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Alfred Adler – The Third Man

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Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler, the great triumvirate and founding fathers of early psychological theory are probably the best known names in the world of early psychology. Freud and Jung are better known and the work of Alfred Adler is often forgotten.

It is difficult to understand how different the academic world was in those days. No Internet, no telephone, no radio and no TV. Information travelled slowly, and yet in a few short years after 1900, the work of Freud, Jung and Adler began to have a major impact on the way in which people who had non-physical troubles were treated.

It’s also interesting to note how deeply the early life experiences of these three pioneers in psychology molded and sculpted their particular understandings of the way our minds work, and the theories which they later elaborated.

So back to Alfred Adler. Like Freud, Adler was an Austrian, and his initial training was in general medicine. In 1901, at Freud’s invitation, he joined the “Wednesday Group”, a relatively informal discussion group concentrating on the emerging science of psychology, whose members included Freud himself, Carl Jung and Wilhelm Stekel. However, as each member of the group developed his own theories, tensions developed and in 1911, Adler and his camp followers split away, followed soon afterward by Jung and his coterie.

Adler speculated that an individual’s social context and situation had as much to do with his psychological health as the influences of his childhood and his particular sexual drives. Adler was essentially socialist in nature (indeed, he corresponded with Leon Trotsky), and was one of the first to remark on the way that gender politics (feminism as a reaction to masculine domination) permeated society.

He theorized that our self-perceptions as being ‘superior’ or ‘inferior’ were extremely important in the way we interacted with others. This line of thought, together with his socialist leanings, led him to be one of the first to do away with the “Analyst’s Couch”. Instead he simply used two chairs in his consultations, so that therapist and client would react as equals.

Adler’s theories on birth order, parenting and social involvement were some of the most powerful influences on Western social thought in the mid 20th Century.

Alfred Adler’s early collaboration with Freud and Jung inevitably colored his own thinking, and his primary contribution to psychological thought was his theory that human personality and behavior was inherently goal directed, driven by some inner force, and that very early in life we develop goals which we strive to achieve.

Of course, we cannot always achieve what the self would wish us to, and indeed, it might have some very unpleasant social consequences if we could.

He thought that the goals of the Self – which can be quite extreme – were moderated by the social and ethical demands of the particular society in which we live. As we strive to achieve these goals, there is a constant balancing and counter-balancing between the feelings of inferiority and superiority which we experience in relation to our particular situation and in our relationships with others. The results of these balancing mechanisms lead us to display quite distinct behaviors.

Adler coined the term ‘inferiority complex’ to describe one of the main dynamics of this situation. If we feel slightly inferior to others in a given area, this is often a spur to action and improvement. Unfortunately, however, if the action taken is a gross overcompensation for the reality, instead of just producing great achievements, it can produce really bizarre behavior. If the feeling of inferiority is extreme, it can simply act as a disincentive to any effort at improvement, leaving the afflicted person with even lower self-esteem.

The Adlerian school of psychological thought (which he called Individual Psychology) is paradoxically much concerned about the ways in which the individual and society interact. He was a great proponent of sound parenting skills, of a holistic approach to problem solving and was a considerable supporter of feminist views, something quite unusual for a man of his time. Contentiously, he suggested that the way in which people acted out their feelings of inferiority and superiority formed much of the basis for gender bias and stereotypical ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ attitudes and styles.

In strong counterpoint to his generally inclusive view of human nature, he had some very firm opinions on homosexuality, suggesting that homosexual people were “failures in life”; a situation which he thought resulted from an over-compensation to an inferiority complex towards one’s own gender!

Probably no-one has had a greater impact on what is widely regarded as good parenting and ‘child management’ than Alfred Adler. Although he was an extremely good therapist himself, his main interests lay in preventive psychology and in the structure and interaction of families.

He identified two parental styles that were almost certain to cause problems in adulthood. The first was pampering – overprotecting a child, giving him too much attention, and protecting him from the harsh reality of life.

Children brought up this way are poorly equipped to deal with the tough business of living, highly dependent and find it hard to make decisions. At the opposite end of the spectrum, Adler thought that the ‘neglected’ child (one who is given little support) would grow up to fear the world, distrust others and probably find it hard to form sound relationships.

