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Public Health Safety of Bacteriophages in Ready-To-Eat Meats & Poultry Products




Recently approval has been given by the USFDA for use of the combination of six bacterial viruses or bacteriophages as a food additive. These bacteriophages are to be used on ready-to-eat meats and poultry to kill strains of listeria monocytogenes prior to their packaging.

Listeria monocytogenes are of major public health concern because it can cause serious infection in pregnant women, newborns and adults with weaken immune systems. It has been estimated that 2,500 people become seriously ill with listeriosis each year. Hence there is a growing need to develop effective treatments against pathogenic microorganisms such as listeria monocytogenes. The approval of bacteriophages by the USFDA for use in ready-to-eat meats and poultry therefore serves to address this public health problem.

However, it is uncertain whether bacteriophages are safe enough to be used in ready-to-eat meats and poultry without causing any short or long term health effects. Because scientific studies to date have not shown conclusively to confirm or deny the safety of bacteriophages in ready-to-eat meats and poultry. It is hoped that the apparent expeditious use of bacteriophages in the light of insufficient scientific data may not compromise the public’s health. The purpose of this article is to bring to the forefront a concise review of the possible public health concerns associated with the use of bacteriophages in ready-to-eat meats.

What are bacteriophages?

The term bacteriophages are derived from the Greek word meaning
“bacteria-eater”. Bacteriophages were discovered around 1915 and have contributed significantly to the understanding of viruses or virology. They provide an alternative to costly antibiotics and can be developed mush faster and at a lower cost.

How can bacteriophages be used to control bacteria?

Bacteriophages are first grown in a preparation containing the target bacteria. The preparation is first purified before use on food. The bacteriophages are then sprayed onto ready-to-eat meat and poultry at a concentration of 1 ml per 500 cm2 of food surface. Bacteriophages then seek out bacteria and infect them during its life cycle. The life cycle of bacteriophages can follow either the lytic or lysogenic pathway that results in lysis of the bacterium.

In the lytic cycle, the virulent bacteriophage binds to the bacterium and releases its DNA into the host cell. This triggers a series of events that leads to the lysis of the host cell, resulting in cell dealth. Bacteriophages multiply much faster than bacteria and infect many bacteria in a short time period thereby eliminating them or controlling their growth and numbers to acceptable levels.

In the lysogenic cycle, the temperate bacteriophage binds to the bacterium and releases its DNA into the host cell, which then binds to the host cell DNA and form a prophage. This prophage has the potential to lyse the resulting bacterium causing dealth.

Are bacteriophages safe to consume?

Bacteriphages are bacteria-viruses. Viruses contain either DNA or RNA in their genetic make. This genetic material is believed to be transferred only to bacterial cells and not normal cells. But, has this specificity been rigorously tested in experimental animals/models and demonstrated in clinical trials? Strong scientific evidence is lacking and there is an urgent need for more research in this area. Viruses may induce an immunological response in vivo and in normal cells causing the development of secondary infections especially in susceptible individuals such as young children, old people, pregnant women and immunocompromised persons with HIV/AIDS.

What are some of the public health concern regarding the safety of bacteriophages?

Some of the public health concerns regarding the safety of bacteriophages include:

o Failure to select specific phages against the target bacteria in vitro, before using them on ready-to-eat meats and poultry may increase the possibility of developing secondary infections.

o Lack of availability and/or reliability of bacterial laboratories for carefully identifying the pathogens involved, therefore making selection of specific phage very difficult.

o Endotoxins can be released as a result of lysis of bacteria which could lead to health complications such as liver edema and pain in the associated abdominal region if meat or poultry is improperly cooked.

o Lack of thorough understanding of the heterogeneity and “mode of action” (lytic or lysogenic modes of action) of bacteriophages may affect their ability to destroy target bacteria.

o Bacteria resistant bacteriophages and the apparent ineffectiveness of bacteriophages to kill target bacteria.


o Adams, M. H. 1959. Bacteriophages. Interscience Publishers, New York.

o Barrow, P. A., and J. S. Soothill. 1997. Bacteriophage therapy and prophylaxis:
Rediscovery and renewed assessment of potential. Trends in Microbiol. 5:268-271.

o Bradley, S. G., and L. A. Jones. 1970. Bacteriophages, their biology and industrial
significance. Prog. Ind. Microbiol. p. 44-75.

o USFDA. 2006. FDA Approval of Listeria Specific Baceriophage on Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products. CFSAN.

o Putman, F. W. 1953. Bacteriophages: Nature and reproduction, p. 177-284. In
M.L. Anson, K. Bailey, and J. T. Edsall (ed.), Advances in protein biochemistry, volume 8. Academic Press, New York.

o Summers, W. C. 2001. Bacteriophage therapy. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55:437-


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A Patient Guide To Get Medical Marijuana in Oklahoma



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How To Get Medical Marijuana in Oklahoma

 Even though medical marijuana is legal in many states, there are set laws on how to obtain it legally. Read along to learn how to get medical marijuana in Oklahoma.

