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White Whale Releases Details on Flash Loan Architecture

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White Whale Releases Details on Flash Loan Architecture

Let’s break it down. Simply put, a flash loan is, as the name implies, a loan that is opened and closed in a very short amount of time. More specifically, it is opened and closed in the same transaction. Flash loans are used to execute atomic trades that either capitalize off of inefficiencies in the market or provide some other functionality to the borrower. Atomic trades are trades that can be finalized in one transaction and almost all on-chain arbitrage falls under this category. By now you hopefully realize how powerful this financial instrument can be. But with this power comes responsibility.

While White Whale is said to be the first to roll out flash loans on Terra (and the whole Cosmos!), a number of protocols already offer it on Ethereum. The sometimes bad connotation linked to flash loans is caused by a number of exploits that happened on Ethereum in which hackers used this tool to do so-called re-entrancy attacks.  Fortunately, CosmWasm (the smart contract language of Terra) is designed to avoid this kind of attack. When comparing CosmWasm to Ethereum’s smart contract language the developers state:

“A big difference is that we avoid all reentrancy attacks by design. This point deserves an article by itself, but in short, a large class of exploits in Ethereum is based on this trick .”

And,

“Cosmwasm avoids this completely by preventing any contract from calling another one directly.”

These precautions enable White Whale to provide this service without having to worry too much about other protocols being exploited.

To really understand how all this works, let’s look at, and briefly unpack the White Whale flagship vault. The UST vault allows users to deposit UST into the vault in a simple, single-step process. The total liquidity in the UST vault then acts as a general-purpose liquidity pool with a series of in-house arbitrage strategies. The first of which is all about keeping the peg. There are also other strategies in the works, such as exploiting price inefficiencies among multiple exchanges, as well as automated liquidations on Mars and Levana. All of these strategies make the ecosystem more stable and efficient, and they all use the liquidity of the UST vault.

These strategies bring us back to flash loans: when any of our bots detect a profitable arbitrage opportunity, the smart contract linked to that strategy will ask for a flash loan from the UST vault. The UST vault will then withdraw the UST from Anchor protocol (where it is yielding a comfy 19.5% while idle) and provide the contract with borrowed money to execute the arbitrage. After the arbitrage, all funds are returned to the vault. This is how we plan to provide Anchor+ yields.

A question that has been raised, is this – what if the trade didn’t make a profit? Or what if the borrower just doesn’t repay the loan? Various mechanisms have been put in place, to ensure depositors don’t get rugged. First, when a flash loan is requested, White Whale saves the total value of the vault. Then funds are sent out to the borrower (i.e. the arb bot) for them to execute the trade. What has been added is a callback at the end of the program which can not be altered, and is guaranteed to execute.

After whatever the borrower has executed the trade, that callback is executed. The callback is essentially step two. It re-calculates the value of the vault and compares it with the initial value before the loan. If this amount is smaller than the initial amount it throws an ERROR and reverts the whole transaction, aka the flash loan. The transaction then fails and it’s like nothing ever happened. Effectively this means that the flash loan will only execute if it pre-determines a profitable result, otherwise, it will cancel itself.

Long term, there will be a whitelisting process for the community to build bots to onboard through on-chain governance and utilize the White Whale flash loan architecture. The community will be able to decide which bots will benefit and secure the ecosystem and vote to whitelist them. There will of course be a small fee (the borrowing cost of the loan) which will automatically get distributed to the depositors.

In order to ensure security for this complex and innovative architecture, White Whale has already scheduled multiple audits with some of the most highly respected auditors in the industry. The foundation has already been built,  and now the focus is about getting the tools into the hands of our community, empowering them to protect the peg and stabilize the ecosystem.

 

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Downward DOGE: Descending Dogecoin Pattern Predicts Deadly Drop

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Dogecoin has had a dramatic year. Starting only one year ago, DOGEUSD passed the one cent mark and embarked on a meme-fueled moon mission toward $1.

