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Italy wants ancient statue back from Minneapolis Institute of Art

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A viewer looks up at a Greek statue carved from stone of a nude man. In the foreground, another museum visitor looks at a helmet.
Visitors view the “Doryphoros,” an ancient replica of a treasured Greek statue at the Minneapolis Institute of Art, May 13, 2022. A court in Italy has ordered the return of the classical antiquity that was purchased by the museum almost four decades ago. (Jenn Ackerman / The New York Times)

TORRE ANNUNZIATA, Italy — The account has long been that a shipwreck in the ancient past had sent a precious Roman marble statue — a rare copy of a fifth century B.C. depiction of the “Doryphoros,” or spear bearer — into the depths of the seas off Italy.

That was the account given in the late 1970s when the statue materialized out of the blue at the Glyptothek in Munich, the city’s museum of ancient Roman and Greek art. A dealer had lent it to the museum in anticipation of a possible sale, and the story he told then was of a statue that had been rescued from the ravages of seawater and held in a private collection, where for decades it escaped attention.

And that was the account endorsed by officials of the Minneapolis Institute of Art when they purchased the statue for $2.5 million in 1986 and installed it as a signature artifact in a showcase gallery.

But now Italian authorities are pushing the Minneapolis museum to return the work, asserting it was actually illegally excavated from a site near Pompeii in the 1970s.

What is more, prosecutors say, there is evidence that even before they bought the statue, officials at the Minneapolis museum knew that there were reservations about the origin story but still moved ahead.

“They sure had some doubts,” said Nunzio Fragliasso, the chief prosecutor of Torre Annunziata, a city south of Naples, Italy, where investigators have reviewed correspondence between the Minnesota museum’s staff members from the time of the purchase.

In January, an Italian judge, working off evidence presented to him by the prosecutors, ruled that the museum had to return the statue on the grounds that it had been illegally excavated and exported from Italy.

The Minneapolis Institute of Art said in a statement that it had not been officially notified of the Italian court’s decision and that it has “always conducted research on acquisitions, including requesting feedback from outside scholars.”

A murky past

The object of all of this attention is one of the few ancient copies of a revered original by the Greek artist Polykleitos, which has long been embraced as one of the most important works of Classical antiquity, celebrated as an example of a perfectly proportioned body (detailed by the sculptor in “The Canon,” a companion treatise to the statue). Of the copies that exist, the one in Minneapolis, thought to have been created between 27 B.C. and A.D. 68, is considered one of the best preserved.

The statue had been offered to the Munich museum for sale while it was on loan there. At the time, the statue was labeled “Doryphoros aus Stabiae,” a reference to the ancient city on the Gulf of Naples that presumably identified as its original home. The piece was being handled by Elie Borowski, an antiquities dealer and collector who later founded the Bible Lands Museum in Jerusalem and died in 2003.

Officials at the Minneapolis museum have said that they have not been contacted by the Italian prosecutors who are seeking the return of the statue. (Jenn Ackerman / New York Times)
Officials at the Minneapolis museum have said that they have not been contacted by the Italian prosecutors who are seeking the return of the statue. (Jenn Ackerman / New York Times)

As the German museum raised money to buy the piece, the Italian news media dug into its provenance. In 1980, the national broadcaster, RAI, aired a report that suggested that the statue had been unearthed in 1975 or 1976 while construction work was going on in an area of modern-day Castellammare di Stabia. The report featured four photographs, said to have been taken soon after the statue’s discovery, that when compared to the statue — down to broken and missing pieces including part of a foot — appeared to be a match.

In 1984, Italian judicial authorities ordered the seizure of the statue — still at the museum in Germany — a decision that Munich judicial authorities revoked the following year.

By then, the Munich Glyptothek had decided not to buy the statue, partly because of the price and partly because of the attention of the Italian authorities, according to testimony given last year by former and current Glyptothek employees to Italian investigators, Fragliasso, the prosecutor, said in an interview.

