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Fighting Obesity Through the Centuries – A Weight Loss Doctor Reveals Some Old Secrets

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Without A Plan Permanent Weight Loss is Impossible.

The top resolution for 2010, just like it has been for every year is shedding weight and becoming physically fit. It also can become the hardest to do: changing the way we eat and exercise in a few days or even in a few months can overwhelm just about anyone. The first step is always to prepare a plan, weight loss without a definite plan is impossible. Whether you try low carb, count calories, points or eat specially prepared meals, you still need a plan. Before you jump on the first plan you hear about, take a long look and see that the task of losing weight is nothing new. It goes back to 5000 years to early Egypt. Take a look through the centuries and find a plan that is best for you.

Obesity and Dieting is Nothing New

The earliest indications of obesity can be traced back to the first modern humans in Europe about 35,000 years ago. In those days, efficient storage of energy (i.e., fat) in times of plenty was paramount to surviving the next famine. Times have changed and famine does not exist in our part of the world any longer. Therefore, our once lifesaving ability to store energy (i.e., fat) efficiently has since turned against us. It now shows up in our society as the constant concern of too much weight and ultimately, as obesity. For thousands of years, being overweight and obesity were exceptionally rare phenomena and were almost never studied.

The perception of obesity varied among cultures.

In ancient Egypt, obesity was considered a disease. Egyptians depicted their enemies as obese individuals. Obesity was certainly not the Egyptian beauty ideal, which instead featured long, slender legs, narrow hips with high breasts, and golden skin. Concerned that diet maintained their health, the ancients recognized that the quantity and quality of food were equally important. Their method of portion control was rather primitive. They

Vomited and purged themselves three times a month.

Ancient China was aware of obesity and the dangers that come with it. The texts tolled Gobi berries for strengthening the liver, preventing obesity, and fortifying the-Qi-(chi) or life force. The Aztecs believed that obesity was supernatural, an affliction of the Gods. They had a sophisticated vocabulary for obesity and locations of specific fat deposits, including a double chin and a -beer belly.

The ancient Greeks first recognized the dangers of obesity. Hippocrates, considered the Father of Medicine,believed that obesity led to infertility and even death.

  • Hippocrates was aware of sudden deaths being more common among obese men than lean ones. He correctly identified the energy balance equation:
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Energy is either used or stored.
  • When -calories in- are greater than -calories out- then body weight increases.
  • When -calories in- are less than -calories out-then body weight decreases.

After Hippocrates laid the foundation for understanding energy and weight management within the human body, another two thousand years went by before the general public in Europe, in the early 1600s, began to recognize diet and exercise as means to preserving one’s health.

Around the 17th century, links between diet, disease, and health were clearly acknowledged.

Study after study emphasized the benefits of leanness and the dangers of corpulence. beginning in the 17 the century. The term obesity was first used in 1650 by the English physician and medical writer, Dr. Tobias Venner. With the industrial revolution of the 19th century, England saw a growing abundance of food coupled with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. The result was a vast increase in obesity among the middle and upper classes.

Unfortunately, as the medical society and the public in general began to look at obesity and its complications as serious health problems, knowledge on how to reverse it, especially permanently, remained unclear! Surprisingly, most 19th century doctors had no idea about its cause. Many thought obesity was due to sin or diseases.

Physicians of the time did not believe that what you ate had a direct impact on your body and on your general health. People typically ate bread, potatoes, pastry, puddings and cakes, and served their meat with thick gravies. Alcohol was part of daily life. Basically, people of that time ate as much as they could afford! After all, a big belly was a sign of prosperity.

