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The Untold Truth About Intersex Surgery




Intersex surgery is a surgery associated with a “disorder” known as intersex. This is a terminology umbrella term generally encompassing various conditions in which the internal and external sex organs of an individual may develop differently than for the normal boy or girl. The anatomical or chromosal sex of the person therefore is not completely male or female. There is a variety of this kind of intersex variations.For instance in some individuals this genital complications will be evident clearly at birth. On the same note, for others this condition may appear clearly male or female however the internal characteristics of sex for example the chromosomes are not exclusively male or female. Despite all these challenges intersex individuality face, they all have equal rights and need to be treated in the same manner just the way every other normal individual is treated. Intersex surgery therefore is a kind of surgery adopted by various medical practitioners all over the world with an aim of helping the victims especially in the circumstance where it is medical emergency or with an aim of treating a malfunction of disease. It can also be adopted among the infants so as to make the body gain normalcy either to appear more male or female.

However despite this action having various significance in the lives of both the adults and infants, at some point they may lead to greater problems especially to the infants later when they grow in future. This process is associated with risks in infants such as the following. Possible complications from surgery such as haemorage.This is a condition associated with severe bleeding condition encountered by victims after undergoing this process of intersex surgery. This may in turn lead to losing a lot of blood hence putting the victims at a greater risk of health problems such as fainting. Fainting is a problem associated with insufficient supply of oxygen in the brain.Therefore when the surgery is not done carefully the patient may end up losing a lot of blood making them vulnerable to these challenges such as fainting, feeling sick and other complications associated with insufficient blood supply.

The surgery is irreversible. Despite the medical community playing a major role in the recent past in order to make progress in intersex care, the negative effect that this process cannot be reversed still remains.This is simply because the surgery can inflict irreversible physical and psychological harm among the patient victims. It is therefore much appropriate that before the child or adult undertakes this kind of surgery those involved medical practitioners should be highly qualified so as to ensure no errors are committed that may end up placing the life of the victim at risk.

Another problem of undertaking this surgery among the children is that the infant may undergo the surgery aimed at assigning them as male or female yet grow up to identify that they are different sex altogether. This is very traumatizing since at the old stage and even before, the reverse is not possible. This will then lead the patient into a traumatic situation since it is really disappointing because maybe at infant the process was done against their will because it was the parent’s decision. It is therefore much better if the victims could be left to grow until when they can make their own personal decisions such that in case things go the other way round at least they are in a position to blame themselves and even by then at least they will have realized what is the dominant nature part of them. This may put the child to suffer seriously psychologically due to psychological damage.

Another major problem that may be associated with this intersex surgery is that the child may not have an opportunity to express their gender. Now according to the human rights watch every individual has got all rights equal to the other and deserves to be respected. You find that now as a child when they are undertaken through this process at such a fragile age,you deny them an opportunity to freely express and show out what their gender truly is but not from the perspective of what the parents and the involved parties such as the medical practitioners say. It should be clear to these individuals, that is, medical practitioners and the broader community that several factors can play a major role in contribution to gender and identity and that the particular gender outcome of individuals depends on individual circumstances therefore they should not advocate on what is to be done on behalf of the innocent child.

The surgery can lead to lifelong sterilization as well as infertility. Take for example the surgery to remove the gonads without the knowledge of the patient.This is one of the greatest risks of undertaking this surgery especially without consulting the patient about the absurd effects of it. Removal of gonads requires a lifelong hormone replacement therapy. You find that the operation trying to alter the size of the genitals or simply the appearance of the children’s’ genitals puts them at a risk such as lack of sensation and this finally turns into psychological trauma. Later in future it becomes a big problem to handle because the nerves are limited and cannot re-grow hence limiting an option for future surgery. This is therefore a risky kind of procedure in the field of medicine and the practitioners need to deeply look and consider everything and ensure that all is safe before commencing the surgery on the innocent patients.

