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Landscaping Benefits and Lawn Maintenance Issues

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Property value benefits of landscaping

According to a Clemson University study, “Homeowners wanting to increase the value of their property will do well to consider the cost-effective, return potential of quality landscaping, and to safeguard their investments by hiring licensed, professional landscape contractors to perform the work.” This study found that quality landscaping can result in more than a 100% return on the investment. Statistics compiled by The Florida Nursery Growers and Landscape Association are helpful:

  • Landscaping can increase the resale value of a property by as much as 14%
  • The sale of a property can increase by as much as six weeks
  • A landscaped patio can increase property value by 12.4%
  • A landscaped curb can raise property value by 4.4% and hedges can add 3.6%

For those who are not yet thinking of resale value, there are numerous non-monetary benefits to enjoy from landscaping your commercial or residential property. Landscaping can block unpleasant views, reduce noise levels and decrease crime, in addition to improving and optimizing the appearance and use of the property. Workers that have a view of trees and flowers feel less job stress and more job satisfaction and fear and anger is reduced when views of plants are possible. Additionally, when properly selected and placed, plants can lower heating and cooling costs by as much as 20%.

All of these benefits are dependent, of course, on designs and installations being done in a professional, competent manner. Poor construction, improper installation and low quality plants can turn your property into a liability. Furthermore, unskilled maintenance can quickly ruin your investment.

Why hire a landscape maintenance company?

Improper installation and maintenance of landscaping projects actually decreases and detracts from a property’s value. Maintaining the trees, shrubs, plants and grass on your property requires more than sufficient watering and occasional weeding and pruning. Soil must be monitored for proper pH levels, compaction, nutrient content, water drainage, and grub control. Trees must be trimmed for maximum growth, as well as safety, and sprinkler systems must be maintained to protect the investment. With so many factors influencing the health of your lawn, maintenance can quickly become overwhelming. By hiring a landscape maintenance company, you eliminate all hassles associated with property upkeep. Qualified professionals will often know, just by looking at your lawn, where grubs are likely infested, whether a certain tree will thrive in a certain area and if your yard could benefit from a lime treatment to balance the soil pH levels. They will know when to aerate, when to plant and when to prune. Meanwhile, you won’t damage your turf through over-aeration or waste money on improperly applied lime treatments. Hiring professionals with the knowledge and experience will not only eliminate hassles for you, it will safeguard your investment by keeping it healthy, ensuring you the maximum amount of return.

How to hire a landscape company

Once you have made the decision to hand over your land care to someone else, you have to make a selection on which company to hire. No matter what area you live in, you undoubtedly have many, many options. It seems everyone with a truck and a mower has opened a lawn care business and choosing a legitimate, respectable company that is knowledgeable, but will not take advantage of you can be a daunting task. While jobs such as mowing and leaf removal require little expertise, other tasks, such as fertilizing and pest control, require knowledgeable practitioners and, in some states, licenses. Just as you can damage your plants, trees and turf with improper land care, so, too, can the company you hire. While it is tempting to hire the cheapest company, cheaper is not always better. As the saying goes, you get what you pay for. Quality workmanship from a company with a solid reputation goes a lot farther in the long run than the cheaper alternative, if the alternative ends up killing your vegetation.

Part time vs. full time operation While part timers that mow grass on their off days from regular jobs may be convenient, they often are not insured and have no training. In addition to being unable to provide you with services such as fertilization or aeration should you desire it, they will not recognize signs of distress in your yard in order to recommend those services should you need it. By hiring a full time landscape company, you can generally be assured that they have the expertise to notify you of any problems, educate you on potential solutions and develop a maintenance regimen with you for your property. Furthermore, they will be insured so you will not be held liable for any accidents on your property that occur to their workers and they will have the necessary governmental licenses to spread the chemicals your property needs.

