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The Ultimate Email Marketing Guide: 15 Tips To Fast Email Marketing Success!

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A practical “how-to” list for email marketing success, from small to large business.

Email marketing is easy (–ponder–) if you know how to do it. Wow, you have heard that one before, I’m sure. Is that not always the case – with almost anything? So, why even say it?

Because – in this case it is really true.

However, so many small businesses make it more complex than it is; they don’t fully understand or grasp the impact of list building, what tools, services and techniques are available, and don’t recognize what a successful campaign and its results can and will mean for their businesses.

We believe that a) simplicity of application, b) knowledge – and c) immediate action are the first steps to success. And, everything done in an ethical way – you got permission based marketing. Full speed ahead!

1. Get the legalities out of the way.

Did you know that recent changes in the search engine algorithms now recognize a privacy policy page as an important metric in the total number of items that helps your ranking and visibility? In fact, Google has over 100 variables that make up the secret sauce of their algorithmic search engines. Only two engineers at Google know it. (Eric Schmidt, CEO of Google chose not to learn it himself).

So, you should write and always provide a link to your privacy page. Starter text can be obtained from links below – and always make sure to review with your legal counsel for a final review. You will then include a link to it from your outgoing email campaigns.

Here are some places to start:

a) http://www.truste.org/pdf/WriteAGreatPrivacyPolicy.pdf

b) [http://www.marketingpower.com/content4740.php]

c) http://www.microsaw.com/privacy_policy.htm

2. Your site must capture user via first name (last name) & email address.

Burn this into your head – make it your site requirement – day one. There are too many online businesses that forget this simple rule. It’s a must. If you are reading this article, then you probably already realize the importance of mailing lists.
Your audience is looking for good (relevant!) materials to solve problems in their life and business. Capture these visitors, and continue to provide this information and free information, you can grow your business by 1000% or more almost overnight, in some cases in any future mailing. It’s super-important to have – and build a quality mailing list.

On your ‘landing page’ (sometimes called a sales page, gateway page, squeeze page, splash page) you should try to include this capture form on the “top of the fold” of your webpage. (Think of this as single sheet of paper, folded in half. The visitors will read the top portion first, from left to right – almost in an F-shaped order).

Therefore, make sure you:

Place this input form in a strategic location, “above the fold”

Make this coding your first priority for implementation – don’t make it the last – or never (which many companies do)

3. Example Signup forms.

Search the internet for example sign up forms. A great technique is to look for companies that have this in their URL. Try this in Google (type into search box): allinurl: “free newsletter” (it will search any site that has this contained in the TITLE of the page).

Some examples of successful forms:

http://www.microsaw.com/myform.htm

http://www.marketingtips.com/newsletters

http://www.redhotcopy.com/workshop.htm – using interesting “slanted” pop-under and image (a black/white banana)

Note that you should always apply “up selling” techniques: links to other complimentary tools, software, articles & e-books.

In other words, give something away for free.

This is the Stephen Covey “emotional bank-account” working at its best. Web surfers are getting smarter and not just links to privacy policies and terms of use are recognized, but easy to read pages that are brief and to the point, score high. (Ed note: An example can be seen on the right side at http://www.microsaw.com/myform.htm – the “free 5-day SEO email course”).

4. Popups, popunders, popup blockers & search engines.

Traditional popups (yes, the annoying ones) are banned from search engines like Google.

Therefore, smart marketers have come up with other means. They are called “popunders”.
They use specialized JavaScript to display a pop-up box, but it’s not tracked or recognized by popup-blockers or the search engines (Ed. Note: this could change, as the search engines change their smarts all the time).

As of writing, you should use a pop-up box, and capture first name, last name & email. Don’t make it an intrusive one though (it needs to follow your style sheet guidelines, in other words).
Another way to go is to use what’s called ‘house-banners’ — ads that display compelling graphics, text – and uses your own local advertising system (example: double-click).

