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The Writing Style of Hemingway

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For Whom the Bell Tolls portrays the typical Hemingway characters and addresses the issues of machoism and womanizing. In this novel, as in many of his other works, Hemingway employs extensive use of what is known as the Hemingway Code. Numerous influences from various people and events from his personal life also had an effect on his writing.

Many people hold the opinion that there has been no American writer like Ernest Hemingway. A member of the World War I “lost generation,” Hemingway was in many ways his own best character. Whether as his childhood nickname of “Champ” or as the older “Papa,” Ernest Hemingway became a legend of his own lifetime. Although the drama and romance of his life sometimes seem to overshadow the quality of his work, Hemingway was first and foremost a literary scholar, a writer and reader of books. This is often overlooked among all the talk about his safaris and hunting trips, adventures with bullfighting, fishing and war. Hemingway enjoyed being famous, and delighted in playing for the public spotlight. However, Hemingway considered himself an artist, and he did not want to become celebrated for all the wrong reasons.

Hemingway was born in the quiet town of Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, on July 21, 1899. His father was a physician, and Ernest was the second of six children born to Dr. and Mrs. Clarence E. Hemingway. His mother, a devout, religious woman with considerable music talent, hoped that her son would develop an interest in music. Instead, Ernest acquired his father’s enthusiasm for guns and for fishing trips in the north woods of Michigan (Lynn 63).

From almost the beginning of his writing career, Hemingway employed a distinctive style which drew comment from many critics. Hemingway does not give way to lengthy geographical and psychological description. His style has been said to lack substance because he avoids direct statements and descriptions of emotion. Basically his style is simple, direct and somewhat plain. He developed a forceful prose style characterized by simple sentences and few adverbs or adjectives. He wrote concise, vivid dialogue and exact description of places and things. Critic Harry Levin pointed out the weakness of syntax and diction in Hemingway’s writing, but was quick to praise his ability to convey action(Rovit 47).

Hemingway spent the early part of his career as a journalist. In 1937, he went to Spain to cover the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. After a few months in Spain, Hemingway announced his plan to write a book with the Spanish Civil War as its background. The result was For Whom the Bell Tolls.

The majority of his early novels were narrated in the first person and enclosed within a single point of view, however, when Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls, he used several different narrative techniques. He employed the use of internal monologues(where the reader is in the “mind” of a particular character), objective descriptions, rapid shifts of point of view, and in general a looser structure than in his earlier works. Hemingway believed that “a writer’s style should be direct and personal, his imagery rich and earthy, and his words simple and vigorous. The greatest writers have the gift of brevity, are hard workers, diligent scholars and competent stylists(Magill 1287).

For Whom the Bell Tolls is the most serious and politically motivated novel that Hemingway wrote. There are few comic or light episodes in the entire book. For Whom the Bell Tolls is an attempt to present in depth a country and people that Hemingway loved very much. It was an effort to deal honestly with a very complex war made even more complex by the beliefs it inspired(Gurko 127).

Common to almost all of Hemingway’s novels is the concept of the Hemingway hero, sometimes known as the “code hero.” When Hemingway’s novels were first published, the public readily accepted them. Part of this acceptance was due to the fact that Hemingway had created a character whose response to life appealed strongly to those who read his works. The reader saw in the Hemingway hero a person whom they could identify with in almost a dream sense. The Hemmingway hero was a man’s man. He moved from one love affair to another, he participated in wild game hunting, enjoyed bullfights, drank insatiably, he was involved in all of the so-called manly activities in which the typical American male did not participate(Rovit 56).

Hemingway’s involvement in the war instilled him with deep-seated political views. For Whom the Bell Tolls is a study of the individual involved in what was a politically motivated war. But this novel differs greatly from Hemingway’s prior portrayal of the individual hero in the world. In this book, the hero accepts the people around him, not only a few select members of the distinguished, but with the whole community. The organization of this community is stated with great eloquence in the quotation from one of the poet John Donne’s sermons upon the death of a close friend. This is the quotation from which the book takes its title:

No man is an Iland, intire of it selfe, every man is a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine, if a Clod bee washed away by the Sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a Promontorie were, as well as if a Mannor of thy friends or of thine owne were; any mans death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankinde; And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for I thee.