Mental anguish is also another challenge associated with this surgery. According to the human rights watch, intersex individuals who undertake this surgery always show that feeling of disappointment because they experience contemptuous language from the doctors which to some extent may be so discouraging. The idea of continuous and repeated medical examinations,lots of photographs being taken during this process also being frequently exposed to multiple of medical practitioners may lead to a lot of mental torture and anguish. They have got that feeling of being reaped off their privacy which would not be acceptable ethically especially in any other circumstances.As a result of such like effects you find that many of these intersex individuals have made some sought of horror experiences with doctors many years after the surgery when trying to get hold of a doctor or they simply try to avoid seeking medical assistance all together and this may be very dangerous because they require time to time medical checkup.

Despite all this negativeness associated with this intersex surgery, there are only two possible circumstance when this method can be recommended and be of a greater use.These are one, in the circumstance when where there is a medical emergency and life has to be saved for example in a case of malfunction. In this circumstance then it is advisable that this surgery can be carried out so as to help the life of the patient thus removing his or her life out of danger. For example in a situation where you want to guarantee the passage of urine.

The second scenario maybe when the internal organs are outside the body.Other than these two circumstances, it is viewed that in case the surgery is carried out it is purely cosmetic and completely unnecessary. That is why in some states such as the United States of America, they proposed to do away with this idea of intersex surgery especially on the infants until they are of age to consent.

Since this act of intersex surgery has taken over in the field of medicine despite various organizations and institutions campaigning against its existence, various steps for example have been taken to try and minimize this practice which in turn tend has tended to create much more harm than the positive part of it. Taking Australia, for example, it has set up various human right issues particularly relevant to the infants to help curb this practice and is only applied when the intersex surgery is necessary, that is, when the rights comply. For example In Australia a guardian or a parent is normally given an opportunity to consent on behalf of the child only when the child is unable to do so. However he or she is required to have all the facts to make such a crucial decision and that decision must be in regards to the Child’s main interest. This helps in preventing the idea of parents just coming up and making personal decision without considering the interest of the child but of their own.

Also in trying to handle this issue, Australians have dictated in their human rights regarding to the intersex community that in some situations such as gender reassignment surgery, a parent is not allowed to dictate for the child to undergo the surgery. At this juncture all is left on the hands of the court to preside over the issue by letting the legal actions take its course. This is because in all actions and decisions affecting that innocent child including even those made by medical practitioners at the end of the day is in the best interest of the child which must be taken into account being that they are the victims. Parents can have primary key decisions on behalf of their children yes but the government can come in between if the child’s basic rights need to be protected.

Also to help in regulating this practice that tends to manipulate rights of children at their tender age mostly because at that age they do not have much say regarding on what decision is taken for them so as to protect these intersex communities from cosmetic and unnecessary intersex surgeries, some advocates have sworn in affidavits with a claim that despite the improvement as seen in the medical sector which allow for the better determination of an individual child’s gender,advocates argue that irreversible gender related surgery does not always need to occur at birth rather they are calling for studies that investigate whether the positive effects of intersex surgeries outweigh the potential risks. They have also claimed for more and adequate information to be availed to the public majorly to the parents and children about the intersex conditions so that before they undertake the surgery which in most times does not end up well, other varied options should be availed so that to facilitate informed consent.

In addition, the world in general is working on the universally applicable principles to guide the individuals on the decision made relating to the infant who are intersex before being dragged into undertaking the intersex surgery. These principles may include; first minimizing physical risk to a child. This principle is aimed at preventing this children from undergoing severe some physical challenges they may encounter at a later stage of their development for instance where the surgery was wrongly done and another one needs to be done.Since the nerves can no longer grow in those areas then it becomes a big problem to handle among the victims.