It never quite got there, and has been in a downtrend ever since. The downtrend has also since taken a walk down a dangerous path, putting the altcoin in jeopardy of another deadly drop. Here is what could be in store for Dogecoin in the days ahead.

Crypto House Training: Good DOGE, Bad Behaviors

There are two sides to every coin, and even a good dog can behave badly at times. Dogecoin was last year’s cryptocurrency all-star, rising from under a penny to nearly $1. It even managed to crack into the top five cryptocurrencies by market cap. It also caused a whirlwind of imitators.

Fans of the popular pup-based coin range from Snoop Dogg to the Dogefather himself, Elon Musk. These celebrity figures and the masses of the mainstream rode the Dogecoin rocket to success. Robinhood investors rejoiced; meme-coins went viral on TikTok.

Related Reading | Recapping 2021 Memecoin Mania: Dogecoin, Shiba Inu, & More

The ride itself has been rather bumpy as of late due to the increasingly risky macro environment. However, a possible chart pattern might suggest that it is time to abandon ship and send your DOGE back to the pound (or the dollar).

Is this a descending triangle in Dogecoin? | Source: DOGEUSD on TradingView.com

The Dangerous Descending Triangle In Dogecoin

Dogecoin is exhibiting a possible descending triangle chart pattern, pictured above. For comparison, the primary phase of the Bitcoin bear market is depicted side by side with DOGEUSD. A similar-sized drop would take Dogecoin back to around between five to ten cents per coin or lower.

Descending triangles have a bearish tendency to break down below support, but that doesn’t necessarily mean certain doom for DOGE.

Related Reading | SpaceX Dogecoin-Funded DOGE-1 Mission Set To Launch In Q1 2022

In the comparison, Bitcoin fell another 50% to its eventual bear market bottom. After the final breakdown of the triangle, the bottom was in and the cycle began anew.

While things could turn worse for Dogecoin investors – especially those who bought near the peak – it might also not be very long until the market reverses if the range lower can be defended.

Follow @TonySpilotroBTC on Twitter or join the TonyTradesBTC Telegram for exclusive daily market insights and technical analysis education. Please note: Content is educational and should not be considered investment advice.

Featured image from iStockPhoto, Charts from TradingView.com

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70% Of Bitcoin Supply Is In Profit – Why Bulls Need To Defend This Level

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70% Of Bitcoin Supply Is In Profit - Why Bulls Need To Defend This Level

On-chain data shows about 70% of the total Bitcoin supply is currently in profit, a level that has historically been important for bulls.

Around 30% Of Total Bitcoin Supply Is Now Underwater

As per the latest weekly report from Glassnode, the percentage of BTC supply in profit has now fallen off to just 70%.

The “percent of supply in profit” is an indicator that measures the percentage of the total Bitcoin supply that’s currently in the green.

When the value of this metric increases, it means more coins have started to get into profit. This leads to holders becoming more probable to sell their coins in order to harvest their gains.

At very high values of the indicator (more than 95%), the price of Bitcoin has usually approached a top as profits are realized.

On the other hand, when the metric moves down, it means more coins are entering into the red. Below certain low levels, investors may capitulate to cut their losses. However, when more than 50% of the supply is underwater, bottoms have historically formed.

Related Reading | Green Energy: In NY, Bitcoin Mining Saved The Oldest Working Hydroelectric Plant

Now, here is a chart that shows the trend in the value of the Bitcoin supply in profit over the last couple of years:

Looks like the value of the indicator has declined recently | Source: The Glassnode Week Onchain - Week 3, 2022

As you can see in the above graph, the metric has been falling down since a few months now. And so at the moment, only around 70% of the Bitcoin supply is in profit.

Related Reading | Bitcoin Miners Show Strong Accumulation As Their Inventories Spike Up

The 70% level seems to have been significant historically as bulls had to defend it twice in the past two years. The first instance was shortly after the COVID crash, between May 2020 to July 2020.