Therefore, while the hero retains the qualities of the Hemingway Code, he has been built up by his unity with mankind. In the end, he finds the world a “fine place,” that is “worth fighting for”(Curly 795). In his personal confrontation with death, Robert Jordan realizes that there is a larger cause that a man can chose to serve. In this way he differs from the earlier Hemingway hero. The insistence that action and its form be solely placed on one individual is still present, along with the need for the character to dominate that action. However, this issue is not longer a single matador against a single bull, or an individual character against his entire environment. The person is the “instrument of mankind” against the horrors of war. The political issues of this book are therefore presented not as a “contrast of black and white, but in the shaded tones of reality”(Magill 491).

While Jordan is the epitome of the hero in his actions, he is also in command of himself and his circumstances to a far greater extent than Hemingway’s previous heroes; he is driven to face reality by deep emotional needs. Jordan’s drives in the novel seem to be a direct reflection of Hemingway’s own, because Hemingway had also been deeply affected by the suicide of his own father (Kunitz 561). Ironically, suicide as an escape from reality is a violation of Hemingway’s own code. The self-doubt and fear that such an act brings to the children of a person who commits suicide is a well-known psychological outcome. This is perhaps why the painfulness of their fears causes Hemingway’s heroes to avoid “thinking” at all costs. For “thinking” too much may prevent a person from reacting. And without something to react to, the hero is left to face his inner fears (Magill 474). Death is also used by Hemingway at the end of the novel to resolve the dramatic conflicts established by the story. The theme of death is likewise observable in other parts of the book, such as when the characters express their concern about dying during the attack on the bridge. As in other works following the suicide of his father, Hemingway brings his characters face to face with death. He admires those who face death bravely and without expressing emotion. For Hemingway, a man does not truly live life until analyzes the significance of death personally(Brooks 323).

In contrast to the Hemingway heroes are his female characters. Hemingway’s approach to women in his works is particularly masculine. They are seen and valued in relation to the men in his stories insofar as they are absolutely feminine. Hemingway does not go into their inner world except as this world is related to the men with whom they are involved. The reader comes to view them as love objects or as anti-love figures (Whitlock 231). Part of the reason Hemingway had this opinion of woman was because the way he viewed his mother. He believed his mother to be a manipulator and blamed her in part for the suicide of his father. “The qualities he thought admirable in a man-ambition, and independent point of view, defiance of his supremacy-became threatening in a woman”(Kert 103).

Hemingway’s heroines almost always personify the physical appearance of the ideal woman in their beauty. But in their personality they appear as two types: the “all-woman” who gives herself entirely to the hero and the “femme fatale” who retains herself and prevents the hero from possessing her completely. The “all-woman” is acceptable in Hemingway view because she submits to the hero. She wants no other life than with him. By succumbing to the hero, she allows him to dominate her and affirm his manhood. The “femme fatale” is usually a more complex character than the “all-woman” (Lynn 98). While she may or may not be nasty, she does not submit to the hero and wounds him and all the men around her primarily because they can not manage her and thus can not assert their manhood through her. But despite Hemmingway’s portrayal of women, he usually has them fall into the same basic category as the men. The heroine, like the hero, obeys the “Hemmingway Code.” She sees life for what it is even as she longs for something more. She is basically courageous in life, choosing reality over thought, and she faces death stoically. In practically every case there has already been in her life some tragic event-the loss of a lover, violence-which has given her the strength to face life this way (Lynn 102).

For Whom the Bell Tolls “is a living example of how, in modern times, the epic quality must be projected” (Baker 132). Heroic action is an epic quality, and For Whom the Bell Tolls contains this element. The setting is simple and the emphasis is on the basic virtues of uncomplicated people. The men are engaged in the conflict are prepared to sacrifice their lives; they are exceptional for their deeds of daring and heroism (Baker 94).

Behind the conception of this idea of the hero lies the disillusionment of the American public, the disillusionment that was brought about by the First World War. The impressionable man came to realize that the old ideas and beliefs rooted in religion and ethics had not helped to save man the catastrophe of World War I. As a result, after the war came to an end, Hemingway and other writers began to look for a new system of values, a system of values that would replace the old attitudes which they thought proved to be useless. The writers who adopted these new beliefs came to be known as the “lost generation.”

The “lost generation,” was a name instituted by Gertrude Stein and it signified the postwar generation and the literary movement produced by the young writers of the time (Unger 654). Their writing reflected their belief that “the only reality was that life is harsh” (Bryfonski 1874).

A great deal has been written about Ernest Hemingway’s distinctive style. Ever since he began writing in the 1920’s, he has been the subject of lavish praise and sometimes savage criticism. He has not been ignored.