Lights Begins to Shine in the early 1800’s with Graham Crackers in America

During the early 1830s, Reverend Sylvester Graham was the first American to relate food choices to health. He condemned the sin of gluttony,advocating a bland, vegetarian diet as the cure. Dr. Graham developed a recipe and encouraged people to eat flat bread made of coarse whole wheat flour. However, people who ate his Graham Cracker were described as -pale and sickly. Reverend Graham became known as Dr. Sawdust-not a very good start to reversing obesity, but these were the first efforts made to remediate the condition

Revelations Appear in early 19th Century London:

Across the Atlantic Ocean, in the early 19th century Dr William Wadd, a physician of the English Court, finally touched the heart of the matter. He connected overindulgence at the table with the dangerous conditions that resulted from an excess of fat deposits in the body.

Dr. Wadd’s first principle of treatment was taking food that has little nutrition in it.Was he describing eating food with less fat or carbs? He pointed out that many physicians refused to treat obese patients because they did not recognize the growing obesity epidemic of the early 1800s as a real and dangerous disease. That was in 1800. Sounds familiar?

In 1850, the medical profession in Europe had accepted the theory of German chemist Baron Justus von Liebig that carbohydrate and fat supplied the carbon which, combined with oxygen in the lungs, produced body heat. In terms of this theory, carbohydrate and fat were respiratory foods and the cause of obesity was believed to be an overindulgence of them.

Dr. Liebig’s patients were cut off from food for as long as possible and almost starved themselves to death. He exhorted establishing an hourly watch over the instinctive desires of his patients. Although this was only the first organized attempt to reverse obesity, a more humane treatment was needed. Nevertheless, the importance of limiting food intake to treat obesity became fairly well accepted by the mid 1800s. The challenge was then, as it still is today, the unbearable hunger that always accompanies the reduction of food consumption.

4 London Doctors Uncover the Secrets of Weight Loss: (Much of which we then forgot)

During the 19th century, three English doctors-Horace Dobell (1826-1916), Isaac Burney Yeo (1835-1914) and John Ayrton Paris (1785-1856)-turned their attention to the growing problem of obesity, researching methods and assisting obese individuals in overcoming their weight-related issues. They concluded that the excess food and increasingly sedentary lifestyle of 19th century England conflicted with the body’s biological need to efficiently store energy (i.e., fat) in times of plenty to survive the next famine. They recognized that quick fixes and miracle solutions offered no answer to this problem.

Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, alerted his readers in 1825 to the dangers of fad diets. He warned against the common use of so called venagar to lose weight and was one of the first advocates of limiting carbs. His book, The Physiology of Taste is one of the first important books on food.

Dr Burney in 1842 Unravels the Secret to Successful Weight Loss:

Humans-like animals-are motivated by four basic drives: hunger, thirst, sex, and the need for security. Hunger and sex are the strongest, being necessary for the survival of our species. Dr. Burney-famous for his Yeo’s Treatment(treatment of obesity by giving large amounts of hot drinks and withholding carbohydrates)-noted that the sensation of hunger, although involving mainly the stomach, originates in the brain. Additionally, as this sensation is one of the most basic of the human emotions, its regulation must occur slowly and with the greatest care.

Hunger that is not satisfied creates morbid cravings,as Dr. Burney wrote. Probably the main reason why so many diets fail is that they ignore what Dr. Burney calls-our most basic of all drives-hunger.

Before we even started to count calories, points, fat, carbs or protein, and other metrics we use to help us regulate our food intake, Drs. Dobell and Burney had already concluded that all of these methods were too complicated. Both doctors noted that dietary changes should be based on the individual’s unique requirements concerning age, gender, and activity level. However, 1865 was the age of vapors, elixirs, potions, and liniments. Telling an upper class, overweight lawyer that his excessive eating caused the fat around his belly and that he had to physically exercise-like a farm hand-was problematic and almost drove Dr. Burney out of practice.

Diet is related to age, sex, occupation… and should correspond to what a person likes. Avoid any unnecessary changes in the number or variety of food and always give a patient what he likes, unless there is an unquestionably good reason for not doing so, writes Dr Burney in 1842.