At the time Adler was introducing his ideas on ‘democratic parenting’ to the world, the old order was changing. The First World War had almost swept away inherited privilege and a rigid sense of class. People were beginning to expect their voices to be heard, and this fitted well with what Adler thought was good for the family.

Adler believed that successful parenting was based on:

-Mutual respect – parents who show respect for the child–while winning his respect for them – teach the child to respect himself and others.

-Encouragement – implies faith in and respect for the child as he is

-Natural and logical consequences – allowing the child to experience and learn from the actual result of his own behavior. Natural consequences are the direct result of the child’s behavior, for example, Tommy refuses to wear a coat while it is raining: he will get wet.

Independence – Never do for a child what he can do for himself.

A dependent child is a demanding child. Children become irresponsible only when we fail to give them opportunities to take on responsibility.

Adler’s views survive today as the core of good parenting – there have been advances, of course, but Adler lit the torch.

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From Offline to Online Business in Today’s Globalized Business World

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Beyond a shadow of a doubt, the fast pace of technological changes and the global economy have resulted in hypercompetition as the nature of today’s competitive landscape. In the recent years, regarding the popularity of E-businesses, multifarious online businesses have been found because of the comparatively low barriers to entry and a tremendous number of entrepreneurs have found the nerve to conduct their entire businesses online. According to the Internet World Stats website, approximately 1/3 of the world’s population is using the Internet and the number of users is rising steeply. Many companies struggle to survive in highly competitive market by making use of the Internet as the intensification of competition and the undergoing process of globalization have led to high utilization of the Internet as a supplementary business tool.

As Prof. Michael E. Porter, who is well-known for his strategic system, mentioned in an article, titled “Strategy and the Internet” (in 2001), the Internet should be viewed as a complement to conventional method of competing. In spite of the fact that utilization of the Internet should be considered as a blessing in disguise, it can turn out to be an unmitigated disaster. Since there is a relative lack of reliable market signal and because of the distorted market behavior, the online market should be interpreted carefully to set strategic goals.

The Internet as the Most Powerful Business Weapon

After the Industrial Revolution Period (the 18th, 19th centuries), there has been a marked shift from “mass production” to “mass customization” for the past decades and the Internet eased the process of customization.

In terms of marketing, the process of online data collection (quantitative and qualitative data) is less complex and measuring customer satisfaction can be easily done by conducting online opinion polls and surveys. In other words, the Internet provides marketers with a comparatively easier way to identify customer needs and enhance customer satisfaction. With regard to the online analytic tools, identifying the needs, wants, demands (core concepts of marketing), and targeting the markets are relatively easier on the Internet. In addition, Advertising on the Internet is rather cheaper in comparison with offline advertising.

The emergence of social networking services (SNS) as a sophisticated business tool on the Net and the evolution of Internet marketing, coupled with social media marketing, never cease to amaze researchers. Thanks to the Internet, employees and customers (users) can be in touch instantly anytime, with anyone, anywhere. The Internet can be explained as worldwide network that enables computers to share different information with each other as well as sharing databases, transaction resources, and communications. By utilization of the Internet in organizations the red tape is cut and stratified bureaucracy is reduced to make everyone accessible within organization.

On the one hand, the Internet lowers entry barriers, which is highly desirable to set up a business, as there is no need for huge capital investment and sales forces. On the other hand, the Internet paves the other companies’ ways to penetrate into the market which leads to increasing the threats of substitutes. As a result, by maximizing and minimizing the switching costs of buyers and suppliers, the Internet changes the bargaining powers of buyers and suppliers. There are some characteristic of E-commerce, which is a subset of E-business, such as ubiquity, global reach, richness, personalization, and customization that make it clearly distinguishable from traditional commerce. Moreover, the Internet, which influences strategic positioning (E.Porter, 2001), can be used to achieve competitive advantages.

There are several advantages such as connectivity, convenience, standardization, lower costs, highly customizable services, and speed that are brought by the Internet to the Organizations. By making comparisons, it can be readily understood that how the Internet has impact on industry structure and it is crystal clear that the advantages outweigh the drawbacks. That is why an overwhelming majority of organizations are going online and there are so many that conduct their entire businesses on the Internet.

To conclude, in the light of popularity of digital goods and digital market, it is reasonable to assume that the Internet can be regarded as the most powerful business weapon in today’s business world.

