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Cell Line Development: The Key to Human Health

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Human Health

Over the past few years, we have all become increasingly aware of the need for vaccines to combat viruses. We have learnt how quickly things can go from normality to worldwide lockdowns. The need for a new vaccine could become humanity’s only way of moving forward. This is where cell line development comes in.

In this article, we’ll look at how stable cell lines are essential in the production of these all-important biotherapeutics, what challenges are involved, and how the future looks in this state-of-the-art scientific field.

The History of Cell Line Development

Let’s start off by looking at the history of cell line development and how it all began.

The history of cell culture dates back to 1948 when the first “L” cell line was established. The cell line was extracted from subcutaneous mouse tissue.

It wasn’t until 1957 that the first Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line was established. To this day, CHO cell lines are the most common mammalian cell line used in the mass production of therapeutic proteins. They are widely used in studies of toxicity screening, nutrition and gene expression, genetics, and particularly to express recombinant proteins. Much is known about their growth characteristics. This growth and adaptability to media and culture conditions make CHO cells a big asset in the pharmaceutical industry.

How the Process of Cell Line Development Works

Stable cell lines are developed by a process that generally starts with transfecting selected host cells, mainly CHO cells, with the desired plasmids. Plasmids are cells that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, hence their wide use in the laboratory manipulation of genes. Once transfecting has taken place, researchers must then manually screen and quantify high-yielding clones. Only after identifying the high producers can the cell lines produced by the cells be validated.

Until very recently, the process was slow and arduous taking anywhere between 6 to 12 months to complete a single cell line. This is because of the manual screening methods traditionally used for cell line development. What is needed is an automated and much more efficient approach to cell line development. This is where cell line development companies come in.

The Future of Cell Line Development

Cell line development companies are critical in bringing cell line development to the next level. Time is of the essence and these companies are the answer to providing automation and efficiency in cell line development.

Using state-of-the-art machinery, these Cell line development companies are dramatically reducing the time it takes to complete the cell line development process.

An example of this machinery is the ClonePix 2. The ClonePix 2 System does two jobs in one. It provides an automated way of screening huge amounts of cells. This increases the chances of finding rare high-producer cells. It also allows for single-cell isolation, dramatically reducing development times.

The consistency and high production of the target therapeutic protein are essential. These must be single-cell derived clones. With microplate readers like the SpectraMax i3x, these clones can be characterized much more quickly. The future of cell line development is already underway thanks to this cutting-edge machinery and the companies dedicated to its growth. Thanks to these advances, there’s no doubt that cell line development will continue to become a faster and more efficient process.

Mahesh is leading digital marketing initiatives at RecentlyHeard, a NewsFeed platform that covers news from all sectors. He develops, manages, and executes digital strategies to increase online visibility, better reach target audiences, and create engaging experience across channels. With 7+ years of experience, He is skilled in search engine optimization, content marketing, social media marketing, and advertising, and analytics.

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Nursing Home Neglect You Should Look Out For

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Nursing Home Neglect You Should Look Out For

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Once you place your loved ones in the nursing homes, you expect that they will receive the best care with the utmost respect. But it is not the case every time because nursing home neglect can affect the physical and mental health of your loved ones. If one of your family members is in a nursing home, then you must visit them frequently to learn about their condition. It helps you know whether they are given proper facilities and care or not. 

Some of the nursing home neglect that occurs is not intentional, but some of them do happen on purpose. Understaffing is one of the major reasons for nursing home neglect and residents’ less attention due to it. Also, the hiring process of the nursing home is not ideal, which provides a chance for underqualified nurses to work. All facilities need to follow a proper screening process to ensure the hiring of qualified and competent nurses. You should know some of the common nursing neglect to stay aware and diligent in taking care of your loved ones. Let’s look at some types of nursing home neglect you should look out for. 