You might think recognizing that overeating will make us fat is pretty obvious and was not at all a significant discovery. In reality, most weight loss plans today fail to take into consideration that not everyone can eat the same food, the same amounts of food, or react the same way to foods. This is why none of these generic diet concepts work. We are all different and every person requires personalized plans of action to achieve long-term success in managing sustainable and healthy weight levels.

How many diet plans even consider what the individual actually likes to eat? Drs. Dobell and Burney stressed that a successful weight loss plan depends on making as few changes as possible and then tailoring the food to the individual’s age, sex and occupation and, especially, to personal likings. This advice is even more relevant today than it was 175 years ago. Finding the real causes for your weight problems and then selecting foods based on these personal factors-including what you like to eat-was fundamental back then and is just as important today.

Keeping Weight Loss Plans Simple is Nothing New:

-Interference with a diet, like all good things, is particularly open to abuse for nothing is so easier than to lay down a complicated code of restriction and rules as to what to eat and what to drink and the patient is very apt to think that the skill of the doctor increases with the number and variety of the orders. But those who understand the principle of a diet know that the reverse is true…instead of meddling with unimportant details, seize the few essential points for which a diet generally will be found to turn. Those that are best off are those that abstain from all attempts to meddle-writes Dr Horace Dobell in 1865.

William Bunting, a London Undertaker Writes About His Experiences Fighting Obesity, Some Practical

Ideas from the First Celebrity Dieter:

In 1860, in what is considered one of the first diet books, a famous London undertaker and coffin maker William Banting, revealed how to lose and-most importantly-maintain, weight loss for years. At 5 feet 5 inches in height and weighing more than 202 lbs., Banting experienced rapid weight gain beginning at age 30. He was so overweight that he had to walk down the stairs backwards to avoid jarring his knees. He was unable to ties his shoes or pull up his pants. Despite vigorous exercise, spa treatments, self -induced vomiting, drinking gallons of water, low-calorie and starvation diets, he only kept gaining weight.

For many years, he went from one doctor to another in vain-They took my money but they failed to make me thinner. He was hospitalized twenty times for weight reduction, only to fail again. One of his physicians noted that putting on weight was perfectly -natural-; the physician himself had being gaining a pound a year for years. Fed up with physicians and failures, he created his own plan, bearing many similarities with the findings of Drs. Dobell, Burney and Paris and described it in his famous Letter of Corpulence, first published in 1864.

Amount of Food: People of larger frame and build require a proportionally larger quantity of… food… and foods that are beneficial in youth are prejudicial in aged.

  • Kind of Food: Starch, sugar and fatty meats tend to create fat and should be avoided all together. Experimentation is needed, to establish which foods cause weight gain for that individual and which do not. No attempt to restrict all carbohydrates — but sugar, potatoes, and some breads… Vegetables and fruits of all kinds are permitted freely.
  • Food Changes have to be gradual and kept to a minimum so as not to cause feelings of loss and… return to former habits.
  • Number of Meals -Four meals a day are preferred. (The fourth is a late evening snack.)-
  • Exercise- The rules of diet you found so beneficial have been long forced upon men who are under training for running or prize fights… most overweight people are unhealthy or lacking time and are unable to exercise and sweat-

Mr. Banting successfully lost more than 50 lbs. and kept it off until he died at age 80. Inadvertently, he incorporated the basic findings of the English doctors, including tailoring the amount of food for his age and activity level. He made only a few important and gradual dietary changes and ate three meals a day, along with a bedtime snack. His emphasis on eliminating starch, sugars, and fatty meats in his diet preceded Dr. Atkins by more than 100 years. Banting concluded that exercise was not as important as changing the food that he ate. As successful as it was, Banting’s plan seemed too obvious and simple. As much as his name became synonymous with slimming, he was ridiculed and denounced as a charlatan. The British Medical Society vilified his diet system as -humbug- and the basic principles on which it was based were ignored for another century.