On May 18, 2021, the Gov. of Oklahoma, Kevin Stitt, House Bill 2272 into law. The law changed a few things in the medical marijuana sector in Oklahoma. The changes that took effect were meant to address the following concerns in the medical cannabis sector:

  • How foreigners should operate cannabis businesses in Oklahoma. 
  • How the Oklahoma Medical Marijuana Authority (OMMA) should conduct compliance checks online 
  • Inspections to confirm if the licenses were operating actively or not

Since these changes are meant to remove a couple of bad actors in the Oklahoma medical marijuana sector, it is clear that the Oklahoma medical sector is taking the right path. The law was also put in place to ensure that all competitors get a fair deal regardless of where they came from. 

The Previous Version of the Act 

An earlier version of the law that the House passed in March. Looking carefully at how it was drafted, it was pretty different from the final version. The artificial caps in the law were more stringent as an oversight, and the number of business licenses was limited. The final version was meant to scrutinize the licenses issued by OMMA and how they were all maintained. Limits are now put in place to control the oversaturated market. That said, let’s look at what a patient needs to do to obtain medical marijuana in Oklahoma. 

How to Get Medical Marijuana in Oklahoma 

The procedure of acquiring medical marijuana in Oklahoma is almost the same in other states in America that have legalized medical marijuana. 

  • Get recommended by a licensed practicing doctor

The first thing you need to do as a patient seeking to get medical marijuana is looking for a physician in the state of Oklahoma who advocates for medical marijuana. The doctors need to confirm that you are suffering from any of the qualifying medical conditions. To do this, you need to present your medical history and other medical information that the doctor may need to recommend to you. 

Once the doctor has confirmed that you are suffering from any qualifying medical conditions, they will have to present the document himself in the Department of Health together with the patient’s filled out forms. The patient is not allowed to present the recommendation to the DOH. 

  • Application of the Medical Marijuana Card 

The second step in obtaining a medical marijuana card is sending an application to the State Department of Health. Once they have received your application, they will have to review it for a couple of days. After a few days, you will get feedback on whether they accepted or denied your application. If the application is accepted, you will be issued a medical marijuana card. 

Learning how to get medical marijuana in Oklahoma offers you a legal way to acquire cannabis. You can do this by providing copies of a state-issued identification card. You also need to present several documents that prove that you are a resident of Oklahoma. Once you are approved and have gotten the medical marijuana card, you can start going to medical marijuana dispensaries to purchase medical cannabis. 


Getting a medical marijuana card in Oklahoma is as easy as that, and you don’t need to struggle so much. Remember that medical marijuana is legal in many states; you need to follow due process. You don’t need to suffer in silence while you can get medical cannabis to relieve the pain that comes with these dilapidating medical conditions. 

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What is the Best Air Purifier for Cough Symptoms?



Best Air Purifier
Best Air Purifiers

The rapid industrial growth brought many conveniences to our urban lives. But, along with those comforts, it also brought morbid health issues. The primary and most persistent problem in our modern lives is the problem of air pollution. Air contaminants and allergens are the main reason for our allergy, which causes cough problems in an allergic individual. If you live in an urban environment where you get surrounded by allergens, viruses and other pathogens, the chances are that you may be looking for the best air purifier to get help with your cough. Coughing can severely slow down you and your kids and hinder productivity. We will provide you with some best air purifier models and tips to choose a Daikin air purifier yourself. 

How do Air Purifiers Help with Coughs?

If you are coughing uncontrollably, you must look for the best air purifier because it surely can help you with your cough problem. But the question is how? Air purifiers use a HEPA (High-Efficiency Particulate Absorbing) filter to isolate the contaminants suspended in the air and keep them trapped in the system until you clean and change filters.

What Should You Look for When Buying an Air Purifier?

  • Filters: Filters are the primary organ of any best air purifier. Know which filters are there on your device. Here are some of the generally used filters for you to check:
  1. Pure HEPA filter
  2. Activated Charcoal Filter
  3. UV-C filter
  4. Pre-filter and
  5. Ozone free Ionizer 
  • Warranty period: Most air purifier models come with 1 to 2 years of warranty. Know which parts the company covers in the warranty paper.
  • Easy set-up: Modern air purifier models are mostly touch-controlled and have a simple button layout. Avoid any complications in the set-up, and filter changing process.
  • Room size: Check the rated size for an air purifier to know if it suits your room size.

What is the Number One Air Purifier?

These brands produce one of the top-selling air purifier models available in the Indian market.

  1. Daikin
  2. LG
  3. Eureka Forbes
  4. Panasonic
  5. Phillips
  6. BlueStar

Among them, Daikin is making one of the most affordable air purifiers.

Top Three Best Air Purifier Models are – 

  1. Daikin MC55XVM6 Air Purifier:
  • Streamer Discharge: This Daikin air purifier, besides the HEPA filter, uses the streamer discharge function to quickly remove odours and allergens with high-speed electrons with the oxidizing property.
  • Turbo mode: The Turbo mode in the Daikin air purifier provides a high-power operation to clean the air fast.
  • Deodorising Filter: Some Daikin air purifier models, including the MC55 model, utilize streamers to decompose the foul odours and assist the filter.