National vs. local Hiring a national lawn care company may seem like a safe decision – they must , after all, know what they are doing to operate such a large business! But while they may be known in several states, are they familiar with your state? Do they have the training relevant to your location, such as soil conditions, weather trends and regional insect and bacteria problems? Local companies will most assuredly understand YOUR locale as it is THEIR locale. Their properties will be susceptible to the same problems and they will most definitely know the best solutions. Additionally, they will not take their profits, your hard-earned money, out of state. Supporting local companies always benefits your city, but in the case of land care, it can also be a protection for you. Local companies have more at stake in the way of your satisfaction, as word in a city travels much more quickly than it does across a nation.

Whichever company you choose to hire, be sure to ask for a portfolio and, if possible, drive by some of their client’s properties. Check their reputation with the Better Business Bureau and get testimonials from other clients. Nothing is more important than doing research before you hire any type of contractor – if problems arise and you have not done your homework, you will have no one to blame but yourself.

Liability concerns

You want to be sure any company you hire has experience and a solid reputation. More importantly, you need to make sure they are insured. If your land care company does not carry general liability insurance, the property owner could be held responsible for accidents which occur while work is being done. To protect yourself, ask for proof of insurance and workman’s comp before anything is done to your property! Reputable contractors will understand that you are just doing your homework and will gladly offer documentation. Be wary of any that try to convince you this is unnecessary – they may have something to hide.

Mowing practices

Property owners take great care in watering, fertilizing, weeding and protecting their lawns but few realize that improper mowing practices can undo the care they so diligently show to their lawns. Mowing has an immediate impact on your lawn and by observing proper practices you can ensure you are contributing to the development of a high quality lawn. The two most common mistakes are cutting grass too short and mowing too infrequently. When mowing, you should never remove more than 1/3 of the grass blade’s height. By removing more, you can cut into the crown of the blade and damage it. Furthermore, mowing grasses too low leaves limited leaf area for the grass to sustain photosynthesis, which reduces grass vigor. Lawns that are too short also have shallow root systems, which become apparent during summer stress periods: as soil moisture drops, these lawns will begin to die. By leaving the height longer, you keep grass healthy and reduce the number of weeds by providing shade and competition to weed seedlings. If you miss a mowing and your grass is longer than usual, cutting at your regular height is, therefore, detrimental to the grass. You should reset the mower to its highest cutting level and then three or four days later cut again at the normal height. This ensures maximum protection for your lawn.

Knowing when to mow is also important. Mowing during the heat of the day causes undue stress on the lawn and mowing when the grass is wet leaves it susceptible to disease. The best time to mow is in the evening when the sun is less intense and morning moisture has long burned off. You should also vary your mowing patterns. Retracing the same lines every time you mow can harm the grass that is constantly run over. Mowing at right angles to the previous direction will prevent grass from repeatedly being pushed to one side and minimize stress on those areas.

Aeration

Aeration is a process which introduces air into the soil, an important ingredient in maintaining the health of soil. Plant and grass roots need sufficient air, as well as water and nutrients, to grow but different soils have different air qualities. Clay and silt soil particles are tightly packed and allow less air to penetrate grass roots whereas sandy soil particles allow for more air penetration. Because all soils are not the same, those that contain a large amount of silt or clay need aeration to increase the air supply to plants. Aeration also allows for better water drainage, an important benefit as too much water in the root zone is detrimental to growing plants. But plants are not the only organisms that need air in the soil: microbes that decompose organic matter and supply nutrients to plants need this basic resource, as well as earthworms, insects and other arthropods which help maintain healthy soil.

Aeration in lawns can be accomplished by dethatching, plugging or spiking. Dethatching requires removing grass thatches, plugging involves removing plugs of grass and soil and spiking entails punching holes into the soil. All three allow air, water and nutrients to penetrate into the soil to the roots of grass and plants. Generally, the best time to aerate is when grass is actually growing, as it allows for quick recovery and the best exploitation of the newly loosened root zone. Therefore, spring and fall are appropriate times but the weather should be the number one determinate when aerating: the soil should be warm and not too wet. Lawns that have been properly maintained should only require one aeration per year but lawns that have been neglected may require more treatments or more passes in an effort to get it properly balanced. As aeration injures turf, you want to be sure not to over-aerate and to institute the practice at the prime time for your turf. By the same token, not aerating enough or at improper times will likely do nothing at all.