Basic structure of daily foods revealed by Dr Paris in 1826!

Despite all controversy, some headway against obesity was made when Dr. John Ayrton Paris revealed the basic framework for moderate food distribution throughout the day in his book, Treatise on Diet (1826). His daily food framework includes the importance of breakfast, light lunches, and small evening meals. Dr. Paris also emphasized the importance of snacks and was the first to introduce the idea that eating a larger dinner after a day’s work may be more advantageous than eating large lunches.

–Everyone’s diet depends… upon the degrees of exercise, age and rapidity of growth. Usually, one large meal a day, the other light and small in bulk… again depends upon occupation. A light lunch is preferable to two large meals a day. Often a patient arises in the morning without inclination for breakfast but because of his occupation, he is compelled to force down food in order to protect himself against exhaustion latter in the day from lack of food. At least have a biscuit, eggs or toast for breakfast. Snacks become necessary in civilized life. Dinner, the large meal of the day, in this manner may be postponed to 7 PM- writes Dr Paris in 1826.

Obese Individuals Turn to Quackery beginning in the 1890’s

In the last half of the 19th century, both obese people and their physicians turned away from the newly discovered -secret– a big belly was the consequence of excessive eating. Instead, they desperately turned to the use of all kinds of medical quackery, including water, vibration and massage therapy, laxatives, purgatives, electrical and non-electrical corsets and belts, Epsom salts, various tonics, creams, liniments, and pills.

What We Can Lean From the Past:

During the 20th century, science revealed more and greater details about the human body, but some of the most fundamental and simplest truths about weight management seemed to have been lost or have faded into oblivion. Instead, modern-day weight loss methods such as calorie counting, weighing and measuring portions, points, phases, only protein, no carbs, as much fat as desired, no fat at all, whole wheat, natural, light, organic, pre-portioned, frozen meals– along with complicated recipes, diet schemes and specialty foods– took the place of common sense. Diets became restrictive, fundamentalist, ideological, and sometimes even contradictory. Clichés and myths do not help to clear up the issues related to obesity and what to do about it.

Maybe the ideas of the early 19th century London physicians can help you design a successful weight loss plan for 2010. Give their ideas a try. They Work!

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How To Start A Roasted Corn Business

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Corn roasting is a simple yet very profitable small investment business. The successful corn roasters make full time living working just the summer months.

To start a roasted corn business you will need to acquire permits and business licenses from the health department and from the state. The following is a typical checklist to start your business.

1. Decide the size and the scale of the operation.

2. Decide on the menu for your concession business.

3. Purchase your equipment and tools.

4. Register your business.

5. Apply and obtain all the required licenses and permits needed to run a food concession business.

6. Secure events and have fun running your concession stand.

Permits, Licenses, and Inspection

Every state has laws governing business licenses and permits. Most likely, you will have to register your business with the state agency, so you can do business in the state. A tax ID number, business license number, and tax registration number can be issued to your business, depending on the state in which you are operating. You should verify with the city or county that the business location is zoned for that activity. You must have commercial liability insurance, both for your business and for your vehicle and trailer.

Health Department and Food safety

As a business owner and a food worker, you will be preparing food for other people. Contact the health department of your county or state to receive a copy of a food safety guide that will help you greatly in learning more about food safety. Roasted corn is considered a less hazardous food, but if you are going to sell potatoes and turkey legs you may have to pay higher fee.

Start-up Costs of a Corn Roaster Business

Brand new corn roaster with warranty: 10,000-$12,000.

Used corn roaster: $5,000-$8,000.

Additional equipment and accessories: $1,200-$2,000.

Used van or truck: $2,000-$10,000.

Food cost for first two events: $300-$1,000.

Event sign-up fee: $800-$3,000.

Fuel, utilities, and miscellaneous: $200.

Equipment Required to Start a Corn Roasting Business

A professional corn roaster, minimum 200-500 corns per hour.