  1. Lack of Mobility 

One of the major nursing home neglect that you need to keep an eye on is the lack of mobility which is a sign of neglect. Most nursing home facilities have policies to ensure the mobility of the residents. If residents are left in wheelchairs or beds for a long time, then it can cause health issues like stage 4 bedsores that can cause serious infections. If you notice such signs, then you have the right to take legal action against the nursing home. 

Also, mobility issues can weaken muscles due to a lack of movement. Imagine you are just lying on a bed for the whole day doing nothing. It can also affect your mental health as well. Now think about those residents who have to face similar situations not for days but for months. If there is no blood flow in the body, how can you expect the person to remain in a good physical state? So, it affects the overall health of the residents and can make their condition worse. 

  1. Poor Hygiene 

Residents in nursing homes require assistance with daily hygiene tasks. It includes taking a bath and brushing their teeth, so it is important to provide them with necessary assistance. You need to keep track of the hygiene of your loved ones in nursing homes. Keep track of their dental health and personal hygiene to ensure their hygiene needs are taken care of. 

Poor hygiene can occur due to a lack of bathing that can increase. It can cause serious health issues, and it becomes worse, especially in hot weather conditions. Imagine if you are not taking a bath in summer for more than one day. What will be your condition? Similarly, if your loved ones have poor hygiene, it can cause affect their physical and mental health also, causing issues like stress and mental anxiety. Also, ensure that the clothes of your family member are regularly changed and washed. If residents continue wearing soiled or dirty clothes for days, then it can also cause health issues like skin infections. 

  1. Emotional Abuse 

Emotional abuse is one of the common issues that residents have to go through while staying in nursing homes. It includes verbal insults or threats that are used to control residents. According to a report, around 30% of the nursing home staff have accepted of emotionally abusing the residents. 

Some examples of emotional abuse in nursing homes are controlling activities of the residents against their will, insulting their appearance, and making threats. Residents who suffer from such emotional abuse can develop mental health issues like anxiety, depression, and PTSD. One of the common signs that a resident has been abused is the sudden change in their mood or behavior. 

  1. Physical Abuse 

Physical abuse that occurs in the form of injuries is another common neglect in nursing homes. Around 9% of nurses have accepted physically abusing the residents. Some of the common examples of physical abuse in nursing homes are pushing, punching, and kicking residents. 

As a result of physical abuse, residents can face suffering from different injuries like bruises, bleeding, and broken bones. Residents who already have some type of medical condition can face serious health issues in case of any injuries. 

You should frequently visit your loved ones to look for any signs of injuries. It will compel nurses and other medical staff to stay careful while dealing with their loved ones. If you notice any sign of injury, you should immediately provide necessary medical attention to your loved one. On the other hand, you can also file a case against the nursing home if any such incident happens. It will help you receive financial compensation. In some cases, unexplained injuries can also occur as a result of the accident. 

  1. Poor Living Conditions

Unsatisfactory living conditions are another issue in nursing homes. Firstly, you have to ensure that while admitting your loved one to the nursing home, it has all the essential facilities. If you see dirt and pests everywhere, that place is probably not suitable for your family member to stay in. 

Also, inadequate nutrition is another sign of neglect in nursing homes. If you notice that a resident is getting weaker day by day, then it is possible that they are not getting sufficient nutrition. It can cause weakness and serious health issues, so you need to keep track of such things. 

You may think that you have done your part after admitting your loved one to the nursing facility. But it is not the truth, as you need to regularly check how a resident is doing in the nursing home and what is their mental and physical state. You should notice the signs of physical and emotional abuse, so you can take legal action right away against the culprits. You may have to find the right attorney to get legal assistance in such situations. First, you have to be able to notice that something is wrong with your loved one in a nursing home. 

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Why Cleaning Can Help Reduce Stress

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Reduce Stress

Coming home and cleaning the house may be the last thing on your mind after a full day’s work. For obvious reasons, many people equate cleaning with wasting time rather than having fun. Cleaning, on the other hand, can be a great relief from stress for a variety of reasons.