Here’s what to do to capture interested visitors:

Apply a page that “slides” onto your page, and have it appear after 5 seconds.

Display this email form capture on all pages.

Only show it once, and only repeat 2-3 days later (assuming they come back). Many of the email marketing systems include this feature for you.

Annoying, but it works. I went from 5% signups a day a 75% increase overnight – only a few weeks back.

Tip: Make a note that the popup is from your site- not a partner site. (sometimes popups are thought to be from sponsors, make a note to your visitor that it’s from you).

5. Do you have a newsletter you are trying to promote? Up-sell is the answer!

If you are promoting a newsletter, outside of just getting visitors to sign up, there are 3rd parties vendors that can help you publish and sell your newsletter. Throughout all campaigns, you must make sure to provide useful, relevant and unique content.

Some options for you:

Coregcomplete.com – get signups on thank you pages of other subscription forms this is a great way to promote your wares

Getsubscribers.com

Partner with companies you find, and call them up. Search for ‘newsletter publishers’ in Google.

When you write articles (yes, you should) – make sure to make a note in the “About Author” that you publish or have newsletters available.

TIP/Warning: Beware of commercial co-regs — they typically have poor quality names and offers.

6. Get the best and highest performing email service.

Don’t skimp here. A few extra dollars a month can really save you a lot of headaches. We worked with one company that went from about 1,000 emails on their list, down to about 100 in 24 hours, (when they switched providers). They quickly realized that they had made a bad choice.

Here’s what to consider initially:

ASP hosted solutions are now connected with ISPs to ensure uptime/deliverability

Desktop applications can work well for you, for example, Gamma Dyne Mailer: http://www.soft32.com/download_4469.html

Autoresponse Plus, GetResponse, Aweber are a good place to start reviewing options.

You can also add monitoring services to make sure that emails get delivered, and keep the highest integrity of your emails via tracking.

Here are a few companies that work with monitoring:

1. pipersoftware

2. returnpath.biz

3. edeliverability.com

4. deliverymonitor.com

Other email marketing services to review are:

Sparklist

Constantcontact

Topica

Global intellisystems

Got campaigner

Vertical response

1stshoppingcart (shopping cart, affiliate programs and autoresponder)

Proautoresponders

You also need to understand and read the updated laws about email marketing and spam. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2004 is FTC governed, and the they will pursue any SPAM artist to the fullest extent of the law.

Make sure you have:

Working unsubscribe

Be careful where you get the lists

Avoid fraudulent subject lines

Include postal address, phone, privacy policy

Porn must be identified in subject line (SEXUALLY EXPLICIT)

Opt-out lists, including ‘double-opt-in’ (user must click to approve the email)

Tip: It’s important to have a strict and trusted email service. Reputable email marketing companies will upload a few emails from your list and test your list to verify. Then, they’ll approve or deny you.

7. Test, test & track, track.

No MBA student, no computer scientist, web braniac or 30 year veteran of marketing, both online and off – can predict what visitors will click on, and why. We can all make really great educated guesses, but they are only that. So, you really need to test your campaigns. Online marketing compared to traditional marketing (print, media) is vastly different.

Here’s how to do it:

Test the campaigns with A/B Split test tactics – specifically on subject line and ad copy, it can help improve newsletter and pages immensely. (A/B refers to capability of serving up different content or ads, or headlines, sections on your page and campaign – that can be tracked)

Tracking conversions from email blasts (cookies and JavaScript and beacons on landing pages, thank you pages, etc)

Got campaigner and topica are high-end products, aweber is doing split-testing now (we use this – with great success)

Good reporting and database segmentation to section off to demographics, recency, frequency, sales totals

Use relevant and powerful headlines. Use wordtracker.com and keyworddiscovery.com to get keywords to back up your headline in content. (Ed Note: The site http://los-angeles.microsaw.com is dedicated to copywriting for the Internet)

8. Formatting and send options.

Formatting is an important element of any newsletter or mailing. Unfortunately, a love of companies go wild on graphics, sound, multi-media to present “their” branding or look/feel. It’s important to have a clean mailer.