Hot plate for melting butter

Steam table for storing cooked potatoes and turkey legs.

Two 20-lb. propane tanks

Fire extinguisher

Commercial quality tent

2 tables,

Hand washing unit (portable) very easy to assemble one

Mics. Little things

Google “Corn Roasters” and search for companies that will help you get started before buying the equipment if you are strapped for cash. One of the company Texas Corn Roasters help.

How to Find Events and Festivals

There are many sources for finding festivals and events, such as your vendor friends, the local Chamber of Commerce, auto racing, fairs and festivals, flea markets, rodeos, and theme parks. The Internet is one of the greatest sources for finding events. Many good sites provide this information. Always send a professionally done proposal with your application if you want to beat the competition.

Suppliers and Producers

Suppliers and produce wholesalers are your key to success in this business. You cannot afford to buy the food from retailers, so you must find producers capable of providing you quality food at wholesale costs. Every state and big town has a local supplier who delivers food supplies to local restaurants. “Wholesale food distributor” in the Yellow Pages is a good place to start. Corn is cheap if buy from a wholesaler.

Serving food at the festival

The way you serve can also improve your business. You will need certain condiments for every item you server. For instance sale, black pepper, Cajun spice, garlic powder, lemon pepper and more.

Signage

You have probably heard the saying “flash is cash.” It is very true when it comes to the festival business. You could have the most delicious food, best prices, well-trained staff, and a festival with thousands of people. If your booth fails to attract customers,, it is probably the poor signage.

Tribal knowledge

Like many other small profitable business the roasted corn business is run by tight lipped vendors who do not share tribal knowledge. There are not any website, or sources for a newbie to find any information. The tribal knowledge could help you make extra 25K a year. There is a very helpful book “Earn an entire year’s living with corn roaster”, that covers this business with very granular level of details. It is worth buying.

If you plan on making your concession business a full time job, consider an RV that can tow your corn roaster trailer and getting on the list of concession vendors that follow a fair rout.

Accounting and numbers are also very important aspect of this business. Festival Concession business offers financial and personal freedom like no other small business does.

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Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging In Medical Therapy

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Digital technology now makes Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging available to all. There now is a completely safe test that can aid in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring with absolutely no risk or radiation exposure.

DITI, or digital infrared thermal imaging, is a noninvasive diagnostic test that allows a health practitioner to see and measure changes in skin surface temperature. An infrared scanning camera translates infrared radiation emitted from the skin surface and records them on a color monitor. This visual image graphically maps the body temperature and is referred to as a thermogram. The spectrum of colors indicates an increase or decrease in the amount of infrared radiation being emitted from the body surface. In healthy people, there is a symmetrical skin pattern which is consistent and reproducible for any individual.

DITI is highly sensitive and can therefore be used clinically to detect disease in the vascular, muscular, neural and skeletal systems. Medical DITI has been used extensively in human medicine in the United States, Europe and Asia for the past 20 years. Until now, bulky equipment has hindered its diagnostic and economic feasibility. Now, PC-based infrared technology designed specifically for clinical application has changed all this.

Clinical uses for DITI include, defining the extent of a lesion of which a diagnosis has previously been made (for example, vascular disease); localizing an abnormal area not previously identified, so further diagnostic tests can be performed (as in Irritable Bowel Syndrome); detecting early lesions before they are clinically evident (as in breast cancer or other breast diseases); and monitoring the healing process before a patient returns to work or training (as in workman’s compensation claims).

Medical DITI is filling the gap in clinical diagnosis; X-ray, Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), are tests of anatomy or structure. DITI is unique in its capability to show physiological or functional changes and metabolic processes. It has also proven to be a very useful complementary procedure to other diagnostic procedures.