The second principle is concerned with living options open for the future. By this it gives children time to grow and be able to make their own decisions based on their own personal interest rather than decisions being made on their behalf. This makes them freely express their will since they are entitled to their own personal opinions. This leads to a lot of respect from both the society and the intersex community leading to a peaceful co-existence.Another crucial and very important principle is preserving potential for fertility. You find that this process of intersex surgery majorly affect the fertility of the children. For instance when the gonads are operated this may lead to making the individual sterile other than requiring the lifelong replacement of the hormones. Therefore to prevent this menace unless the surgery is very urgent, it should not be carried out.

Another principle is to minimize the psycho social risk to the child. This is one of the risks children undergo through mental torture as a result of frequent undertaking of medical examination and photographs during and after the intersex surgery. Since they have to seek frequent medical attention and being exposed to different medical personnel regularly,they have a feeling of their privacy to have been breached leading to a terrible mental anguish and mental torture to an extent in which they are not even willing to seek medical attention anymore and this is very dangerous for their health. Therefore from these principles, it is wise for individuals to analytically examine their children’s best interest in relation to surgery on an infant who is intersex. It is therefore necessary for them to consider the pros and cons in regards to the interest of the child. Since this act of intersex surgery may have dire consequences for a child’s rights it is therefore necessary to try and find out whether there are other ways other than the surgery in which the interest of the children can be achieved. For example, counseling to the parents and the entire community at large will help in alleviating the notion parents have that their children will be rejected in the community.

Any actions regarding children’s best interest require a lot of consideration of modern medical research so as not just to undertake the process without considering both sides of the coin. That is why there is an increasing awareness among the medical practitioners and the entire community at large so as to only ensure that all surgery carried out to the intersex children is medically necessary and not for cosmetic reasons. This is because in very rare occasions there is very little or no evidence that these intersex surgeries have improved quality of lives for intersex individuals

In conclusion now we can evidently see some of the devastation caused by some of these unnecessary surgeries on innocent intersex infants. The reductions are clear and very traumatizing especially when you are a victim. There are a lot of cries and especially cases filed in the courts by victims and parents who according to them the process has left a serious negative impact greater than they what they expected on their children. From various activists and human right watch,the experience of those who have undergone the surgery along with principle of medical ethics suggest that not unless the time will come when the number of benefits of specific surgical procedures outweigh the various harm then they should be adopted and if not they should be pitched.


JWB and SMB (1992) Department of Health and Community Services

J A Grennberg,(2006)International Development Protecting the Autonomy Rights of Sexual Minorities

K parlett and Weston scheuber(2004) Constant to treatment for Transgender and Intersex

K J Zucker (2006)Gender Identity and Intersexuality.

A C Lareau (Nov 2003) Genital Normalizing Surgery on Intersex-infants



How To Start A Roasted Corn Business



Corn roasting is a simple yet very profitable small investment business. The successful corn roasters make full time living working just the summer months.

To start a roasted corn business you will need to acquire permits and business licenses from the health department and from the state. The following is a typical checklist to start your business.

1. Decide the size and the scale of the operation.

2. Decide on the menu for your concession business.

3. Purchase your equipment and tools.

4. Register your business.

5. Apply and obtain all the required licenses and permits needed to run a food concession business.

6. Secure events and have fun running your concession stand.

Permits, Licenses, and Inspection

Every state has laws governing business licenses and permits. Most likely, you will have to register your business with the state agency, so you can do business in the state. A tax ID number, business license number, and tax registration number can be issued to your business, depending on the state in which you are operating. You should verify with the city or county that the business location is zoned for that activity. You must have commercial liability insurance, both for your business and for your vehicle and trailer.

Health Department and Food safety

As a business owner and a food worker, you will be preparing food for other people. Contact the health department of your county or state to receive a copy of a food safety guide that will help you greatly in learning more about food safety. Roasted corn is considered a less hazardous food, but if you are going to sell potatoes and turkey legs you may have to pay higher fee.

Start-up Costs of a Corn Roaster Business

Brand new corn roaster with warranty: 10,000-$12,000.

Used corn roaster: $5,000-$8,000.

Additional equipment and accessories: $1,200-$2,000.