In 1986, the Minneapolis Institute of Art bought the statue, and its chief curator at the time repeated the account from Borowski, who said the statue had been in private hands since the 1930s, when it had been found at sea, off the coast of Italy.

Questions resurface

Over the years, the issue of the statue’s origins has resurfaced. Archaeologist Mario Pagano said in an interview that he had raised the provenance issue with officials at the Italian culture ministry around 2001, when he was the director of the Stabiae site, part of the ancient city also buried by Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.

Italian officials did convene an inquiry around that time, but they never made a formal restitution request to the Minneapolis museum.

Eike Schmidt, director of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy, was a leading curator at the Minneapolis museum during a time, from 2009 to 2015, when the statue had already become an established part of the collection. Schmidt said in an interview that he was told that museum officials had been contacted by Italian police about the statue a few years before his tenure there.

“The museum said, ‘Oh, yes, please come here. Let’s see what we have. Let’s look at it together,’” Schmidt recalled in an interview. But months passed, letters went back and forth, and in the end nobody showed up, he said.

Schmidt said the museum’s policy on provenance disputes was to be forthcoming, citing a medieval silver reliquary it had returned after learning it had been stolen. The museum was also one of several to comply with an Italian campaign in recent decades to reclaim artifacts, returning an Attic red-figure vase it had acquired in 1983.

Schmidt said that during his time at the museum, he had been in contact with Italian officials and scholars as part of his job, and questions over the statue’s past never arose.

The latest investigation

But about three years ago, the statue again fell into the sights of Italian investigators as they pursued an unrelated review of frescoes Borowski had handled. The investigators dredged up a substantial file on the Doryphoros that dated back to the 1980s and that had grown larger over the decades.

“Reviving the old investigation, we came across extensive correspondence between staff members at the Minneapolis museum,” Fragliasso said, “not only about their fundraising efforts but also about verifying the legitimacy of the provenance of the statue.”

At the very least, he said, officials at the Minneapolis museum were aware of the statue’s murky origins, including the claims that it had been illegally excavated and that the Italians had asked for the return of the statue from Munich in 1984.

In one undated letter in the file, he said, museum employees talk about the opinion of three archaeologists who express doubt that the antiquity had been found in the sea and refer to it as possibly “hot.”

In another memo, museum staff mentioned concerns about Borowski’s account, noting that it would have been hard for such a noteworthy sculpture to have remained undetected in a private collection for decades, prosecutors said.

Michael Conforti, who was chief curator at the Minneapolis museum at the time of the purchase, referred questions to the museum. But Conforti, who is director emeritus of the Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Mass., did say in an email that he recalled that the museum had relied on the findings in the German court case about the statue from the early 1980s. The court, he said, had “found that there was no proof of discovery as once claimed” and that was “the factor that allowed us to make the purchase at the time.”

Italian officials say that, while the German court refused to order the statue’s return to Italy, it did not rule on the merits of the case.

Gabriel Zuchtriegel, the director of the archaeological site at Pompeii, said experts had other reasons to doubt Borowski’s account — primarily, the condition of the statue itself.

“The statue doesn’t show signs of having been under salty seawater for a long time,” he said, citing the impact such corrosives would have had on the marble. “This comes from the land.”

Call for confiscation

Last year, Fragliasso presented his case to the judge in Torre Annunziata, who issued a ruling calling for the statue to be confiscated. In February, Fragliasso formally asked that legal authorities in the United States assist him in executing the judge’s order. But he is still processing the paperwork that U.S. officials will use to evaluate his request.

In declining to comment, the Minneapolis museum acknowledged in an email statement that it had seen the press reports regarding the court’s decision. The museum, also known as MIA, said it would be premature to discuss the concerns raised by the Italian prosecutors.

“Regardless of the information that may have been shared with you,” the statement said, “Mia has not been contacted by the Italian authorities in connection with the court’s decision. If the museum is contacted, we will review the matter and respond accordingly.”

