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The Different Types of Modern Ferry

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The simple task of carrying passengers and sometimes cargo across a body of water might not seem that remarkable, but it is something that dates back centuries. There are various writings and published works from ancient times that suggest the profession of a ferryman was a crucial aspect of former cultures and civilisations.

Today, ferryboats remain an essential means of transport all over the world. In several waterside cities and destinations, these vessels form part of the public transport system, providing the means to travel over water without the use of a bridge or tunnel.

What’s more, ferries are also commonplace in larger seas or oceans, connecting countries and even continents. Although the manufacturing and construction of these colossal vessels is staggering, each and every component, no matter how tiny they may be, can be crucial. Therefore, we like to think our range of high quality products, from BSP adaptors to NPT fittings, might come in handy.

But what is the history of the ferry? How many different types of vessel are there? And what are the biggest ferries and busiest routes in the world?

History of the ferry

In Greek mythology, Charon was the ferryman of Hades, who carried newly deceased souls across the rivers Styx and Acheron, which separated the worlds of the living and the dead. You still had to pay a fare to Charon though, usually a coin placed in or on the mouth of a dead person. In the days before steam and diesel, this ferryman’s chosen method of propulsion was a long pole held in his right hand, while receiving the deceased with his left.

In Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis, a piece of 4th century Roman literature, there is speculation that a pair of oxen once propelled a ferry. This principle could theoretically work, especially when you consider Kevin J. Crimson’s booked entitled When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America.

But the first steam-powered ferry was said to be the Juliana, invented by John Stevens. It began operating on 11th October 1811 between New York City and Hoboken, New Jersey. However with the advent of diesel engines in 20th century, steam-powered ferryboats have become a rarity and are reserved for special occasions or tourist routes.

While the majority of modern ferries still use diesel as their primary fuel source, the shipping industry is constantly looking at cleaner alternatives, which won’t damage the environment as much. Studies have found that vessels running on Liquefied Natural Gas are slightly more efficient, while electric and hybrid alternatives have also been developed in recent years.

Types of modern ferry

Despite the fact there are several different types of ferry in operation today, each one usually shares certain characteristics. However, the length of the route, the passenger or vehicle capacity, speed restrictions or requirements and the weather conditions will determine what ferry is used at a particular location.

Double-ended

The front and back of this kind of ferry, known as the prow bow and stern, are interchangeable. Therefore, they can travel back and forth between two ports of call without having to turn around. While this saves a great deal of time, it is sometimes absolutely necessary due to the size and area restrictions of certain terminals.

Famous double-ended vessels include the Staten Island Ferry, Washing State Ferries, Star Ferry and numerous boats on the North Carolina Ferry System and the Lake Champlain Transportation Company. There are also double-ended ferryboats in operation in the Norwegian fjords, British Columbia and Sydney, Australia.

Hydrofoils

Even though hydrofoil ferries might seem like a fairly advanced concept, prototypes date back over 100 years. Essentially, a hydrofoil is a boat that initially floats on the surface, but when velocity is increased the hull lifts out of the water, decreasing drag and allowing for greater speeds. The benefit of this type of vessel is that passengers can be transported quickly while minimising fuel costs. For this reason, they are commonplace on the English Channel and compete against Eurostar trains that use the tunnel.

However, they have their disadvantages too. Due to their technically complex nature, they are expensive to build and require ongoing maintenance. What’s more, a hydrofoil’s sharp edges that reside in the water during operation can also injure or kill marine mammals such as whales.

Hovercrafts

The development of the modern hovercraft is typically attributed to British mechanical engineer Sir Christopher Cockerell. In the 1950s, he developed a seagoing vehicle that used blowers to produce a large volume of air below the hull. The difference in air pressure above and below the hull generates lift and allows a hovercraft to float above the water surface.

Due to their adaptability and cost-effectiveness, they soon became a commercial success, predominantly around the UK and in the English Channel. Before long, hovercrafts were also adopted by the military and even used for recreational purposes.

But just like hydrofoils, they require a great deal of maintenance and can be susceptible to damage from adverse weather conditions. On top of that, hovercrafts are constrained to a given payload and their sea keeping ability is dependent on size.