What are the options? See a few below:

text only

html

combination of the above & multi-part MIME

Key facts to consider:

Text more easily can penetrate spam filters, gets through company firewalls, but only preferred by 15% to 25%.

HTML has more advantages, will double or triple the click-through on text, nicer, pretty graphics, tracking better. It can also track opens, click-thrus and conversions. If the email marketing system supports it (most do) – send both.

Tip 1: Send Multi-part MIME, not just straight HTML

Tip 2: Place a URL reference in email to actual content on your website

Tip 3: Microsoft Outlook “Preview” mode: make sure it looks ok. Many will have this “on” by default – and it may reflect your email poorly (try it!). MarketingSherpa.com has a great article on this and how it can affect “opens”. Graphics are often blocked too, so your intended “pretty” newsletter may not look the way you planned under these circumstances.

Tip 4: Make sure font is large enough for “older” folks and the smaller monitors

9. How often to send? How about text size?

In company marketing strategy meetings, where all the ‘masters’ will create their online strategies — do not seem to agree. We’ll outline a few scenarios below.

Daily.
Daily if you have a good “alert” system (ex: Google alerts) – this will not make sense for most companies. CNN news alerts are OK though.

Once a week.
Weekly OK if you have a strong listener base, and compelling content.

Once a month.
Monthly probably best for most small businesses. Overall – you want to retain “mindshare” – so they don’t forget you, but still not too much “in their face”.

How long should the text be?

Short, with longer description on website. People “scan”, not read

Keep it tight, focused on brief — “read here for more” (link to full page) …

Tip 1: Archive URL’s on your site, and allow it to be searched later. It’s “spider-food”, and you get recognized as an expert as well.
Tip 2: Also, a link to “send to friend” (‘found this article, thought you’d be interested’)
Tip 3: Use personalization (Dear Bob, Hello Cathy, etc.) – increases opening and reading by 50-60%. Work on the relationship — build trust and credibility. Note: Don’t overuse in the newsletter! Better to be a little conservative, than too friendly.

10. Campaigns and newsletters take time. How-to get it done in your workweek.

Unless you have a dedicated staff, you must do this yourself. Add this task to your calendar (with a recurring reminder), and consider this your “must-do” work.

Tips that work well:

Allocate some time your calendar, book it – and execute, don’t delay

Use it as a marketing expense, track it in the books

Hire a writer (guru.com, elance.com) – and use search for ‘copywriters’ (in your niche)

Test with innovative audio and video options, outsource if necessary

Make sure to include testimonials

11. Auto-responders.

Auto responders are a fantastic and simple way to turn your business on automated 24×7 attendance. Use them, learn them and build your list and responsiveness from this feature alone. Your list will grow, which you will use for future mailings and offers. Auto-responders are software systems that allow for total automation of messaging.

Here are another few tips for you to help build your list and credibility:

Follow up for an e-Book (example: 3 days after first mailing, send “did you get the email?” In that mailing, provide a link to a free download e-book, offers, etc)

Follow up to the subscription – ‘thank you’

Training series (“5-day SEO email course”) — see example on http://www.microsaw.com seo email course

Create free email courses, courses send every 1-2 days for a short period (less than a week).

12. Isn’t use of email as a business tool dead?

Answer: No it is not. It’s part of our lives, and email is still very effective. It’s accepted, and with filters and advanced software solutions, it is managed.

Here are some tips and tools:

Many programs use filtering (ISP)

Bounces can be recorded: soft, hard (to edit/maintenance your list)

SpamAssassin

Cloudmark Desktop (report spam) – helps the community at large

SpamArrest

Amazon does a lot of things with email. They have applied a cool system with personalization. They have supposedly as high as a 14% conversion rate!

Tip: Do you need to check your email for SPAM? Try sending your campaign or email to: [email protected]?subject=TEST — you’ll get an email response back with a rating of 0 through 5.