The other instance was 2021’s mini-bear period between May and July. The bulls came out on top during both the periods after a while of sideways movement.

The report notes that the medium-term outlook of the price likely depends on how the market responds to the level this time. If more of the supply enters underwater, those in the red may finally capitulate.

On the other hand, a bullish reversal can bring more Bitcoin into profit and prevent these holders from selling here.

BTC Price

At the time of writing, Bitcoin’s price floats around $42k, up 0.5% in the last seven days. Over the past month, the crypto has lost 8% in value.

The below chart shows the trend in the price of BTC over the last five days.

Bitcoin Price Chart

BTC's price has once again stumbled down in the past few days | Source: BTCUSD on TradingView
Featured image from Unsplash.com, charts from TradingView.com, Glassnode.com
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The NFT Investor’s Worst Nightmare: IRS Craves For A Crackdown

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NFT

Last year, when the NFT Everydays: The First 5,000 Days by Beeple sold at Christie’s for $69.3 million, it catapulted the non-fungible token’s market into the mainstream. A large number of people have invested billions in this industry and the boom is not stopping.

Recently, NewsBTC reported an aggressive surge in the NFT trading volume this year despite the falling crypto market. A report by Dappradar showed that in the first ten days of January, NFT trading generated around $11.9 billion.

Our previous report quotes Mason Nystrom, a senior research analyst at Messari, who alleged that “The cryptomarkets are fairly correlated – the market tends to rise and fall with Bitcoin. This has made it surprisingly interesting over the recent downturn as the NFT market has continued to increase in volumes.”

However, the rapid rise of the NFT space has not moved the officials of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to shed some light on the taxation parameters for the assets.

Even taxation experts are confused on the matter and can only speculate about the possible outcomes. As a large share of NFT traffic comes from the younger generations, are users prepared for tax filing season? The IRS is gazing at future penalties.

Related Reading | January Proves Turbulent For Investors But NFT And GameFi Seems To Be Eating Good

The IRS Gears Up

In November 2021, the $1.2 trillion infrastructure bill was signed into law by President Joe Biden as a key part of his economic agenda, proposing large investments in the country’s infrastructure. The funding is to come from a few sources involving tax changes.

Watching over the cryptocurrency industry’s boom, the infrastructure bill directly targets its investors, but they fail to educate digital assets users on all the information they need to report. The unawareness could result in possible felony convictions for tax evasion.

However, the law updates the definition of the terms “broker” and “digital assets”, and clarifies that users with regular transactions or any crypto transaction over $10,000 must report that data to the IRS. In this case, taxation works for digital assets in a similar way it does for capital gains relative to stock and bond trades.

However, non-fungible tokens are not close to being as clearly defined by the law as other digital assets, so there is a lot of room left for interpretation. That’s a dangerous game for investors, but the IRS investigators seem eager for cases to surge soon and are ready to crackdown on the market. They might see billions of dollars coming from the NFT gains tax bills.

Are NFT Investors Evading Taxes?

The murky confusion originates because it is not clear whether NFTs are taxable as art collectibles or not. It is fundamental to be aware of this because most crypto assets and stocks have a long-term capital-gains rate up to 20%, but for art collectibles, it’s 28%. And if NFTs are to be considered as ordinary income, the rate could go as high as 37%.

Michael Desmond, the former chief counsel at the IRS who is now a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, commented for Bloomberg that the rising NFT trading traffic might force the IRS to clarify the rules, “but it may begin auditing people first.”

The best-case scenario is gearing up and going through large amounts of paperwork, like the NFT investor Adam Hollander did, spending 50 hours checking months’ worth of transactions. He stated that “It’s an absolute nightmare,” and added that “There are people who aren’t going to be willing to do what I’m doing.”

And that nightmare really is the best-case scenario compared to tax evasion penalties.

Related Reading | Sports NFT Marketplace Lympo Suffers An $18.7 Million Hack

Total crypto market cap at $1,9 trillion in the daily chart | Source: TradingView.com
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