Used van or truck: $2,000-$10,000.

Food cost for first two events: $300-$1,000.

Event sign-up fee: $800-$3,000.

Fuel, utilities, and miscellaneous: $200.

Equipment Required to Start a Corn Roasting Business

A professional corn roaster, minimum 200-500 corns per hour.

Hot plate for melting butter

Steam table for storing cooked potatoes and turkey legs.

Two 20-lb. propane tanks

Fire extinguisher

Commercial quality tent

2 tables,

Hand washing unit (portable) very easy to assemble one

Mics. Little things

Google “Corn Roasters” and search for companies that will help you get started before buying the equipment if you are strapped for cash. One of the company Texas Corn Roasters help.

How to Find Events and Festivals

There are many sources for finding festivals and events, such as your vendor friends, the local Chamber of Commerce, auto racing, fairs and festivals, flea markets, rodeos, and theme parks. The Internet is one of the greatest sources for finding events. Many good sites provide this information. Always send a professionally done proposal with your application if you want to beat the competition.

Suppliers and Producers

Suppliers and produce wholesalers are your key to success in this business. You cannot afford to buy the food from retailers, so you must find producers capable of providing you quality food at wholesale costs. Every state and big town has a local supplier who delivers food supplies to local restaurants. “Wholesale food distributor” in the Yellow Pages is a good place to start. Corn is cheap if buy from a wholesaler.

Serving food at the festival

The way you serve can also improve your business. You will need certain condiments for every item you server. For instance sale, black pepper, Cajun spice, garlic powder, lemon pepper and more.


You have probably heard the saying “flash is cash.” It is very true when it comes to the festival business. You could have the most delicious food, best prices, well-trained staff, and a festival with thousands of people. If your booth fails to attract customers,, it is probably the poor signage.

Tribal knowledge

Like many other small profitable business the roasted corn business is run by tight lipped vendors who do not share tribal knowledge. There are not any website, or sources for a newbie to find any information. The tribal knowledge could help you make extra 25K a year. There is a very helpful book “Earn an entire year’s living with corn roaster”, that covers this business with very granular level of details. It is worth buying.

If you plan on making your concession business a full time job, consider an RV that can tow your corn roaster trailer and getting on the list of concession vendors that follow a fair rout.

Accounting and numbers are also very important aspect of this business. Festival Concession business offers financial and personal freedom like no other small business does.

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Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging In Medical Therapy



Digital technology now makes Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging available to all. There now is a completely safe test that can aid in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring with absolutely no risk or radiation exposure.

DITI, or digital infrared thermal imaging, is a noninvasive diagnostic test that allows a health practitioner to see and measure changes in skin surface temperature. An infrared scanning camera translates infrared radiation emitted from the skin surface and records them on a color monitor. This visual image graphically maps the body temperature and is referred to as a thermogram. The spectrum of colors indicates an increase or decrease in the amount of infrared radiation being emitted from the body surface. In healthy people, there is a symmetrical skin pattern which is consistent and reproducible for any individual.

DITI is highly sensitive and can therefore be used clinically to detect disease in the vascular, muscular, neural and skeletal systems. Medical DITI has been used extensively in human medicine in the United States, Europe and Asia for the past 20 years. Until now, bulky equipment has hindered its diagnostic and economic feasibility. Now, PC-based infrared technology designed specifically for clinical application has changed all this.

Clinical uses for DITI include, defining the extent of a lesion of which a diagnosis has previously been made (for example, vascular disease); localizing an abnormal area not previously identified, so further diagnostic tests can be performed (as in Irritable Bowel Syndrome); detecting early lesions before they are clinically evident (as in breast cancer or other breast diseases); and monitoring the healing process before a patient returns to work or training (as in workman’s compensation claims).

Medical DITI is filling the gap in clinical diagnosis; X-ray, Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), are tests of anatomy or structure. DITI is unique in its capability to show physiological or functional changes and metabolic processes. It has also proven to be a very useful complementary procedure to other diagnostic procedures.