To explain Hemingway’s style in a few paragraphs in such a manner as to satisfy those who have read his articles and books is almost impossible. It is a simple style, straight forward and modest. Hemingway’s prose is unadorned as a result of his abstaining from using adjectives as much as possible. He relates a story in the form of straight journalism, but because he is a master of transmitting emotion with out embellishing it, the product is even more enjoyable.

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MapleStory Guide – Anego

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Anego (aka Female Boss) is a popular boss in Showa. It spawns in the third map of the Showa mansion, surrounded by its vastly weaker minions. It is a formidable foe, with very high attack power, defence and speed.

So let’s have a look at what Anego’s capable of. Anego has two main attacks plus a rather high touch damage of about 10,000-11,000, a fairly long range gun attack dealing around 5,200 and lastly, a short range slap dealing roughly 18,000. If you’re melee without a ridiculous amount of hp washing, then I know what you’re thinking. Some other things about Anego, it has very high defence and moves extremely quick.

So with such high damage how does anyone kill it? Luckily Anego suffers a “glitch” so to speak, which will be explained in detail below.

HP: 75,000,000

Minimum HP: 19,000 (Melee) Any (Ranged)

Now to talk about that “glitch”, if you attack Anego and run back to the portal, you’ll notice Anego is unable to follow all the way to the left. This is due to a pathing issue in the maps layout, near the edge of the bar stool is an invisible barrier for Anego, which it is unable to pass. Obviously that makes the entire left side a perfect sniping spot! Basically every single ranged class can make use of this and this is also the basis for party kills of Anego. The spot where you’ll want to stand is directly in front of the couch near the portal, if you edge past this you may be hit by Anego’s gun attack, but the slap will miss you by miles.

For melee it’s not so easy, the only viable way to fight Anego as a melee character is to corner it and tank it, burning potions while pounding away. Obviously you need 19,000hp before even considering this.

As a side note, it is possible to berserk Anego as a Dark Knight, but is difficult to do effectively. Lure Anego to the bar stools, and attack while jumping. If timed right you will not be hit by the slaps while still hitting Anego.

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WoW Bot – InnerSpace Guide

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First off, I’d like to explain some terms. Innerspace is an operating system, not a bot. Many people will be peeved if you say that. Openbot is a program/plugin/whatever that runs on innerspace. Openbot is a bot. Get these down and you’ll save the openbot vets some hair.

Innespace is NOT free. And I did’t find a crack yet. Yes you will need to pay for it if you’d like to use it. It will cost you $10 for a 3-month subscription. This is cheaper than glider elite. If you’d like to subscribe to use this bot Lavishsoft.com register an account, and subscribe from there.

Once you have an account subscribed, you can start this guide.

-Setting up Software-

1. Download and install the latest version of Innerspace.

2. Download the latest version of ISXWoW and ISXWarden. Always keep these up to date!

Install ISXWoW by running the installer if you downloaded that, or if you downloaded the zip, extract ISXWoW.dll into the Extentions folder and the other files into your Interface folder.

Install ISXWarden by simply extracting the .dll to the Extensions directory of your Innerspace installation.

3. Launch innerspace, right click on the little crosshairs icon, and click configuration.

4. Click on the “Game Configuration” tab and select World of Warcraft from the dropdown menu. Click Startup.

-Ingame Openbot Setup-

1. Once Innerspace is loaded with WoW and you’ve checked ISXWarden to be okay, log ingame and bring down console again.

2. Type into console:

run openbot/openbot

This should load the ingame interface.

Going into the rest of the steps for Openbot Configuration takes a lot of detailed explanation. By way of a quick search, you would find that the full steps are available at most sites offering WoW Bot and other gaming tools.

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Whistler Via Ferrata – Terror And Elation While Climbing The Iron Way

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“Okay, we’ll stop here and pull out our ice axes and crampons,” announces Jeff, our guide for the afternoon. He slides off his backpack and dumps it in the snow at his feet. I shrug my pack off and marvel at how I can be so warm while standing at the foot of Whistler mountain’s high alpine glacier. True, back at the Adventure Hut I had added a few layers of clothing after noticing the wisps of snowflakes drifting from the sky.

But now, an hour later and a brisk hike among the white-laced rocks, I was sweating. I ask my best-friend Amy if she’d like a swig of water. She nods and I dig the bottle out of our pack. I also pull out a couple energy bars to quell the rumbling in my stomach. I must have anticipated it would be a few hours and a few hundred feet until the next meal.

You can’t find this quiet anywhere near civilization.