Grub and insect Control

Grubs are the larval stage of beetles and live in dirt under grass. White in color, they are C-shaped, have a brown head, six legs and a dark rear section. They eat plant roots, killing grass and flowers, and unsuspecting property owners often are not aware of an infestation until their grass starts to die. Furthermore, grubs attract other pests, such as moles, skunks, opossums, rats, mice and birds, which will tear lawns apart to get these tasty treats. Grub damage is by far the most common cause of damage to grass, as these insect pests are quite common and can occur anywhere in the US. In Missouri, the two main types of grubs are the Southern Masked Chafer (annual grub) and the May/June Beetle (three year grub). Lawns with grub damage exhibit grass that can easily be pulled up and reduced grass vigor. The damage usually appears in late summer, as the eggs become larvae and begin to feed. This is not, however, the time to treat. Insecticide must be spread before the eggs are laid in order to be effective. June and July are the best times to apply insecticide, with the month determined by the product you choose. In the case of May/June beetles, you will need to treat for several years in order to kill grubs at various stages of development. Granule products are designed to work slowly and are appropriate for those wishing to prevent grub infestations. For those who already have a grub problem, apply liquid chemicals first to act quickly followed by granules for longer-term protection. In any case, make sure there is good soil moisture either from rainfall or irrigation before application. While grubs, and their accompanying pests, can be a tremendous aggravation, treatment and prevention are relatively simple if chemical instructions are followed.

Mulch

Mulching is one of the most beneficial practices you can use to keep your garden healthy. It also one of the simplest. Mulch refers to a protective layer of organic or inorganic material spread on top of the soil. Properly used, mulch limits weed growth, conserves soil moisture, regulates soil temperature, reduces compaction and protects the soil against erosion. It may also reduce the spread of some soil-borne diseases. Organic mulches, such as bark chips, grass clippings or straw, improve the condition of the soil, as they release organic nutrients during decomposition. The organic matter helps keep soil loose, which improves root growth, increases water drainage and allows the soil to better retain water. The result is a less frequent need for watering, thereby conserving it. Both types of mulch retain heat from the day and release it into the soil during the night, moderating soil temperature. This is extremely beneficial during the winter, as plants undergo much less stress during freeze-thaw cycles. In summer, mulch keeps soil cooler by blocking direct sunlight. Limiting sunlight also controls the growth of weeds, as they are smothered under the layers of material. Lastly, mulch provides a “finished” look to your flower beds, tree rings and gardens.

The best time to spread organic mulch is dependent on what you are hoping to achieve. When adding mulch to flower beds, it is best to wait until the soil has warmed completely in the spring as the mulch will slow soil warming due to its insulating properties. The same is true for vegetable gardens. If you are applying mulch to moderate winter temperatures, the best time to apply is in late winter after the ground has frozen but before the coldest temperatures set in. This delayed application helps prevent rodents from nesting in your mulch over the winter. When spreading mulch, be sure not to apply it directly in contact with tree trunks and plant stems so as not to promote attacks by insects and diseases. Finally, remove weeds before spreading mulch to help stop their proliferation.

Sprinkler system maintenance

Sprinkler systems should be inspected yearly to keep them running efficiently and also to prevent unnecessary water usage. The system controller should be checked at the beginning of spring, before running the system for the first time that year. Open the box and check batteries, wiring, clocks and the irrigation cycle that is set. This is the time to make any necessary repairs, replacements and resets needed. Once you have inspected the controller box, you should check the sprinkler heads, valves and emitters. Before running the system for the first time, remove the last sprinkler head in each line and allow water to run for a few minutes to flush out any debris and dirt. Then replace the sprinkler head and run one valve at a time. For each valve, check position and spray pattern. Look for heads that are clogged, misaligned, tilted or buried which prevents efficient application of the water. Look for leaks and misting which would indicate high water pressure problems. Lastly, if your sprinkler has filter screens, check to see if they need to be cleaned or replaced. When making any adjustments, the goal is to have the water be applied as evenly as possible. This ensures the most efficient use of the water.

