do not know certain tips and tricks. Here is a list of tips and tricks that you must know to be able to get govt jobs easily:

Choose which group you fit in

Whether central government jobs or state govt jobs, there are four groups based on educational qualification of the aspirants. Group A jobs are for those who are highly qualified and it is often the toughest to crack. Then comes the Group B and C Jobs. The Group D positions are for repairing or maintenance professionals as well as for positions like technicians and guard. There are millions of aspirants for each of these posts and just a few hundred vacancies. So, you must work hard to survive the competition till the end!

Clear each stage

There are generally three stages to getting the joining letter in hand for central govt jobs and state govt jobs:

  1. The first stage is to clear the written examination
  2. The second is interview
  3. Third is clearing the cut-off list

Preparation to qualify all the stages requires a lot of preparation. There is an elaborate syllabus for each of the posts that the candidates need to complete to sit confidently for the written tests. One needs to follow the syllabus for each of the posts very minutely to be able to answer all the questions. Just working hard on completing the syllabus is not enough. You need to know the tricks and tips to manage time and to answer each question intelligently. When it comes to solving mathematics problems, you should be able to use short-cuts confidently. This will save a lot of time. If there are no negative markings, manage time effectively to answer all the questions, even the doubtful ones too. This will increase your chance to get high marks.

Find the right position

Finding the govt jobs that is in accordance to your qualification and interest is also important. Here’s what you need to do:

  • You must know that every year there are thousands of posts for which recruitment drives are announced.
  • You must find out what interests you the most. For example, find out whether you are interested in SSC jobs or civic volunteer jobs.
  • You must keep track of the recruitment drives and vacancy announcements.
  • You could also be interested for bank jobs or teaching jobs.

So, keep tracking a reputed Govt job portal to get information on the vacancies that are announced.

Enrol in an institute

There are many reputed institutes for training to get govt jobs. At these institutes there are experienced professionals who train the aspirants on answering different types of questions asked in thee written examination as well as in interviews. You will be able to get questionnaire, sample papers, and mock test questions from these institutes. It will help you to prepare well for the exams you are sitting for. In addition to that, you can get tricks and tips to solve questions fast and correctly. With help and guidance of the experts, you will increase your chance of getting through any competitive exams you sit for. The mock tests will prepare you well in advance to know the patterns of the questions. Moreover, mock interviews often conducted in these institutes will help you to face real interviews confidently.

So, wait no further in preparing for the written examination for central govt jobs or state govt jobs. Keep track of the vacancies announced and the dates so that you don’t miss applying for your dream position!

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Newborn Constipation – Treatment Methods and Tips




So your baby has not been able poop for quite a while and you are absolutely worried like a good parent should. How do you cope with newborn constipation? Better still, how do you treat your infant’s constipation without any side effects? Constipation in infants and newborn babies can be a very frightening experience for parents who are experiencing it for the very first time.This is not unusual given the fact that parents are aware of the dangers involved in the body’s tendency to reabsorb the toxins deposited in the colon.


First, you need to know what caused your baby’s constipation. Constipation in babies is caused by various factors. Chief among them is the switch from breast milk to formula. Also, you might want to check if the baby is eating properly. If your baby still passes meconium three days after its delivery, it probably indicates that the baby is not eating very well. The weather also plays a big role in determining how frequently the child would “go”. Babies have been known to be unable to poop for three days on end in hot weathers.


Another cause of newborn constipation is the formula you use in the feeding of the baby. The baby might be reacting to the different types of formula if you switch formulas suddenly. So, if after switching formulas you notice the infant has started constipating, then it is probably due to the formula you are feeding the infant with. You can also change the quantity of formula you give the baby at a point in time and increase or decrease the frequency of feeding with formula. Also increase the quantity of water you give to the baby. If the baby shows any sign of improvement in bowel movements, know that it was as a result of inadequate water intake. You might also want to consult with your pediatrician as regards the quantity of iron in the formula.


Note that infants need more iron; therefore it is important that you are certain of the quantity of iron it needs before you go on a low iron diet as a means of treating any newborn constipation. Also, you can try bathing the baby in an infant tub with the water a little above the stomach level. While bathing, try massaging the stomach. Sometimes, it could just happen that the baby might just “go” right there and then. If you try all these and they don’t work, you need more help. There are lots of easy alternative cures to newborn constipation.

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