13. Wave of the future – “white-listing”.

Email marketing is not going away, as some have alluded to. The key is to stay within the form and function of the email marketing community. Newer options exist for creating “white lists” (universally accepted lists) – a few of these new services are listed here:

Sender Certification is an important change which has been used for a while already.

Here are a few companies:

Habeas

Sender Score Certified

Habeas is expensive at $15,000 a year, and only recommended for serious, large email marketing companies. Goodmailsystems (used by AOL and Yahoo) is also another high-end product. Search on Google for ’email sender certification’.

Tip: Definitely a “future” thing, and growing in use today. You get a (good) reputation for being an email sender, and can build a strong business around this as well.

14. What other technical issues should I review?

Check spelling, graphics, relative links, use the free software XENU to get amazingly detailed reports. The Webmaster reports at the bottom of one of their reports provide a lot of good detail, perfect for executive overview.

Other tips:

Make sure to use http://, not just [http://www..]. in your LINK references. Your link may not work without it.

Research shows that Tue, Wed, Thu works well for B2B (but, make sure to test!)

Some B2C lists are better on the weekends (personal feeling about this)

15. Landing pages.

We’ve talked about this topic in several places in the article. It’s so important, we dedicate a special section here.

A landing page is a strategically developed (content and visuals) page that you bring your potential customers to. It’s a call-to-action page. Many just bring their prospective customers to a home page where other non-related items may appear, including no specific instructions. You only have a few seconds to get him or her to react.

If you are not great at writing, you can hire a copywriter, check elance.com and guru.com, sometimes as low as 30-40 bucks for a pretty good writer.

Test, test, test and location, location, location.

You must test and track (metrics) your pages and run A/B splits (change a few things like color, title, subhead, etc – and not too much at the same time). You can use a free service Google analytics to get started.

More expensive ones are clicktracks, omniture, hitbox, hitlens – and the ultimate wholly grail testing, tuning and tracking system is the taguchi models (multi-variant optimizers).

The human eye scans from top left to right in a downstream manner.

The call-to-action items (like “sign up for my newsletter”) would get optimal viewing if placed here, in this F-shaped Golden Triangle. Also, as we mentioned – above the fold!

Make sure you have some free downloads and give-aways, surfers love quizzes and mini-tests, including email courses, using autoresponders for immediate follow-up and tracking.

Your email campaigns should take them to a landing page for more / better conversion.

Tip: Add a “Special Message” block on your page and in your email text and allow users to discuss on your forum or in your blog link.

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How To Start A Roasted Corn Business

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Corn roasting is a simple yet very profitable small investment business. The successful corn roasters make full time living working just the summer months.

To start a roasted corn business you will need to acquire permits and business licenses from the health department and from the state. The following is a typical checklist to start your business.

1. Decide the size and the scale of the operation.

2. Decide on the menu for your concession business.

3. Purchase your equipment and tools.

4. Register your business.

5. Apply and obtain all the required licenses and permits needed to run a food concession business.

6. Secure events and have fun running your concession stand.

Permits, Licenses, and Inspection

Every state has laws governing business licenses and permits. Most likely, you will have to register your business with the state agency, so you can do business in the state. A tax ID number, business license number, and tax registration number can be issued to your business, depending on the state in which you are operating. You should verify with the city or county that the business location is zoned for that activity. You must have commercial liability insurance, both for your business and for your vehicle and trailer.

Health Department and Food safety

As a business owner and a food worker, you will be preparing food for other people. Contact the health department of your county or state to receive a copy of a food safety guide that will help you greatly in learning more about food safety. Roasted corn is considered a less hazardous food, but if you are going to sell potatoes and turkey legs you may have to pay higher fee.

Start-up Costs of a Corn Roaster Business

Brand new corn roaster with warranty: 10,000-$12,000.

Used corn roaster: $5,000-$8,000.

Additional equipment and accessories: $1,200-$2,000.

Used van or truck: $2,000-$10,000.