Steps for winterization are simple: turn the water supply to the system off at the main valve and set the system to “off.” Turn on each valve to release any pressure built up along the pipes and drain any water in the pipes to prevent freezing damage. If your system does not have drain valves, you will need to blow out the system using compressed air, a practice best performed by professionals. By following these steps for sprinkler system maintenance, you will protect your system for years to come and create the most efficient irrigation system possible.

Pruning

Pruning is the act of removing or reducing certain plant parts that are not required, are no longer effective or are of no use to the plant. Proper pruning enhances the aesthetics of a landscape but it also serves functional purposes of training a plant, restricting growth, maintaining plant health and improving the quality of flowers, fruit, foliage or stems. Pruning, when done incorrectly, can ruin trees and landscapes so it is important that it be carried out by someone with knowledge and experience. The idea that anyone with a chainsaw can be a landscape pruner is incorrect and every year, more trees are killed or ruined from improper pruning than from pests. As with anything, the more you understand the vegetation on your property, the better you will be able to maintain it and keep it healthy for years to come.

Trees Diseased tree limbs and branches that protrude into walkways are removed for safety but selective removal of branches throughout the canopy of a tree is sometimes performed to increase light, reduce wind resistance and strengthen a tree against adverse weather conditions. The best time to prune trees without showy flowers is generally late winter or early spring, before new growth develops and when the structure of the tree is easily visible. This also maximizes healing during the growing season. Flowering trees should be pruned during the dormant season to preserve the current year’s flowers; i.e. trees that flower in spring, such as dogwood and redbud, should be pruned immediately after flowering. The exception to this is in the case of dead limbs which should be removed right away to prevent insect infestation and diseases.

Shrubs For flowering shrubs, it is important to understand how the plant grows and blooms so as not to decrease the flowering potential. Shrubs that flower in the spring do so on last season’s growth and should be pruned soon after they bloom to encourage vigorous summertime growth and plenty of flower buds the next year. Shrubs that bloom after June usually do so on growth from that same spring and should be pruned in late winter to encourage vigorous growth in the spring.

Technique Pruning cuts should always be located where general growth will occur so that the plant will form a callous over the cut. Cuts should be clean and smooth to promote rapid healing, prevent bark tearing and reduce the chance of disease transmission. Before you begin, make sure your tools are sharp so they can cut the branches cleanly, without ripping. Proper pruning cuts are made where one branch or limb attaches to another, called the node, and are made so that only branch tissue is removed. Stem tissue should always be preserved in order for the wound to seal effectively. The cut should begin just outside the branch bark ridge and angle down away from the stem, preserving the branch collar. Cutting flush with the stem of the plant injures stem tissue and can result in decay. Similarly, cutting too far away from the stem leaves a branch stub which delays wound closure. Cutting just outside the branch collar at an angle leaves your tree or shrub in the best position to heal itself and continue growing for years. (For trees needing a large branch removed it is best to consult an arborist, as a three-cut approach needs to be used to ensure the health of the tree and the safety of the person removing it.)

Shrubs should be pruned in the same manner as trees, as topping (cutting off the tops) and tipping (cutting off the tips) are harmful to the plant and will weaken and reduce its growth. By properly pruning the plants and trees on your property you will exploit their growth potential, which will provide beautiful returns for many, many years.

Lime treatments

Turf grasses need a near neutral environment in which to flourish. Sour soils, which are acidic, and sweet soils, which are alkaline, are both detrimental to grass growth. Highly acidic soils can occur from misuse of high nitrogen fertilizer, excessive amounts of organic soil conditioner such as peat moss or compost, and from dropped evergreen needles. Acidic soils are a sign that calcium and magnesium levels need replenishing and, together, these two chemicals are lime. Therefore, adding lime is an effective way to balance acidic soils and furnish plants with important nutrients. Lime is not a fertilizer product but, rather, a type of soil conditioner. Additionally, it increases bacterial activity in the soil which promotes air exchange and aerates the root zone. Lime is best applied in the fall and spring, as temperatures are cooler and moisture is more readily available. You want to be sure to test your lawn’s pH before treatment, though, as too much lime can be just as damaging as not enough. You want to test several areas of the property, as the pH may differ depending on surrounding plants and runoff from sidewalks and streets. Though not a cure-all for lawn problems, lime treatments are an essential building block for balancing and maintaining the health of your soil and turf.