Unlike most diagnostic modalities DITI is non invasive. It is a very sensitive and reliable means of graphically mapping and displaying skin surface temperature. With DITI you can diagnosis, evaluate, monitor and document a large number of injuries and conditions, including soft tissue injuries and sensory/autonomic nerve fiber dysfunction. Medical DITI can offer considerable financial savings by avoiding the need for more expensive investigation for many patients. Medical DITI can graphically display the biased feeling of pain by accurately displaying the changes in skin surface temperature. Disease states commonly associated with pain include Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy or RSD, Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid arthritis.

Medical DITI can show a combined effect of the autonomic nervous system and the vascular system, down to capillary dysfunctions. The effects of these changes reveal an asymmetry in temperature distribution on the surface of the body. DITI is a monitor of thermal abnormalities present in a number of diseases and physical injuries. It is used as an aid for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as therapy follow up and rehabilitation monitoring, within clinical fields that include rheumatology, neurology, physiotherapy, sports medicine, oncology, pediatrics, orthopedics and many others.

Results obtained with medical DITI systems are totally objective and show excellent correlation with other diagnostic tests.

Thermographic screening is not covered by most insurance companies but is surprisingly affordable for most people. For more information or to find a certified clinic in your area, go to www.proactivehealthonline.com [http://www.proactivehealthonline.com].

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Hooray for the Federal Rules of Evidence!

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The Federal Rules of Evidence used in the United States federal courts and adopted by many states and the military are codification of many years of common law evidence rules. The development of the modern rules of evidence has been a process of nothing more than putting old wine into new bottles. If one can understand common law notions of evidence the Federal Rules will be easy to understand.

The purpose of the Federal Rules of Evidence is to secure fairness in administration of trials; eliminate unjustifiable expense and delay; and to promote the growth and development of the law of evidence in order that truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined. As a former trial lawyer and current law school professor who teaches the rules of evidence to students, I view the Federal Rules of Evidence, adopted by Congress in 1975 as a master work of putting the old common law wine into a new bottle. I have used the Federal Rules of Evidence throughout my career.

This article is not about any specific common law rule or rules that may have been put into the new bottle known as the Federal Rule of Evidence. Instead, I write this to show how influential and widespread has been the use of the rules. Forty-four states, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the military have all adopted all or parts of the Federal Rules for use in their court systems. This is a very good trend because the evidence rules of most states will be roughly the same throughout the United States.

The following paragraphs provide fundamental information about the jurisdictions that have adopted evidence rules patterned on the Federal Rules. They include information concerning the date on which the local rules became effective and when amended, if at all:

ALABAMA. Adopted by the Alabama Supreme Court effective January 1, 1996. No amendments.

ALASKA. Adopted by the Alaska Supreme Court effective August 1, 1979. Last amended October 15, 2003.

ARIZONA. Adopted by the Arizona Supreme Court effective September 1, 1977. Last amended June 1, 2004.

ARKANSAS. Adopted by the Arkansas Supreme Court effective October 13, 1986. Latest amendment on January 22, 1998.

COLORADO. Adopted by the Colorado Supreme Court Effective January 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

CONNECTICUT. Adopted by the judges of the Connecticut Superior Court effective January 1, 2000. No amendments.

DELAWARE. Adopted by the Delaware Supreme Court effective February 1, 1980. Latest amendment December 10, 2001.

FLORIDA. The Florida Evidence Code was enacted by the Florida Legislature effective July 1, 1979. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

GEORGIA. Governor Nathan Deal signed a House bill which made the Georgia rules effective January 1, 2013. No amendments.

GUAM. Adopted by the Guam Judicial Council effective November 16, 1979. Latest amendment July 18, 2003.

HAWAII. Enacted by the Hawaii Legislature effective January 1, 1981. No amendments.

IDAHO. Adopted by the Idaho Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. No amendments.

ILLINOIS. Adopted by the Illinois Supreme Court effective January 1, 2011. No amendments.