Food cost for first two events: $300-$1,000.

Event sign-up fee: $800-$3,000.

Fuel, utilities, and miscellaneous: $200.

Equipment Required to Start a Corn Roasting Business

A professional corn roaster, minimum 200-500 corns per hour.

Hot plate for melting butter

Steam table for storing cooked potatoes and turkey legs.

Two 20-lb. propane tanks

Fire extinguisher

Commercial quality tent

2 tables,

Hand washing unit (portable) very easy to assemble one

Mics. Little things

Google “Corn Roasters” and search for companies that will help you get started before buying the equipment if you are strapped for cash. One of the company Texas Corn Roasters help.

How to Find Events and Festivals

There are many sources for finding festivals and events, such as your vendor friends, the local Chamber of Commerce, auto racing, fairs and festivals, flea markets, rodeos, and theme parks. The Internet is one of the greatest sources for finding events. Many good sites provide this information. Always send a professionally done proposal with your application if you want to beat the competition.

Suppliers and Producers

Suppliers and produce wholesalers are your key to success in this business. You cannot afford to buy the food from retailers, so you must find producers capable of providing you quality food at wholesale costs. Every state and big town has a local supplier who delivers food supplies to local restaurants. “Wholesale food distributor” in the Yellow Pages is a good place to start. Corn is cheap if buy from a wholesaler.

Serving food at the festival

The way you serve can also improve your business. You will need certain condiments for every item you server. For instance sale, black pepper, Cajun spice, garlic powder, lemon pepper and more.

Signage

You have probably heard the saying “flash is cash.” It is very true when it comes to the festival business. You could have the most delicious food, best prices, well-trained staff, and a festival with thousands of people. If your booth fails to attract customers,, it is probably the poor signage.

Tribal knowledge

Like many other small profitable business the roasted corn business is run by tight lipped vendors who do not share tribal knowledge. There are not any website, or sources for a newbie to find any information. The tribal knowledge could help you make extra 25K a year. There is a very helpful book “Earn an entire year’s living with corn roaster”, that covers this business with very granular level of details. It is worth buying.

If you plan on making your concession business a full time job, consider an RV that can tow your corn roaster trailer and getting on the list of concession vendors that follow a fair rout.

Accounting and numbers are also very important aspect of this business. Festival Concession business offers financial and personal freedom like no other small business does.

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Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging In Medical Therapy

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Digital technology now makes Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging available to all. There now is a completely safe test that can aid in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring with absolutely no risk or radiation exposure.

DITI, or digital infrared thermal imaging, is a noninvasive diagnostic test that allows a health practitioner to see and measure changes in skin surface temperature. An infrared scanning camera translates infrared radiation emitted from the skin surface and records them on a color monitor. This visual image graphically maps the body temperature and is referred to as a thermogram. The spectrum of colors indicates an increase or decrease in the amount of infrared radiation being emitted from the body surface. In healthy people, there is a symmetrical skin pattern which is consistent and reproducible for any individual.

DITI is highly sensitive and can therefore be used clinically to detect disease in the vascular, muscular, neural and skeletal systems. Medical DITI has been used extensively in human medicine in the United States, Europe and Asia for the past 20 years. Until now, bulky equipment has hindered its diagnostic and economic feasibility. Now, PC-based infrared technology designed specifically for clinical application has changed all this.

Clinical uses for DITI include, defining the extent of a lesion of which a diagnosis has previously been made (for example, vascular disease); localizing an abnormal area not previously identified, so further diagnostic tests can be performed (as in Irritable Bowel Syndrome); detecting early lesions before they are clinically evident (as in breast cancer or other breast diseases); and monitoring the healing process before a patient returns to work or training (as in workman’s compensation claims).

Medical DITI is filling the gap in clinical diagnosis; X-ray, Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), are tests of anatomy or structure. DITI is unique in its capability to show physiological or functional changes and metabolic processes. It has also proven to be a very useful complementary procedure to other diagnostic procedures.