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How To Start A Roasted Corn Business

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Corn roasting is a simple yet very profitable small investment business. The successful corn roasters make full time living working just the summer months.

To start a roasted corn business you will need to acquire permits and business licenses from the health department and from the state. The following is a typical checklist to start your business.

1. Decide the size and the scale of the operation.

2. Decide on the menu for your concession business.

3. Purchase your equipment and tools.

4. Register your business.

5. Apply and obtain all the required licenses and permits needed to run a food concession business.

6. Secure events and have fun running your concession stand.

Permits, Licenses, and Inspection

Every state has laws governing business licenses and permits. Most likely, you will have to register your business with the state agency, so you can do business in the state. A tax ID number, business license number, and tax registration number can be issued to your business, depending on the state in which you are operating. You should verify with the city or county that the business location is zoned for that activity. You must have commercial liability insurance, both for your business and for your vehicle and trailer.

Health Department and Food safety

As a business owner and a food worker, you will be preparing food for other people. Contact the health department of your county or state to receive a copy of a food safety guide that will help you greatly in learning more about food safety. Roasted corn is considered a less hazardous food, but if you are going to sell potatoes and turkey legs you may have to pay higher fee.

Start-up Costs of a Corn Roaster Business

Brand new corn roaster with warranty: 10,000-$12,000.

Used corn roaster: $5,000-$8,000.

Additional equipment and accessories: $1,200-$2,000.

Used van or truck: $2,000-$10,000.

Food cost for first two events: $300-$1,000.

Event sign-up fee: $800-$3,000.

Fuel, utilities, and miscellaneous: $200.

Equipment Required to Start a Corn Roasting Business

A professional corn roaster, minimum 200-500 corns per hour.

Hot plate for melting butter

Steam table for storing cooked potatoes and turkey legs.

Two 20-lb. propane tanks

Fire extinguisher

Commercial quality tent

2 tables,

Hand washing unit (portable) very easy to assemble one

Mics. Little things

Google “Corn Roasters” and search for companies that will help you get started before buying the equipment if you are strapped for cash. One of the company Texas Corn Roasters help.

How to Find Events and Festivals

There are many sources for finding festivals and events, such as your vendor friends, the local Chamber of Commerce, auto racing, fairs and festivals, flea markets, rodeos, and theme parks. The Internet is one of the greatest sources for finding events. Many good sites provide this information. Always send a professionally done proposal with your application if you want to beat the competition.

Suppliers and Producers

Suppliers and produce wholesalers are your key to success in this business. You cannot afford to buy the food from retailers, so you must find producers capable of providing you quality food at wholesale costs. Every state and big town has a local supplier who delivers food supplies to local restaurants. “Wholesale food distributor” in the Yellow Pages is a good place to start. Corn is cheap if buy from a wholesaler.

Serving food at the festival

The way you serve can also improve your business. You will need certain condiments for every item you server. For instance sale, black pepper, Cajun spice, garlic powder, lemon pepper and more.

Signage

You have probably heard the saying “flash is cash.” It is very true when it comes to the festival business. You could have the most delicious food, best prices, well-trained staff, and a festival with thousands of people. If your booth fails to attract customers,, it is probably the poor signage.

Tribal knowledge

Like many other small profitable business the roasted corn business is run by tight lipped vendors who do not share tribal knowledge. There are not any website, or sources for a newbie to find any information. The tribal knowledge could help you make extra 25K a year. There is a very helpful book “Earn an entire year’s living with corn roaster”, that covers this business with very granular level of details. It is worth buying.

If you plan on making your concession business a full time job, consider an RV that can tow your corn roaster trailer and getting on the list of concession vendors that follow a fair rout.