Catamarans

These ferries feature two parallel hulls of equal size, which are geometry-stabilised. Due to their lightweight nature, thin hulls that reduce drag and no ballasted keel, a catamaran has a shallow draught and can travel at fast speeds. They also heel much less than a monohull, allowing for a more comfortable and efficient ride.

Traditionally, they relied on the wind for power and their sails would spill less than alternatives. But modern-day catamaran ferries combine the features of a motor yacht with the characteristics of a multihull.

Due to their countless advantages, catamarans are the ferry of choice for several high-speed services. They can replicate the speeds of a hydrofoil without suffering the effects of strong waves or foul water.

Roll-on/roll-off

Mainly used to transport wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trucks and trailers, roll-on/roll-off ships have built-in ramps that allow vehicles to effortlessly embark. When the vessel reaches its destination, the cargo can exit the other end just as easily.

In the past, vehicles had to be specially prepared before being hoisted into a ship’s hold, which was a time-consuming and expensive exercise. On top of that, the cargo was subject to damage as well. But in 1849, Thomas Bouch came up with the idea of a train ferry featuring an efficient roll-on, roll-off mechanism to maximise efficiency.

While these were used extensively in World War I, purpose-built landings ships capable of carrying military vehicles were developed for World War II. Today, they are still widely used for passenger and commercial purposes.

Cruiseferry

The combination of a cruise ship and a ‘Ro-Pax ferry’, this kind of vessel is typically used by holidaymakers on seagoing vacations or simply as a means of transportation. They are like a cruise ship in that they have numerous on-board facilities such as restaurants, bars and even entertainment or accommodation. RoPax ferries are those with a large garage intake and substantial passenger capacity.

Cruiseferries are typically found across Europe in the Baltic Sea, North Sea, Irish Sea, English Channel and Mediterranean. However, they also operate between China and Australia.

Pontoon ferry

Not the most advanced or modern vessels in the western world, but pontoon ferries are widely used in less-developed countries. Due to their inexpensive yet versatile nature, pontoon ferries are often used to carry people and vehicles across large rivers or lakes where the cost of a bridge is too expensive.

The most common pontoon ferries borrow design ideas from a catamaran. But instead of featuring two narrow hulls, they usually have pontoons either side of the platform or raft. Ramps will be installed on either side of the vessel to increase the efficiency of passengers and vehicles getting on and off.

Cable ferry

Also known as a chain ferry, swing ferry, floating bridge or punt, this type of vessel is guided and often propelled across the water by cables connected to both shores. Traditionally, rope or steel chains were used, but by the late 19th century, more stronger and durable wire cable became commonplace.

A reaction ferry uses the power of the river to tack across the current whereas a powered ferry has an engine or electric motor to wind itself along. Cogs or drums on-board pull the vessel, but the cables or chains have a fair amount of slack, as they have to sink below the surface and allow the vessel to pass.

Fast-disappearing hand-operated ferries are also still in existence, such as the Stratford-upon-Avon Chain Ferry in the UK and the Saugatuck Chain Ferry in Michigan, USA.

Modern ferry facts and figures

World’s largest car ferry in service – The MS Ulysses, operated by Irish Ferries between Ireland and Wales. Launched in March 2011, this vessel stands 12 decks high, but six are specifically designated for vehicles. In total, the Ulysses can carry 1,342 cars and 240 trucks.

World’s largest passenger ferry in service – The Stena Hollandica and Britannica, operated by Stena Line between the Netherlands and Great Britain. This ship features 1376 beds, 538 cabins, an on-board cinema, lounge, bar, buffet and a la carte restaurants, a sun deck and free Wi-Fi throughout.

World’s fastest car ferry in service – The Luciano Federico L, operated by Buquebus between Montevideo, Uruguay and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Capable of a maximum speed achieved in sea trials of 60.2 knots, it holds a Guinness World Record. The boat can also carry 450 passengers and 52 cars along this 110-nautical mile route.

Oldest ferry service in continuous operation – The Mersey Ferry between Liverpool and Birkenhead or the Rocky Hill to Glastonbury Ferry. This is a contentious record, as a couple of different ferries claim to be the oldest service still operating today. In 1150, monks from the Benedictine Priory in Birkenhead used to charge a small fee to row passengers across the Mersey Estuary. However, there may have been a break in service following the dissolution of the monasteries. The ferry between Rocky Hill and Glastonbury, Connecticut, which has been running ever since 1655, only stops operating when the winter freezes over in winter.