Unlike most diagnostic modalities DITI is non invasive. It is a very sensitive and reliable means of graphically mapping and displaying skin surface temperature. With DITI you can diagnosis, evaluate, monitor and document a large number of injuries and conditions, including soft tissue injuries and sensory/autonomic nerve fiber dysfunction. Medical DITI can offer considerable financial savings by avoiding the need for more expensive investigation for many patients. Medical DITI can graphically display the biased feeling of pain by accurately displaying the changes in skin surface temperature. Disease states commonly associated with pain include Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy or RSD, Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid arthritis.

Medical DITI can show a combined effect of the autonomic nervous system and the vascular system, down to capillary dysfunctions. The effects of these changes reveal an asymmetry in temperature distribution on the surface of the body. DITI is a monitor of thermal abnormalities present in a number of diseases and physical injuries. It is used as an aid for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as therapy follow up and rehabilitation monitoring, within clinical fields that include rheumatology, neurology, physiotherapy, sports medicine, oncology, pediatrics, orthopedics and many others.

Results obtained with medical DITI systems are totally objective and show excellent correlation with other diagnostic tests.

Thermographic screening is not covered by most insurance companies but is surprisingly affordable for most people. For more information or to find a certified clinic in your area, go to www.proactivehealthonline.com [http://www.proactivehealthonline.com].

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Hooray for the Federal Rules of Evidence!

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The Federal Rules of Evidence used in the United States federal courts and adopted by many states and the military are codification of many years of common law evidence rules. The development of the modern rules of evidence has been a process of nothing more than putting old wine into new bottles. If one can understand common law notions of evidence the Federal Rules will be easy to understand.

The purpose of the Federal Rules of Evidence is to secure fairness in administration of trials; eliminate unjustifiable expense and delay; and to promote the growth and development of the law of evidence in order that truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined. As a former trial lawyer and current law school professor who teaches the rules of evidence to students, I view the Federal Rules of Evidence, adopted by Congress in 1975 as a master work of putting the old common law wine into a new bottle. I have used the Federal Rules of Evidence throughout my career.

This article is not about any specific common law rule or rules that may have been put into the new bottle known as the Federal Rule of Evidence. Instead, I write this to show how influential and widespread has been the use of the rules. Forty-four states, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the military have all adopted all or parts of the Federal Rules for use in their court systems. This is a very good trend because the evidence rules of most states will be roughly the same throughout the United States.

The following paragraphs provide fundamental information about the jurisdictions that have adopted evidence rules patterned on the Federal Rules. They include information concerning the date on which the local rules became effective and when amended, if at all:

ALABAMA. Adopted by the Alabama Supreme Court effective January 1, 1996. No amendments.

ALASKA. Adopted by the Alaska Supreme Court effective August 1, 1979. Last amended October 15, 2003.

ARIZONA. Adopted by the Arizona Supreme Court effective September 1, 1977. Last amended June 1, 2004.

ARKANSAS. Adopted by the Arkansas Supreme Court effective October 13, 1986. Latest amendment on January 22, 1998.

COLORADO. Adopted by the Colorado Supreme Court Effective January 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

CONNECTICUT. Adopted by the judges of the Connecticut Superior Court effective January 1, 2000. No amendments.

DELAWARE. Adopted by the Delaware Supreme Court effective February 1, 1980. Latest amendment December 10, 2001.

FLORIDA. The Florida Evidence Code was enacted by the Florida Legislature effective July 1, 1979. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

GEORGIA. Governor Nathan Deal signed a House bill which made the Georgia rules effective January 1, 2013. No amendments.

GUAM. Adopted by the Guam Judicial Council effective November 16, 1979. Latest amendment July 18, 2003.

HAWAII. Enacted by the Hawaii Legislature effective January 1, 1981. No amendments.

IDAHO. Adopted by the Idaho Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. No amendments.

ILLINOIS. Adopted by the Illinois Supreme Court effective January 1, 2011. No amendments.