  1. Eureka Forbes 56-watt AeroGuard mist Air Purifier: 
  • HEPA filter: It uses advanced HEPA technology to remove 99% of suspended particles of 0.3 microns. 
  • UV Lamp: A UV lamp helps reduce volatile organic compounds, parasites and mites in the indoor air.
  • 10X filter technology: It uses the Active 10X filter technology to purify the air in your house and eliminate dust, dander and germs.
  1. Daikin MC40XVM6 Air Purifier:
  • Electrostatic HEPA filter: This Daikin air purifier has a high-performance filter that catches 99.97% of 0.3μm* fine particles.
  • Anti-pollen mode: When you switch between “standard” and “low” modes in this Daikin air purifier, it creates a gentle whirlwind to catch suspended pollen in the air.
  • Deodorising Filter: Odours are caught on this Daikin air purifier using the deodorizing filter. 

Shop from the Bajaj Finserv EMI Store for affordable pricing and enjoy pre-approved offers. Get hold of your Bajaj Finserv EMI Network Card to purchase eureka forbes air purifier on No-cost EMI.


In times of the global pandemic, your home is the only place where you spend the most time in the day. Although, it is no more a haven for you with a plethora of allergens, pathogens, viruses and other invisible germs floating in the indoor air. The Daikin air purifier uses the streamer discharge method, active plasma Ion and cutting-edge Electrostatic HEPA Filter to protect you against many dangerous disease-causing pathogens and improve the overall air quality. Do not compromise on the health of your family, and buy the best air purifier today. Enjoy a no-cost EMI using the Bajaj Finserv EMI network card for your purchases.


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Neurological Symptoms You Shouldn’t Ignore



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In 2017, almost half of the Australian population was prevalent for neurological disorders. This is a worrying piece of information. Neurological disorders can sneak up and they can take a toll on your health without you even noticing it. You may have a headache from time to time and think it’s not a big deal. However, it can be a pretty big deal. Some of these symptoms may seem harmless or irrelevant, but the trust is that they can damage your well-being in many ways. Here are the symptoms that should alert you that it’s time you saw a neurologist. 

Chronic headaches 

We all experience headaches – nothing new about that. However, it’s not the same when you have a headache once in four months and when you have one-two times a week. The latter should be a reason for concern. Especially if the headaches are strong and disruptive, you shouldn’t ignore them. Chronic migraines are also worrisome. 

A good way to determine whether you see a neurologist is by measuring the times you take pain relievers for headaches in a month. If the number goes over five, you should definitely consult a professional. When fever, stiff neck, and light sensitivity accompany a headache, they might point to an underlying issue such as meningitis. 

Frequent dizziness 

While dizziness is usually something benign, it can also become a sign of a serious health problem. If you feel dizzy once in six months due to fatigue, you shouldn’t worry too much – you should get some rest. On the other hand, if you experience bouts of dizziness all of the time, you shouldn’t just wait for the next one to start. 

There are several types of dizziness. For instance, syncope causes light-headedness and makes you feel like you’re going to faint while vertigo makes you feel like you’re spinning or swaying even when you’re standing still. Recognising this as a potential problem could help you treat a neurological disorder on time (if you have one).

Persistent pain 

Another thing that accompanies underlying neurological conditions is persistent pain. If you’ve suffered from constant pain for over six months, you should make an appointment with a neurologist as soon as possible. This is especially important if the pain is followed by sensations such as numbness, weakness, and tingling. You could also experience bladder or bowel control issues. 

All of these could be the symptoms of conditions such as neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. Luckily, you could get a life-changing brain surgery in Brisbane and improve your health and life significantly. You could even prevent a stroke. Sudden numbness affecting only one side of your body could be a sign of stroke. 

Sleep problems

Sleep is an essential part of the life of any functional being. You simply cannot go on with your life properly if you’re experiencing some serious trouble sleeping well. Insomnia and hypersomnia are just two of the sleep-related diseases you might have in this case. You could have narcolepsy, sleep apnea, or restless leg syndrome. 

All of these can make it difficult for you to remain focused and present at the moment. Furthermore, they could make it difficult for you to stay sane. If you’re unable to get a good night sleep for any reason, you should definitely head to a neurologist. Even if the problem isn’t neurological in nature, solving it will improve your life in many ways. 

Memory loss 

Finally, if you have trouble remembering things, you should check your neurological health. Of course, you could forget to switch off the lights sometimes – that isn’t a cause for concern. However, if you’re unable to focus on what people are telling you if you have trouble processing information, and if you can’t recall important pieces of information, you might have an issue. 

Especially if this becomes a constant in your life, you should seek help. Even if you constantly feel confused, you could be experiencing some symptoms of dementia. If that’s true, you could slow down this disease simply because you’ve noticed it on time. Once the treatment begins, you could improve the quality of your life in numerous ways.


Some of the things we consider ordinary or normal might be signs of serious health conditions. If you experience any of this often, make sure to check your health with a professional. Most health issues can be treated as long as they are noticed on time!

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