World’s largest ferry system – On Scotland’s west coast, Caledonian MacBrayne operate a fleet of 29 vessels, which call at 50 different ports. Elsewhere is the world, BC Ferries in British Columbia have 36 ships that visit 47 terminals, while Washington State Ferries own 28 boats, which go to 20 destinations around Puget Sound.

Even though jumbo jets and high-speed trains have replaced ferryboat routes in some areas, they remain an incredibly important and crucial means of transportation for millions of people worldwide. The most modern vessels are also incredibly quick, very efficient and can transport scores of passengers in comfort and style.

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Why is Node.js important for your back-end web application?

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NodeJS has been the buzzword in the tech world lately. Many companies like PayPal, LinkedIn, and Uber are now using it to develop their apps. Other companies include Walmart, Groupon, and Yahoo. Here are a few reasons why you should take NodeJS training for your future career. This technology can make your job much easier and more rewarding. Learn about some of the advantages of this language, and why it will improve your job prospects in the future.

NodeJS is one of the most popular programming languages today. More than 95% of websites use it to develop the front-end. However, before 2009, it was used for only front-end development, and was used in conjunction with various server-side languages. In 2009, NodeJS was developed by Ryan Dahl, who surprised many developers when it was released. It is a powerful and efficient application development tool, which is rapidly growing in popularity.

Node is also a great language for building real-time interaction applications. Unlike browsing, these applications require fast communication between clients and servers. Furthermore, they often require persistent I/O. Node is the best choice for such a scenario. In addition to being easy to learn, Node is a fast-growing language, and you’ll have the opportunity to earn big from this skill.

Compared to Golang, NodeJS has an edge in error handling. It makes it easy to use callback functions. It is also easy to learn if you’re familiar with JavaScript. Node js training courses are structured learning processes that can be customized for your specific needs. The community of Node JS developers is large, which makes it easier to learn the language. The Node JS learning experience is also much more convenient than Go.

Node JS is easy to learn. It has an enormous developer community, which makes it very easy to learn. If you are an experienced JavaScript developer, learning Node JS is easier than Go, which is a popular language. Node JS courses can help you learn Go, JavaScript, or any other language. It also can help you become more productive. Node JS classes are structured and can provide an edge in the job market.

Node JS is a powerful application development language. It’s easy to learn and has a large community of dedicated developers. The Node JS language is a popular choice for web developers and many web development companies use it in their applications. Despite its popularity, it can be challenging to learn without the right training. You might not be comfortable with it, but it’s worth it for your future.

Node JS is a popular language among web developers. It is easy to learn, and it’s easy to use. Unlike other languages, Node JS is compatible with most web technologies. This means that it’s not only easier to learn Node JS than Go, but it’s also easier for non-JavaScript developers, too. Node JS is the language of the future.

Node JS is more versatile and flexible than Golang, which is another popular language. It is an asynchronous programming language, meaning that it uses callback functions to communicate with other programs. It’s also easier to learn for non-JavaScript developers. Node JS is more accessible than Go, so you should start learning it for the future. Node JS is easy to learn, but it’s not easy to learn.

Besides Node JS, it’s also a great language for developers. If you’re looking to build a web application, it’s important to learn NodeJS. This is the language of the future. It helps you create scalable web applications. If you’re looking for a fast-loading website, Node JS is the best choice. Its modular design makes it easy to integrate with other systems.

Node JS is a great way to build web applications. It’s a scalable and lightweight language. It’s also perfect for microservice architectures. It uses node modules to build functions. It can be independent and can be maintained independently. This is a huge advantage for developers. It’s easy to deploy and maintain. You can use it anywhere you want to. It can be used in mobile applications as well.

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How Glock Became America’s Favorite Handgun

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hand gun

The Glock became the talk of the town during the 1980s because it could hold 17 bullets rather than just 6 and didn’t need extraordinary force for pressing the trigger. Soon, this gun became popular worldwide because of its amazing features. The armed forces in the United States were looking for a powerful, handy, and reliable pistol after the Miami shootout in 1986. By that time, the Glock had gained a lot of fame in Europe.

But, if we talk about the United States, it’s a fact that the Glock is the favorite handgun and the very first choice of every person. Here are some reasons why Glock is preferred more than any other kind of gun.