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SEO Services – Benefits of SEO Outsourcing For Small Businesses

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If you are an entrepreneur you must be accustomed to do business in a very structured manner. Usually, the chances are more that you must be managing almost every business processes all by yourself. Now at a time like this if you plan to swap over to the Internet marketing world, you will soon realize that you actually require functioning a bit different from your competitors to be more successful.

Nowadays, many people make use of search engines to get information on any product/service and so you need to be more familiar with the importance of being ranked high in these search engines. Ranking high in search engines can help you bring in more traffic to your webpage resulting in interested readers who might decide to do business with you. All of this can ultimately enhance your sales. For such expansion to the online customers, you need to hire a dedicated team of SEO experts for unique and consistent webpage optimization.

Outsourcing Benefits for small business promotions

The key benefit of outsourcing is that it makes you free from any sort of tension. This is because outsourcing does not distract you from the core business related issues. Therefore, it is always better to focus on the productive things that can make a big difference to your income rather than waste time on trivial things like no updated Blogs or need for a new plug-in for your webpage.

Along with this, nowadays SEO outsourcing services is available at quite an affordable rate. Even if you compare the cost of hiring in-house SEO experts to SEO outsourcing you will observe that outsourcing is much cost effective and easy to approach.

Why should you hire an SEO company?

Besides, considering factors like the time and cost, there are many other significant factors that you must consider before going for optimization of your webpage by professionals:

Quality optimization: SEO is an ongoing process that requires a good amount of time to be spent on. It need a complex research and methodology to be implemented and hence should be done with enthusiasm and patience. SEO webmasters usually have the knowledge and experience to work with competition and for different online marketing needs. They can easily standardize the optimization of your web page and thus producing a quality product.

Dedicated SEO services: Hiring an SEO expert will also be useful for dedicated promotion and marketing of your webpage. Firms providing SEO services will periodically update you with reports indicating the performance of your website as compared to your competitors in the market.

Result Oriented Services – You can be assured of getting desired results with Ethical and Professional SEO Company as they generally implement a structured SEO strategy for your site.

SEO Outsourcing India

Presently, India is one of the most preferred countries being chosen for offshore SEO services. Professionals from India excel skilled resources that can work for you dedicated with utmost professionalism and result oriented strategies. Moreover, most SEO companies in India can also help you to contemplate various optimization strategies and select the right resource according to market trends and requirements.

Today, SEO Outsourcing is the best option for all the web solution needs for a small business wherein you can save your money on other expensive Internet Marketing campaigns and invest them in your business expansion. Therefore, it is very essential for small business owner to understand the need for website optimization and outsource SEO processes to offshore countries to get maximum return to their investment.

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HIV & AIDS – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment, an Update

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HIV infection is a medical condition characterized by a progressive deficiency in the immune system of the human body, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Currently there is no cure for this condition. However, anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in reducing the virus count to a bare minimum, and has helped the immune system to improve. This therapy has multiple side-effects, and over time, the virus starts multiplying, while the immune system fails gradually.

Some Ayurvedic physicians compare the symptoms of HIV/AIDS to those of “Kshaya” or “Oja-Kshaya” mentioned in Ayurveda. While Ayurvedic treatment may not show the initial dramatic improvement seen with modern drugs, this treatment still has a significant role to play in the long term management of HIV infection. Ayurvedic medicines reduce the virus count and improve the CD4/CD8 count, which are indicative of the modulated immune status of the body. Judicious use of Ayurvedic medicines may also increase the innate (basic) immunity of the body, improve weight and cause excretion of the HIV virus from the body.

Traditional Ayurvedic formulations can be effectively used to treat the opportunistic infections which are a hallmark of advanced HIV infection. Kutaj Ghana Vati, Sanjeevani Vati, Panchamrut Parpati and Kutaj Parpati are used to treat recurrent diarrhea. Arogya Vardhini, Triphala Guggulu, Mahamanjishthadi Ghan Vati, Praval and Kamdudha are useful in Herpes Zoster infection and also in other skin infections. Laxmi Narayan Rasa, Samshamani Vati and Laghu Sutshekhar are used in chronic fever. Chandanadi Vati, Shatadhout Ghrut,Yashtimadhuk Ghrut, Triphala and Chandan (Sandalwood ) powders are useful in recurrent oral and genital ulcers. Laghu Malini Vasant, Madhu Malini Vasant, Suvarna Malini Vasant, Suvarna Bhasma and Heerak Bhasma are used as “general tonics”.