Amy and I munch loudly in the natural stillness. It’s the silence that allows you to finally hear what every other animal must hear, every insect, as they go about their business in the absence of human activity. It feels as old as the earth and indifferent as the mountain itself.

Jeff instructs us on fitting our crampons; basically spiked metal shoes that are essential for glacier-walking. I’d never heard of them before this moment – before we’d decided to attempt Via Ferrata, “The Iron Way” – a tour offered by Whistler Alpine Guides Bureau. First developed by Italian soldiers during World War I, the activity consists of rock climbing via an engineered vertical pathway, utilizing permanently fixed cables and metal rungs for movement. (Or that’s how it works in theory anyway).

All three of us tie each other together with elastic rope. “In the fresh snow, it’s difficult to spot the crevasses in the glacier,” says Jeff. I envision a moment of plunging into an icy abyss and make sure my the rope is tightly clamped to my waist before we head out. Our crampons dig into the ice with assuring crunches. Like a blind man with a cane, Jeff pokes his ice axe in the snow to detect any cracks.

Soon we are standing at the foot of the climbing path.

A lone ladder is tied to the rock, stretching upwards to the first ledge, followed by metal rungs continuing upwards as if staples left by a giant. We remove our crampons and secure our ice axes to our backpacks. Jeff graciously goes first, gliding up with ladder with only the barest use of hands. Amy goes next, a little slower. I wait at the bottom of the ladder, peering at the surrounding boulders for any glimpse of the hoary marmot, (for which Whistler Mountain was named), known for its distinctive high-pitched whistle.

The ladder quivers. I look up and Amy is perched at the top, one hand outstretched to the first metal rung. She’s hesitating. “You okay?” I call up to her. “I’m not sure about this,” she answers flatly. “I don’t think I can do it.”

Jeff is a few feet higher, hanging from the rock like a confident gibbon. “It’s cool, just take your time,” he says. I wonder how many times he is confronted with this exact predicament. “My heart is pounding…” Amy answers, her voice cracking. Jeff is reassuring. “It’s quite safe, really. You’d be surprised at what you can do.”

There’s a defining moment in the air.

Amy must choose whether to attempt the shaky descent down the ladder, shrink from the pounding of her heart, and feel like she’s ruining the experience. She’s skimming over in her head how she’ll walk back down the glacier in stinging defeat, head to the Adventure Lodge and wait for us to complete the climb.

Jeff and I will arrive, tired and elated, and we’ll talk about how incredible it was to scale the peak, to feel the hard stone beneath our fingers, marvel at the tiny plants that make a home on these eternal stone. I’ll tell her how the vast view of the surrounding mountains was enough to silence any internal debate about the existence of an intelligent hand guiding the universe, or if not intelligent, than the incredible luck to emerge on a small beautiful ball drifting in a beautiful universe.

But Amy doesn’t choose such a fate for herself. She quells her beating chest, strengthens her resolve. She firmly grips the first metal rung, that giant’s staple lodged in the rock, and pulls herself over the lip, her feet dangling for a second before gaining a toehold. Fear and gravity are thwarted. She looks back down at me and smiles.

I climb the ladder and feel a bubble of adrenaline rise in my throat. But whether I’m aware of the true danger, or I possess a certain flare for attempting the unordinary (which happens less often then I’d like), I have little difficulty in crossing the threshold. All three of us begin our climb. The basics: always keep your belt ropes clamped on the safety line running parallel to the metal rungs, and only one person per increment of safety line. This prevents falls for more than 6 feet at once. A comforting thought.

Unhook, reach, lift, hook. Unhook, reach, lift, hook.

The steady rhythm takes on a momentum of its own, almost like meditation. I immediately understand why frequent climbers talk about being “in the moment” while scaling a sheer rocky face. There is little to think about when the mind must navigate an ever changing vertical terrain, constantly readjusting weight here, balancing a foothold there, like deciphering a rubix cube. The minutes drift away and the glacier below grows ever smaller.

Eventually, we arrive at the summit. The clouds part and the sun greets us warmly. We wander among the snow drifts as if emerging into another land, as if explorers entering the gates of Shangri-la. Only there are no gold tapestries, chests of jewels, or eternal youth here, only the satisfaction of conquering a thumbnail of earth on one Saturday morning in September.

~ Via Ferrata is offered in Whistler daily from June 24 through October. This thrilling activity is suitable for guests of all abilities and does not require any special skills or prior experience. All technical equipment is included. Your guide will give detailed instructions on use of equipment and technique for climbing.

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