It is Lightweight

The Glock guns are made up of polyester rather than steel. Besides this, these guns even contain firearm material and polymer clay. This firearm took the entire United States by storm because of its outstanding quality. So, anyone who needs a handgun for self-defense or looking for something that could be a valuable addition to their armory can purchase a glock 80% polymer pistol from 80 Percent Arms.

It is Available in a Variety of Models

One can find a variety of Glock models available in the market. This is also a great reason this gun is so famous in the United States. The very first model of Glock was launched in the market during the 1980s; from then till now, the weapon has not gone through any amendment as such. However, the variation in models is due to the caliber or range of the gun.

It is Reliable and Convenient 

One of the reasons Glock became the favorite handgun in the United States of America is that it is very reliable and convenient to use. In 1982 the Glock met the needs of Austrian military officers who were looking for a reliable and efficient handgun. There is hardly any handgun that could meet Glock’s standards.

Its Design is Simple

Talk about the design of this handgun; it is just as simple as anything. Its simplicity makes it unique, convenient to use, and the best choice for almost everyone. Also, the simple design of this gun makes it easier for the owners to handle this weapon with care and thus reduces the chances of accidental injuries and death.

The Law Enforcement Agencies Prefer It

Glock became popular in the United States when law enforcement agencies began to use it despite its features. After that, almost all of the armed forces were using Glock, and this was exactly when this weapon began to hold the attention of the majority.

Glock is undoubtedly the safest, most reliable, handy, and convenient handgun one can find in the market. These lightweight pistols could prove to be life-saving and the most reliable thing you would ever need to protect yourself from life-threatening situations. No wonder it has made its way into rap lyrics, 2/3 of all the US police departments

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Chinese Hackers Using Log4Shell Exploit Tools to Perform Post-Exploitation Attacks

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Chinese Hackers Using Log4Shell Exploit Tools to Perform Post-Exploitation Attacks

The cybersecurity firm, CrowdStrike has warned that Chinese hackers are using the Log4Shell exploit tools to perform various post-exploitation operations.

The hacker group behind these malicious operations, Aquatic Panda was seen using the Log4Shell vulnerability, with the help of a large academic institution.

In early December the Log4Shell and LogJam vulnerability, which were tracked as CVE-2021-44228 was discovered in the popular Log4j logging library.

Aquatic Panda

Aquatic Panda is a Chinese hacking group that is operating since May 2020 and it has two primary goals:-

  • Intelligence collection.
  • Industrial espionage.

This hacking group mainly targets all its users from the following sectors:-

  • Telecommunications sectors
  • Technology sectors
  • Government sectors

Apart from this, the AQUATIC PANDA counts on the following tools for the execution of all its operations:-

  • Cobalt Strike
  • FishMaster (Unique Cobalt Strike downloader.)
  • njRAT

Technical Analysis

To gain initial access to the target system, the Aquatic Panda uses a modified version of the exploit for a bug in Log4j, and then it performs several post-exploitation activities like:-

  • Exploration
  • Credential collection

The hackers targeted VMware Horizon that used the vulnerable Log4j library to compromise a large academic institution, and on December 13, 2021, the exploit used in this attack was published on GitHub.

1641449105 417 Chinese Hackers Using Log4Shell Exploit Tools to Perform Post Exploitation Attacks

Using the DNS lookups for a subdomain running on VMware Horizon as part of Apache Tomcat, the threat actors performed a connection check.

1641449106 463 Chinese Hackers Using Log4Shell Exploit Tools to Perform Post Exploitation Attacks

On the Windows host where the Apache Tomcat service was running, the team ran a series of Linux commands, and not only that even they also performed the same on those aimed at deploying malicious tools that are hosted on remote infrastructure.

Here at this point to better understand privilege levels and learn more about the domain, the threat actors have also conducted surveillance efforts. While they also tried to interrupt a response solution and third-party endpoint threat detection solution.

The malware and three VBS files were extracted by the hackers through PowerShell commands, and to accomplish this, additional scripts were deployed by the hackers.

At this stage, by performing memory dumps and preparing them for theft, the threat actors of Aquatic Panda attempted several trials to collect credentials.

Moreover, the attacked academic institution was timely warned of suspicious activities to be able to quickly use the incident response protocol, fixing vulnerable software and deterring further development of the malicious activity.

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