Herbal medicines which are useful in HIV infection are: Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Bhumiamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri), Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Pippali (Piper longum) and Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica). These medicines have anti-viral, immunomodulating and adaptogenic properties. Some of these increase body weight, yet others increase the “agni” of the body and therefore maintain cellular metabolism at an optimum level.

Patients with HIV infection need long-term or life-long treatment. Herbal medicines have the advantage of an impressive safety profile, and can therefore, be given for long periods without any significant side effects. Herbal medicines can be given independently, or as additional therapy to modern medicines. The current goal in HIV management of prolonging a healthy life at minimum risk and cost, can thus, be achieved admirably with herbal medicines.

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The Pros and Cons of Advanced Career Training

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If you’re interested in promoting yourself in your chosen career without the commitment of getting a degree, advanced career training might be right for you. This option is usually best for those who already have a bachelor’s or higher degree in their chosen field. However, those in fields that don’t require a degree such as real estate might also look into advanced career training as well. So what are the benefits of advanced career training?

Many times you can get advanced career training for free. Many companies encourage it and include it in their benefits package to entice potential employees during their recruitment process. Some companies require it, and usually will only pay for it if it is essential to their job.

It makes you seem ambitious to your current employer. By getting advanced career training, your employer knows that you are planning on making a career out of your current profession and perceives you to be valuable. Another great tactic is to talk to senior workers and managers to find out what kind of skills are necessary to your job. Then approach your supervisor or human resources department and propose advanced career training on those skills, stating they are necessary to advance in your field.

It makes you work better. While many skills necessary for your job are self-taught, advanced career training allows you to enhance those skills by learning the theories behind them. It also teaches you new skills that are valuable to the work you do now.

Now that you know about some of the pros of advanced career training, what are the negative aspects of doing it?

You can’t take it with you if you change careers. Advanced career training tends to be highly specialized, and if you decide to change careers the training will be useless. While some general information will transfer over to your new field, most of it will not. Which means countless hours have gone to waste.

It doesn’t look as good as a degree. This is why it is recommended you complete a degree program before you get any advanced career training. Moreover, if you want to move up to a managerial field, you better go for the degree first. In a scientific field, it would probably look better on your resume to get a postgraduate degree such as a Master’s or PhD.

Advanced career training can be expensive, and financial aid is not as readily available. If your company isn’t paying for it, advanced career training can drain your wallet fast. And, unlike undergraduate or postgraduate classes, it may be harder to get financial aid. You might want to look at those options first if advanced career training isn’t in your budget.

So, as you can see, there are both positive and negative effects of advanced career training. If you are fairly certain of your career path and already have at least a Bachelor’s degree, advanced career training is definitely the way to go. However, if you are not sure of your career direction or don’t have the necessary degrees for your field, you might want to check that option first. Advanced career training is not portable and won’t do much for you in another profession.

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Pros of Subcontracting Custom Web Development

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Many factors made offshore software development a popular trend among many companies both in European and American Countries. For an example, the value of the IT outsourcing in the North America in 2001 was 59 billion dollar. Key drivers in growth of offshore software development increased revenue potential, selling capabilities to external users, increased process effectiveness, freeing up internal resources, company philosophy of outsourcing non-core activities, lack of suitable skill set, control of costs, and gaining access to world-class capabilities. Software companies significantly increase their income by entering the OSD contracts in addition to the production software for market. With signing a contract, clients can avoid unnecessary expenditure on setting up their own in-house software development infrastructure. Many companies offer custom web development services with intention of offering most cost effective solutions.

OSD offers increased process effectiveness for clients. All processes such as development as well as maintenance and other part of the software life-cycle are run by professionals that are specialized in this type of work. This allows avoiding many of organizational, marketing and managerial mistakes which are figured out common most often. This may result in a decrease of the consumer order cycle time. OSD provides ability to free up internal resources where clients can direct enormous resources usually required by the in-house development to other activities. Provider in turn is free to promote and deliver a specific product to the market. This is usually a more difficult process than advertising expansion services as it allows concentrating on the core activities of the software development.