If the statue were to be returned, officials have plans to exhibit it at the Libero D’Orsi Museum in Castellammare di Stabia, a new museum opened in 2020 that showcases works excavated from the ancient city’s villas, including frescoes that had been illegally excavated in the 1970s and that were later recovered by Italy’s art theft police.

Although the matter is being pursued by local prosecutors, Italian officials at the national level have also shown renewed interest in the return.

“I think there’s excellent proof that the statue was from Castellammare and that it was exported illegally,” said Massimo Osanna, an archaeologist and the culture ministry official responsible for state museums.

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Minnesota United gives away late lead in Miami

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Minnesota United gives away late lead in Miami

For so much of the second half, Minnesota looked comfortable and ready to take a much-needed victory.

Shockingly, Inter Miami, the second-worst goal-scoring team in MLS notched two goals in the final three minutes to flip the script and take a 2-1 victory in the first MLS meeting between the two teams.

“[We] put ourselves in a great spot,” manager Adrian Heath said. “Put ourselves in a really good position. We’re not doing enough, it doesn’t look as though it’s enough to concede goals and lose games.”

Inter Miami forward Indiana Vassilev only made it into the game as a late-game bench substitution, but he made the most of his opportunity scoring in the 87th and 90th minute to give his team a victory, surpassing Minnesota’s one-goal lead it held since the 65th minute.

The Loons’ defense had kept Minnesota in the game for each chance Inter Miami had for the first 86 minutes, but the team couldn’t get the stops near the end to come up with the victory.

“At those times of the game, you need to do whatever you can to just beat your man,” Loons defender Michael Boxall said.

Minnesota’s victory looked nearly locked up as the Loons held the 1-0 difference into the final five minutes of the game. That goal followed a resilient start to the second half after many chances weren’t finished.

The Minnesota goal scorer was Luis Amarilla, who put the ball past the Inter Miami goalkeeper in tight in the 65th minute. It was his first goal in MLS play since March 19.

Amarilla was in such a position to score the goal so close to the keeper because of an acrobatic one-touch centering pass from Franco Fragapane. The play all began from Emmanuel Reynoso getting the ball on the right side of the attacking zone. He cut towards the middle and sent a lofting kick that found the airborne Fragapane for his assist.

While Minnesota finally found the back of the net in the back half of the game, there was no shortage of missed opportunities earlier in the contest.

“We’re not good enough at one end, and we’re not good enough at the other, and that’s not a good recipe,” Heath said. “We’ve got to get more and more determination to get on the things in the box and we’ve certainly got to defend the goal better.”

By the end of the game, Inter Miami had eight shots on target, while Minnesota had just one, the Amarilla goal.

The loss marks the first since Minnesota announced Heath’s two-year contract extension through 2024 on Thursday. The defeat also adds to a 1-6-1 stretch over the Loons’ last eight games, including Saturday night.

Heath said on Wednesday that the goal was to come away with four points in this road trip at Inter Miami on Saturday and on Wednesday at L.A. Galaxy. With the loss to Inter Miami, that goal is no longer possible.

The Loons must keep looking forward to get back on track and into playoff contention. After the loss on Saturday, Minnesota sits 11th in the Western Conference Standings, five points outside of the seventh spot, the cutoff for the playoffs.

“The good thing is that it’s a quick turnaround,” Boxall said. “Not quite looking ahead to L.A. just yet, we still need to process this game and figure out what we need to address, because that should be three points we’re taking home tonight.”

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Twins record second shutout in three days in win over Rockies

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Twins record second shutout in three days in win over Rockies

Puffy white clouds filled the blue skies above Target Field and sunlight bounced off buildings that make up the Minneapolis skyline. It was the kind of summer night at the ballpark that Minnesotans dream about throughout the long winter months.