Unlike most diagnostic modalities DITI is non invasive. It is a very sensitive and reliable means of graphically mapping and displaying skin surface temperature. With DITI you can diagnosis, evaluate, monitor and document a large number of injuries and conditions, including soft tissue injuries and sensory/autonomic nerve fiber dysfunction. Medical DITI can offer considerable financial savings by avoiding the need for more expensive investigation for many patients. Medical DITI can graphically display the biased feeling of pain by accurately displaying the changes in skin surface temperature. Disease states commonly associated with pain include Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy or RSD, Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid arthritis.

Medical DITI can show a combined effect of the autonomic nervous system and the vascular system, down to capillary dysfunctions. The effects of these changes reveal an asymmetry in temperature distribution on the surface of the body. DITI is a monitor of thermal abnormalities present in a number of diseases and physical injuries. It is used as an aid for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as therapy follow up and rehabilitation monitoring, within clinical fields that include rheumatology, neurology, physiotherapy, sports medicine, oncology, pediatrics, orthopedics and many others.

Results obtained with medical DITI systems are totally objective and show excellent correlation with other diagnostic tests.

Thermographic screening is not covered by most insurance companies but is surprisingly affordable for most people. For more information or to find a certified clinic in your area, go to [].

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Hooray for the Federal Rules of Evidence!



The Federal Rules of Evidence used in the United States federal courts and adopted by many states and the military are codification of many years of common law evidence rules. The development of the modern rules of evidence has been a process of nothing more than putting old wine into new bottles. If one can understand common law notions of evidence the Federal Rules will be easy to understand.

The purpose of the Federal Rules of Evidence is to secure fairness in administration of trials; eliminate unjustifiable expense and delay; and to promote the growth and development of the law of evidence in order that truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined. As a former trial lawyer and current law school professor who teaches the rules of evidence to students, I view the Federal Rules of Evidence, adopted by Congress in 1975 as a master work of putting the old common law wine into a new bottle. I have used the Federal Rules of Evidence throughout my career.

This article is not about any specific common law rule or rules that may have been put into the new bottle known as the Federal Rule of Evidence. Instead, I write this to show how influential and widespread has been the use of the rules. Forty-four states, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the military have all adopted all or parts of the Federal Rules for use in their court systems. This is a very good trend because the evidence rules of most states will be roughly the same throughout the United States.

The following paragraphs provide fundamental information about the jurisdictions that have adopted evidence rules patterned on the Federal Rules. They include information concerning the date on which the local rules became effective and when amended, if at all:

ALABAMA. Adopted by the Alabama Supreme Court effective January 1, 1996. No amendments.

ALASKA. Adopted by the Alaska Supreme Court effective August 1, 1979. Last amended October 15, 2003.

ARIZONA. Adopted by the Arizona Supreme Court effective September 1, 1977. Last amended June 1, 2004.

ARKANSAS. Adopted by the Arkansas Supreme Court effective October 13, 1986. Latest amendment on January 22, 1998.

COLORADO. Adopted by the Colorado Supreme Court Effective January 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

CONNECTICUT. Adopted by the judges of the Connecticut Superior Court effective January 1, 2000. No amendments.

DELAWARE. Adopted by the Delaware Supreme Court effective February 1, 1980. Latest amendment December 10, 2001.

FLORIDA. The Florida Evidence Code was enacted by the Florida Legislature effective July 1, 1979. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

GEORGIA. Governor Nathan Deal signed a House bill which made the Georgia rules effective January 1, 2013. No amendments.

GUAM. Adopted by the Guam Judicial Council effective November 16, 1979. Latest amendment July 18, 2003.

HAWAII. Enacted by the Hawaii Legislature effective January 1, 1981. No amendments.

IDAHO. Adopted by the Idaho Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. No amendments.

ILLINOIS. Adopted by the Illinois Supreme Court effective January 1, 2011. No amendments.