INDIANA. Adopted by the Indiana Supreme Court effective January 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

IOWA. Adopted by the Iowa Supreme Court effective July 1, 1983. Latest amendment February 15, 2002.

KENTUCKY. Enacted by the Kentucky Legislature effective July 1, 1992. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

LOUISIANA. Enacted by the Louisiana Legislature effective January 1, 1989. Latest amendment August 15, 2003.

MAINE. Adopted by the Maine Supreme Judicial Court effective February 2, 1976. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

MARYLAND. Adopted by the Maryland Court of Appeals effective July 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MICHIGAN. Adopted by the Michigan Supreme Court effective March 1, 1978. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MINNESOTA. Adopted by the Minnesota Supreme Court effective April 1, 1977. Latest amendment January 1, 1990.

MISSISSIPPI. Adopted by the Mississippi Supreme Court effective January 1, 1986. Latest amendment May 27, 2004.

MONTANA. Adopted by the Montana Supreme Court effective July 1, 1977. Latest amendment October 18, 1990.

NEBRASKA. Enacted by the Nebraska Legislature effective December 31, 1975. Latest amendment July 13, 2000.

NEVADA. Enacted by the Nevada Legislature effective July 1, 2004. No amendments.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Adopted by the New Hampshire Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 2003.

NEW JERSEY. Adopted by the New Jersey Supreme Court and the New Jersey Legislature through a joint procedure effective July 1, 1993. Latest amendment July 1, 1993.

NEW MEXICO. Adopted by the New Mexico Supreme Court effective July 1, 1973. The latest amendment became effective February 1, 2003.

NORTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the North Carolina Legislature effective July 1, 1984. Latest amendment October 1, 2003.

NORTH DAKOTA. Adopted by the North Dakota Supreme Court effective February 15, 1977. Latest amendment March 1, 2001.

OHIO. Adopted by the Ohio Supreme Court effective July 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

OKLAHOMA. Enacted by the Oklahoma Legislature effective October 1, 1978. Latest amendment November 1, 2003.

OREGON. Enacted by the Oregon Legislature effective January 1, 1982. Latest amendment July 3, 2003.

PENNSYLVANIA. Adopted by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court effective October 1, 1998. Latest amendment January 1, 2002.

PUERTO RICO. Enacted by the Puerto Rico Legislature effective October 1, 1979. Latest amendment August 30, 1999.

RHODE ISLAND. Adopted by the Rhode Island Supreme Court effective October 1, 1987. No amendments.

SOUTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the South Carolina Legislature effective September 3, 1995. No amendments.

SOUTH DAKOTA. Enacted by the South Dakota Legislature effective July 1, 1978. No amendments.

TENNESSEE. Adopted by the Tennessee Supreme Court effective January 1, 1990. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

TEXAS. Adopted by the Texas Supreme Court effective March 1, 1998. No amendments.

UTAH. Adopted by the Utah Supreme Court effective September 1, 1983. Latest amendment November 1, 2004.

VERMONT. Adopted by the Vermont Supreme Court effective April 1, 1983. Latest amendment May 27, 2003.

WASHINGTON. Adopted by the Washington Supreme Court effective April 2, 1979. Latest amendment September 1, 2003.

WEST VIRGINIA. Adopted by the West Virginia Supreme Court effective February 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 1995.

WISCONSIN. Adopted by the Wisconsin Supreme Court effective January 1, 1974. Latest amendment March 30, 2004.

WYOMING. Adopted by the Wyoming Supreme Court effective January 1, 1978. Latest amendment February 28, 1995.

THE MILITARY. The Military Rules of Evidence were adopted by Executive order No. 12,198 March 12, 1980. Latest amendment by Executive Order No. 13,262 April 11, 2002.

THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

What an impressive list of adoptions and enactments patterned after the Federal Rules of Evidence! Several jurisdictions have not adopted rules of evidence based on the Federal Rules of Evidence. They are: California, the District of Columbia, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York and Virginia.

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