It was the perfect night at Target Field and the hometown team, well, they were nearly perfect, too. Twins pitchers gave up just one hit (and five walks), and the team captured a first-inning lead on its way to a 6-0 win over the Colorado Rockies on Saturday night at Target Field.

A day after getting shut out for the 10th time this season, tying the league lead, Luis Arraez and Byron Buxton made sure early on that the Twins wouldn’t suffer the same fate. Arraez snapped an 0-for-11 stretch to begin the game and Buxton, back in the lineup for the first time since Tuesday, followed that up with his first triple since 2019.

After missing time this week after his knee flared up, Buxton turned on the burners, with a sprint speed of 29.3 feet/second (30 ft/sec is elite) on the triple, losing his helmet along the way. When he reached the base, he pounded his chest a couple times, smacked his hands together and let out a roar.

While the Twins left Buxton on third, they added on throughout the game, tacking on a run in the second on Arraez’s second hit of the game, two more in the fifth and two more in the seventh.

Alex Kirilloff drove in three of those runs, one on a sacrifice fly and the other on a double off the right field wall, bringing home Max Kepler — who walked three times in the game — and Kyle Garlick. The double was his fourth in eight games since being recalled from Triple-A.

All that offense came in support of Chris Archer, who worked five innings and allowed just one hit — a single to former Twin C.J. Cron in the second inning — and a walk in his outing.  Archer pitched out of that second-inning jam, retiring the next three batters in a row, the first of 12 straight that he sent down to conclude his start.

His start was followed by a scoreless inning each from Jharel Cotton and Griffin Jax and two from Tyler Thornburg. Twins pitchers have now thrown two shutouts in their past three games, and in Friday’s loss, they gave up just one run.

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A Pride timeline: Gay rights in Minnesota from 1858-2022

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A Pride timeline: Gay rights in Minnesota from 1858-2022

1858: Joseph Israel Lobdell, born Lucy Lobdell, is arrested for “impersonating a man.” A judge in the rural camp community of Forest City, Minn., sided with Lobdell, ruling that he did not act unlawfully.

1877: Minneapolis rules crossdressing as illegal, putting gender-nonconforming Minnesotans at risk for imprisonment.

1969: The Stonewall riots begin in New York City after police raids occur in the gay-friendly bars and community spaces of Lower Manhattan. These riots serve as a public turning point in American LGBTQ+ history.

May 18, 1969: University of Minnesota alumni found Fight Repression of Erotic Expression, or FREE, the first LGBTQ+ rights organization in the state. Founders Jack Baker and Michael McConnell become the first same-sex couple in the nation to apply for a marriage license, an application that is rejected by Hennepin County. Their legal case is dismissed by the U.S. Supreme Court in one sentence.

1972: The first Twin Cities Pride celebration is held in Minneapolis’ Loring Park.

Dec. 9, 1972: Minnesota state Sen. Allan Henry Spear indicates he is gay in an interview with the Minneapolis Star, making him the first openly gay state legislator in the United States.

June 1982: Bruce Brockway becomes the first documented recipient of an HIV diagnosis in Minnesota. After his diagnosis, he founded the Minnesota AIDS Project to provide resources to HIV-positive Minnesotans.

1993: Gender- and sexuality-based discrimination is outlawed in Minnesota, making it the first state in the nation to adopt the policy.

1997: Sicaŋgu Lakota man Nicholas Metcalf and his partner, Korean-American Edd Lee, found the Minnesota Men of Color, an organization that focuses on the well-being of men, women and gender-nonconforming people of color.

2012: Amendment 1, which limits marriage rights to only heterosexual couples, is rejected by the majority of Minnesota voters. Same-sex marriage is legalized in the state.

June 2015: The U.S. Supreme Court releases a decision in Obergefell v. Hodges finding that same-sex marriage cannot be banned in any state and must be recognized nationally. Gay marriage is legalized.

June 25-26, 2022: After two years of pandemic-related cancellations, the Twin Cities Pride parade and festival returns to Minneapolis.

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