Some of these causes stem from the cleansing process, and some from the final results of your efforts. In either case, the following facts may encourage you to ‘clear up the next time you worry’.

What Is Psychology After This?

With the growing reputation of renovating each room, demolition, and other home styles aimed at creating fresh air and a calm mind, it is time to explore the connection between a clean home and mental health.

Hypertension has been linked to stress and anxiety in recent psychological research, and home maintenance has been found to have a positive impact on mental health. Take a rag and mop and start removing all that dirt and discomfort with a complete house cleaning if you need to remove the pressure.

Not only this, but the level of indoor air quality also plays an important role in your physical, mental, and emotional health.

Reduce Stress
Reduce Stress

Source: https://www.pexels.com/photo/man-in-gray-shirt-cleaning-clear-glass-wall-near-sofa-713297/

The connection between a clean home and mental health is something your whole family should worry about. We all want a clean, orderly home, and a mess that can make us feel at peace. It is easy to see how keeping the room clean can keep the mind calm and the relationship strong when you consider the many benefits — better physical health, improved mental health, and a clean, healthy atmosphere.

1.  Cleaning As A Way To De-Clutter.

Let’s face it: overcrowding is a source of stress. It is not like entering a model house where there are piles of paper everywhere, mountains of material that need to be rolled up, and mixed items thrown down. It is a change you can truly feel.

Although most of us wish to have a clean and tidy home, many of us live in busy, demanding neighborhoods. According to a survey, less than 10% of participants live in an uninhabited environment, and more than a third of them live in such an environment that they do not know where to start cleaning. But you can begin by decluttering extra things from the important part of the house. Clean the custom home safes of your home and remove what is no longer required.

2.  Cleaning As A Cost-Consumer

If you have trouble paying off debts as you do not get them, change the products you already have as you do not know where they are, or eat more food than you need to do because your kitchen is very full and dirty. Regular cooking, a little cleaning can save you money. You may not know how much an organized house can save you until you live in it. .

3.  Cleansing As A Thanksgiving Work

Make cleaning a thoughtful experience thanks to everything you experience. For example, as you put that plate on the dishwasher, enjoy your plates, appreciate the food you remove because other people don’t have it, and respect the beauty of modern technology. The holiday season might lead you to want to decorate.

Pick led strip lights wholesale for the entire home and decorate as you clean.

By focusing on what you clean, you can gain a new appreciation for something you did not realize you already had. Revealing a good place to hide your head after a mess and chaos can bring a new level of appreciation for everything you have because inner calm comes more from wishing what you have than getting what you want.

4.  Cleansing As A Way Of Meditation

While the result of a thorough cleaning session – a nice, clean home – can be a stress reliever, cleaning your house can be a way to manage stress yourself. Cleansing can be a form of meditation if you add awareness to the process, leaving you more relaxed after you are done. Moms can find more peace when they are done cleaning baby products like a baby pram which has been in constant use.

5.  Cleaning As An Official Event

If you are not the type to clean in a zen way, make a party instead. Music has a lot to do with relieving stress, and listening to music while cleaning can make work more enjoyable. If you clean while listening to music, you may find that you work faster and finish faster.

6.  Cleaning As An Exercise

Cleaning, if done properly, can also give you a sense of accomplishment, which can be beneficial in reducing stress. Running up and downstairs, carrying things from one room to another, and cleaning windows and floors are all great ways to burn calories, produce endorphins, and relieve stress. Spring cleaning is a very rewarding exercise routine.

Conclusion

While reading or listening to music is an excellent antidote to depression, it seems that the adage, “A clean house, a clean mind” is also effective. Cleaning your home not only makes you feel more comfortable and proud of your belongings but living in a clean environment often calms you down. So, have a great day of cleaning!