IT function has always been difficult to manage in organizations. Similarly custom web development projects require a deep and up-to-date technical knowledge, which is lacked by the most business managers. Due to this discrepancy a lot of software project are supplied across national boundaries. With mounting popularity of ‘business process outsourcing’, many companies have started accepting to contract out for core activities, concentrating on the primary business processes. Lack of appropriate skill is a factor behind an increasing importance of OSD. In Germany, for instance, the integer of programmer vacancies estimates for during 2001- 2005 was 210 000. With OSD, Client is free of the most of fixed costs of the development. Provider in turn is able to lower cost due to lower wages, corporate tax rate, rent expenses, etc.

The access to the world class capabilities can again be figured out one of the key success factors for OSD. With its help small businesses are able to get a world class quality services according to international standards because development firms tend to offer high quality development due to increased competition, caused by globalization. Worldwide outsourcing of custom web development provides better quality service. Offshore software firms do specialize in detailed services such as Java programming language, web-based development, etc, and also more skilled than the in-house department of services buying firm. Here, outsourcing firm gets an advantage of increasing its capabilities from its practices and experiences, especially in offshore contracts, when client resides in a developed country with a well established base of research and development.

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Erectile Dysfunction-What You Need To Know?

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To understand better what erectile dysfunction is, we have to understand first what refers to an erection then only then we’ll be able to know about this sexual problem.

During sex, penis is being stimulated and caused stiffness and enlargement in it. The whole process is known as erection. However, it is not so that it only occurs during sexual situations, it may also occur in non sexual activities as well. How it happens? In the primary body system, penis arteries automatically expand due to stagnation by which more blood is filled in the tissue cells of the penis and gives it growth and stiffness. This blood filled tissue shrinks by pressing on the veins that retract the blood back, causes more blood to enter and less blood to return. After a while a balance comes into reality where the same amount of blood starts flowing in the dilated arteries and narrowed veins and because of this penis gets a certain posterior shape automatically. Erection is necessary for sexual intercourse but not necessary for other sexual activities.

What is Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile Dysfunction, also referred to as ED, is an inability to sustain an erection during sexual intercourse and it is a quite common problem in men. In this article, we are going to find out if this problem can be controlled. According to a study, a part of male population over 35-40 years of age group is suffering from this problem and the worst thing is that this percentage is increasing in young men also. First, we should find out about types of erectile dysfunction’s problem.

Types of Erectile Dysfunction’s Problem:

Short Term Problem: This is the case when the problem occurs for sometimes.

Long Term Problem: In this case the problem remains prolonged.

In the first case, lifestyle is majorly responsible for short-term problem’s existence. The type of problem is for a short period of time because of the following reasons like anxiety, stress and excessive intake of alcohol. The second type of problem may be physical and keeps for long time because of high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and blood flow in private organ is affected, which may lead to erectile dysfunction.

Treatment: In my opinion, if you are going through from a long-term condition, you may want to consult with a specialist for the treatment of your prolonged problem. Curing of erectile dysfunction is completely depends on its causes. Your personal call has an importance for its treatment right from changes in way of life to medication.



Self-Help: Listed below are some self-help techniques, you may try before involving into medical assistance.

1. You may want to do exercise on a regular basis to improve blood flow for a strong erection.

2. You can take healthy diet for preventing erectile dysfunction.

3. You can try to improve your sleep schedule as it increases testosterone levels.

4. You can try to quit smoking as it narrowing blood vessels.

5. You may stop extravagant intake of alcohol because it affects on central nervous system.

Medicine: You may use prescribed oral medication to get and maintain an erection, if none of the self-help techniques are working.

1) Viagra, Levitra and cialis these all medications act in smooth muscles relaxation and also increase the flow of blood in penis during sexual stimulation.

2) Other alternatives include Alprostadil (Caverject) to treat erectile dysfunction either through penile suppository or self-injection at the base or side of the penis.

3) Testosterone therapy is a primary treatment for testosterone’s low levels.

In my opinion, you may try some self-help techniques mentioned above and if none of them are working then you may seek for medical assistance if you have the problem of erectile dysfunction.

Article Source: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/health/erectile-dysfunction-what-you-need-to-know.html

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