INDIANA. Adopted by the Indiana Supreme Court effective January 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

IOWA. Adopted by the Iowa Supreme Court effective July 1, 1983. Latest amendment February 15, 2002.

KENTUCKY. Enacted by the Kentucky Legislature effective July 1, 1992. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

LOUISIANA. Enacted by the Louisiana Legislature effective January 1, 1989. Latest amendment August 15, 2003.

MAINE. Adopted by the Maine Supreme Judicial Court effective February 2, 1976. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

MARYLAND. Adopted by the Maryland Court of Appeals effective July 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MICHIGAN. Adopted by the Michigan Supreme Court effective March 1, 1978. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MINNESOTA. Adopted by the Minnesota Supreme Court effective April 1, 1977. Latest amendment January 1, 1990.

MISSISSIPPI. Adopted by the Mississippi Supreme Court effective January 1, 1986. Latest amendment May 27, 2004.

MONTANA. Adopted by the Montana Supreme Court effective July 1, 1977. Latest amendment October 18, 1990.

NEBRASKA. Enacted by the Nebraska Legislature effective December 31, 1975. Latest amendment July 13, 2000.

NEVADA. Enacted by the Nevada Legislature effective July 1, 2004. No amendments.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Adopted by the New Hampshire Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 2003.

NEW JERSEY. Adopted by the New Jersey Supreme Court and the New Jersey Legislature through a joint procedure effective July 1, 1993. Latest amendment July 1, 1993.

NEW MEXICO. Adopted by the New Mexico Supreme Court effective July 1, 1973. The latest amendment became effective February 1, 2003.

NORTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the North Carolina Legislature effective July 1, 1984. Latest amendment October 1, 2003.

NORTH DAKOTA. Adopted by the North Dakota Supreme Court effective February 15, 1977. Latest amendment March 1, 2001.

OHIO. Adopted by the Ohio Supreme Court effective July 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

OKLAHOMA. Enacted by the Oklahoma Legislature effective October 1, 1978. Latest amendment November 1, 2003.

OREGON. Enacted by the Oregon Legislature effective January 1, 1982. Latest amendment July 3, 2003.

PENNSYLVANIA. Adopted by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court effective October 1, 1998. Latest amendment January 1, 2002.

PUERTO RICO. Enacted by the Puerto Rico Legislature effective October 1, 1979. Latest amendment August 30, 1999.

RHODE ISLAND. Adopted by the Rhode Island Supreme Court effective October 1, 1987. No amendments.

SOUTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the South Carolina Legislature effective September 3, 1995. No amendments.

SOUTH DAKOTA. Enacted by the South Dakota Legislature effective July 1, 1978. No amendments.

TENNESSEE. Adopted by the Tennessee Supreme Court effective January 1, 1990. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

TEXAS. Adopted by the Texas Supreme Court effective March 1, 1998. No amendments.

UTAH. Adopted by the Utah Supreme Court effective September 1, 1983. Latest amendment November 1, 2004.

VERMONT. Adopted by the Vermont Supreme Court effective April 1, 1983. Latest amendment May 27, 2003.

WASHINGTON. Adopted by the Washington Supreme Court effective April 2, 1979. Latest amendment September 1, 2003.

WEST VIRGINIA. Adopted by the West Virginia Supreme Court effective February 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 1995.

WISCONSIN. Adopted by the Wisconsin Supreme Court effective January 1, 1974. Latest amendment March 30, 2004.

WYOMING. Adopted by the Wyoming Supreme Court effective January 1, 1978. Latest amendment February 28, 1995.

THE MILITARY. The Military Rules of Evidence were adopted by Executive order No. 12,198 March 12, 1980. Latest amendment by Executive Order No. 13,262 April 11, 2002.


THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

What an impressive list of adoptions and enactments patterned after the Federal Rules of Evidence! Several jurisdictions have not adopted rules of evidence based on the Federal Rules of Evidence. They are: California, the District of Columbia, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York and Virginia.

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