Accounting and numbers are also very important aspect of this business. Festival Concession business offers financial and personal freedom like no other small business does.

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Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging In Medical Therapy

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Digital technology now makes Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging available to all. There now is a completely safe test that can aid in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring with absolutely no risk or radiation exposure.

DITI, or digital infrared thermal imaging, is a noninvasive diagnostic test that allows a health practitioner to see and measure changes in skin surface temperature. An infrared scanning camera translates infrared radiation emitted from the skin surface and records them on a color monitor. This visual image graphically maps the body temperature and is referred to as a thermogram. The spectrum of colors indicates an increase or decrease in the amount of infrared radiation being emitted from the body surface. In healthy people, there is a symmetrical skin pattern which is consistent and reproducible for any individual.

DITI is highly sensitive and can therefore be used clinically to detect disease in the vascular, muscular, neural and skeletal systems. Medical DITI has been used extensively in human medicine in the United States, Europe and Asia for the past 20 years. Until now, bulky equipment has hindered its diagnostic and economic feasibility. Now, PC-based infrared technology designed specifically for clinical application has changed all this.

Clinical uses for DITI include, defining the extent of a lesion of which a diagnosis has previously been made (for example, vascular disease); localizing an abnormal area not previously identified, so further diagnostic tests can be performed (as in Irritable Bowel Syndrome); detecting early lesions before they are clinically evident (as in breast cancer or other breast diseases); and monitoring the healing process before a patient returns to work or training (as in workman’s compensation claims).

Medical DITI is filling the gap in clinical diagnosis; X-ray, Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), are tests of anatomy or structure. DITI is unique in its capability to show physiological or functional changes and metabolic processes. It has also proven to be a very useful complementary procedure to other diagnostic procedures.

Unlike most diagnostic modalities DITI is non invasive. It is a very sensitive and reliable means of graphically mapping and displaying skin surface temperature. With DITI you can diagnosis, evaluate, monitor and document a large number of injuries and conditions, including soft tissue injuries and sensory/autonomic nerve fiber dysfunction. Medical DITI can offer considerable financial savings by avoiding the need for more expensive investigation for many patients. Medical DITI can graphically display the biased feeling of pain by accurately displaying the changes in skin surface temperature. Disease states commonly associated with pain include Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy or RSD, Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid arthritis.

Medical DITI can show a combined effect of the autonomic nervous system and the vascular system, down to capillary dysfunctions. The effects of these changes reveal an asymmetry in temperature distribution on the surface of the body. DITI is a monitor of thermal abnormalities present in a number of diseases and physical injuries. It is used as an aid for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as therapy follow up and rehabilitation monitoring, within clinical fields that include rheumatology, neurology, physiotherapy, sports medicine, oncology, pediatrics, orthopedics and many others.

Results obtained with medical DITI systems are totally objective and show excellent correlation with other diagnostic tests.

Thermographic screening is not covered by most insurance companies but is surprisingly affordable for most people. For more information or to find a certified clinic in your area, go to www.proactivehealthonline.com [http://www.proactivehealthonline.com].

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Hooray for the Federal Rules of Evidence!

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The Federal Rules of Evidence used in the United States federal courts and adopted by many states and the military are codification of many years of common law evidence rules. The development of the modern rules of evidence has been a process of nothing more than putting old wine into new bottles. If one can understand common law notions of evidence the Federal Rules will be easy to understand.

The purpose of the Federal Rules of Evidence is to secure fairness in administration of trials; eliminate unjustifiable expense and delay; and to promote the growth and development of the law of evidence in order that truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined. As a former trial lawyer and current law school professor who teaches the rules of evidence to students, I view the Federal Rules of Evidence, adopted by Congress in 1975 as a master work of putting the old common law wine into a new bottle. I have used the Federal Rules of Evidence throughout my career.

This article is not about any specific common law rule or rules that may have been put into the new bottle known as the Federal Rule of Evidence. Instead, I write this to show how influential and widespread has been the use of the rules. Forty-four states, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the military have all adopted all or parts of the Federal Rules for use in their court systems. This is a very good trend because the evidence rules of most states will be roughly the same throughout the United States.