INDIANA. Adopted by the Indiana Supreme Court effective January 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

IOWA. Adopted by the Iowa Supreme Court effective July 1, 1983. Latest amendment February 15, 2002.

KENTUCKY. Enacted by the Kentucky Legislature effective July 1, 1992. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

LOUISIANA. Enacted by the Louisiana Legislature effective January 1, 1989. Latest amendment August 15, 2003.

MAINE. Adopted by the Maine Supreme Judicial Court effective February 2, 1976. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

MARYLAND. Adopted by the Maryland Court of Appeals effective July 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MICHIGAN. Adopted by the Michigan Supreme Court effective March 1, 1978. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MINNESOTA. Adopted by the Minnesota Supreme Court effective April 1, 1977. Latest amendment January 1, 1990.

MISSISSIPPI. Adopted by the Mississippi Supreme Court effective January 1, 1986. Latest amendment May 27, 2004.

MONTANA. Adopted by the Montana Supreme Court effective July 1, 1977. Latest amendment October 18, 1990.

NEBRASKA. Enacted by the Nebraska Legislature effective December 31, 1975. Latest amendment July 13, 2000.

NEVADA. Enacted by the Nevada Legislature effective July 1, 2004. No amendments.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Adopted by the New Hampshire Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 2003.

NEW JERSEY. Adopted by the New Jersey Supreme Court and the New Jersey Legislature through a joint procedure effective July 1, 1993. Latest amendment July 1, 1993.

NEW MEXICO. Adopted by the New Mexico Supreme Court effective July 1, 1973. The latest amendment became effective February 1, 2003.

NORTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the North Carolina Legislature effective July 1, 1984. Latest amendment October 1, 2003.

NORTH DAKOTA. Adopted by the North Dakota Supreme Court effective February 15, 1977. Latest amendment March 1, 2001.

OHIO. Adopted by the Ohio Supreme Court effective July 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

OKLAHOMA. Enacted by the Oklahoma Legislature effective October 1, 1978. Latest amendment November 1, 2003.

OREGON. Enacted by the Oregon Legislature effective January 1, 1982. Latest amendment July 3, 2003.

PENNSYLVANIA. Adopted by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court effective October 1, 1998. Latest amendment January 1, 2002.

PUERTO RICO. Enacted by the Puerto Rico Legislature effective October 1, 1979. Latest amendment August 30, 1999.

RHODE ISLAND. Adopted by the Rhode Island Supreme Court effective October 1, 1987. No amendments.

SOUTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the South Carolina Legislature effective September 3, 1995. No amendments.

SOUTH DAKOTA. Enacted by the South Dakota Legislature effective July 1, 1978. No amendments.

TENNESSEE. Adopted by the Tennessee Supreme Court effective January 1, 1990. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

TEXAS. Adopted by the Texas Supreme Court effective March 1, 1998. No amendments.

UTAH. Adopted by the Utah Supreme Court effective September 1, 1983. Latest amendment November 1, 2004.

VERMONT. Adopted by the Vermont Supreme Court effective April 1, 1983. Latest amendment May 27, 2003.

WASHINGTON. Adopted by the Washington Supreme Court effective April 2, 1979. Latest amendment September 1, 2003.

WEST VIRGINIA. Adopted by the West Virginia Supreme Court effective February 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 1995.

WISCONSIN. Adopted by the Wisconsin Supreme Court effective January 1, 1974. Latest amendment March 30, 2004.

WYOMING. Adopted by the Wyoming Supreme Court effective January 1, 1978. Latest amendment February 28, 1995.

THE MILITARY. The Military Rules of Evidence were adopted by Executive order No. 12,198 March 12, 1980. Latest amendment by Executive Order No. 13,262 April 11, 2002.

THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

What an impressive list of adoptions and enactments patterned after the Federal Rules of Evidence! Several jurisdictions have not adopted rules of evidence based on the Federal Rules of Evidence. They are: California, the District of Columbia, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York and Virginia.

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