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The MTHFR Gene Mutation—What You Need to Know

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The MTHFR Gene Mutation—What You Need to Know

The MTHFR gene has been in the news a lot recently. It’s been theorized to cause everything from ADHD to schizophrenia, although much of that is unproven hype. What actually is this gene? What does it do? How do you know if you have the mutation? Here’s your guide to everything you need to know about the MTHFR gene.

What A MTHFR Mutation Does

A mutation to the MTHFR gene means that your body will no longer process the amino acid homocysteine or the nutrient folic acid. Homocysteine isn’t a necessary nutrient, so the biggest problem it poses is that it will build up, unprocessed, in the body. It can damage the lining of veins and arteries, leading to heart conditions. It can also cause weakness, fatigue, and several other problems, some more serious than others.

Folic acid, on the other hand, helps to regulate mental health. Put as simply as it can be, it works like this: the MTHFR gene is responsible for creating an enzyme that helps the body digest folic acid into its usable form, L-methylfolate. The mutation prevents this process, meaning that people who are eating foods rich in folic acid, or even taking a folic acid supplement, will still not see any of the benefits from their folic acid intake.

Supplement Options

People with the mutation can try taking supplements to improve their mental health. Two options are folic acid supplements and L-methylfolate supplements. L-methylfolate is the compound that the MTHFR enzyme turns folic acid into, which means it’s the compound that is actually used in someone’s body. Many doctors doubt the effectiveness of taking folic acid as a supplement, since people with a mutation of their MTHFR gene may not be able to digest and use the supplement.

This journal states that Vitamin B12 may also be helpful to mitigate the problems associated with homocysteine. However, the MTHFR mutation is not well studied yet, so this may or may not be extremely reliable information.

Before taking either of these supplements, or any other treatment, people should talk to their doctors. They might also decide to take a test for the MTHFR mutation, so they know whether that’s actually the cause of their problem, or whether it may have a different cause.

Genetics Information

If, like most people, you slept through your high school biology class, you might be confused about genes, enzymes, and amino acids. Here’s a quick refresher on genetics.

Everyone has two copies of their DNA—one that they inherited from their mother, one from their father. Each copy has the MTHFR gene, along with hundreds of thousands of other genes. There are two mutations that can happen to the MTHFR gene: C677T and A1298C. Either or both of a person’s parents could have had either or both of these mutations.

If someone’s father has one copy of a mutation, and their mother has one copy, they would have a chance to inherit both. That means they won’t have any normal, non-mutated genes, so they won’t be able to make the enzyme that digests folic acid and homocysteine. It’s also possible to have one of each mutation, which still damages the body’s ability to process homocysteine and folic acid.

The two different mutations arise in different populations. About twenty-five percent of Hispanic people and ten percent of Caucasian people in America have two copies of the C677T mutation. Seven to fourteen percent of Caucasian people have two copies of the less common A1298C mutation, which is rarely found in any minorities and has been studied significantly less.

Mutation
Mutation

Enzymes and You

So what are enzymes anyway? They’re the reason why cows can eat grass and humans can’t. They’re behind lactose intolerance. Simply, enzymes are machines the body uses to digest nutrients. For more information, check out https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/21532-enzymes

People eat a lot of different food, but most of it is not in the forms our body uses. Look at sugars, for example. There are dozens of types of sugars, from glucose, fructose, and sucrose to larger complex carbohydrates, but the human body can only process the simplest, glucose. Every more complex sugar is composed of glucose linked together, like a daisy chain. Enzymes unlink the chain, so people’s bodies can use the glucose to create energy.

The MTHFR enzyme is similar. It refines folic acid into L-methylfolate, a smaller molecule that human bodies can actually use. That’s why it’s so important: without it, folic acid is useless to the body.

So, what’s the name of this crucial enzyme, and the gene named for producing it? What would require such an awkward acronym? What name would be so long and unpronounceable that every person who ever talks about the gene would use the abbreviation? It’s this: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Now aren’t you glad you learned that?

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