The following paragraphs provide fundamental information about the jurisdictions that have adopted evidence rules patterned on the Federal Rules. They include information concerning the date on which the local rules became effective and when amended, if at all:

ALABAMA. Adopted by the Alabama Supreme Court effective January 1, 1996. No amendments.

ALASKA. Adopted by the Alaska Supreme Court effective August 1, 1979. Last amended October 15, 2003.

ARIZONA. Adopted by the Arizona Supreme Court effective September 1, 1977. Last amended June 1, 2004.

ARKANSAS. Adopted by the Arkansas Supreme Court effective October 13, 1986. Latest amendment on January 22, 1998.

COLORADO. Adopted by the Colorado Supreme Court Effective January 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

CONNECTICUT. Adopted by the judges of the Connecticut Superior Court effective January 1, 2000. No amendments.

DELAWARE. Adopted by the Delaware Supreme Court effective February 1, 1980. Latest amendment December 10, 2001.

FLORIDA. The Florida Evidence Code was enacted by the Florida Legislature effective July 1, 1979. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

GEORGIA. Governor Nathan Deal signed a House bill which made the Georgia rules effective January 1, 2013. No amendments.

GUAM. Adopted by the Guam Judicial Council effective November 16, 1979. Latest amendment July 18, 2003.

HAWAII. Enacted by the Hawaii Legislature effective January 1, 1981. No amendments.

IDAHO. Adopted by the Idaho Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. No amendments.

ILLINOIS. Adopted by the Illinois Supreme Court effective January 1, 2011. No amendments.

INDIANA. Adopted by the Indiana Supreme Court effective January 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

IOWA. Adopted by the Iowa Supreme Court effective July 1, 1983. Latest amendment February 15, 2002.

KENTUCKY. Enacted by the Kentucky Legislature effective July 1, 1992. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

LOUISIANA. Enacted by the Louisiana Legislature effective January 1, 1989. Latest amendment August 15, 2003.

MAINE. Adopted by the Maine Supreme Judicial Court effective February 2, 1976. Latest amendment July 1, 2002.

MARYLAND. Adopted by the Maryland Court of Appeals effective July 1, 1994. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MICHIGAN. Adopted by the Michigan Supreme Court effective March 1, 1978. Latest amendment January 1, 2004.

MINNESOTA. Adopted by the Minnesota Supreme Court effective April 1, 1977. Latest amendment January 1, 1990.

MISSISSIPPI. Adopted by the Mississippi Supreme Court effective January 1, 1986. Latest amendment May 27, 2004.

MONTANA. Adopted by the Montana Supreme Court effective July 1, 1977. Latest amendment October 18, 1990.

NEBRASKA. Enacted by the Nebraska Legislature effective December 31, 1975. Latest amendment July 13, 2000.

NEVADA. Enacted by the Nevada Legislature effective July 1, 2004. No amendments.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Adopted by the New Hampshire Supreme Court effective July 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 2003.

NEW JERSEY. Adopted by the New Jersey Supreme Court and the New Jersey Legislature through a joint procedure effective July 1, 1993. Latest amendment July 1, 1993.

NEW MEXICO. Adopted by the New Mexico Supreme Court effective July 1, 1973. The latest amendment became effective February 1, 2003.

NORTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the North Carolina Legislature effective July 1, 1984. Latest amendment October 1, 2003.

NORTH DAKOTA. Adopted by the North Dakota Supreme Court effective February 15, 1977. Latest amendment March 1, 2001.

OHIO. Adopted by the Ohio Supreme Court effective July 1, 1980. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

OKLAHOMA. Enacted by the Oklahoma Legislature effective October 1, 1978. Latest amendment November 1, 2003.

OREGON. Enacted by the Oregon Legislature effective January 1, 1982. Latest amendment July 3, 2003.

PENNSYLVANIA. Adopted by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court effective October 1, 1998. Latest amendment January 1, 2002.

PUERTO RICO. Enacted by the Puerto Rico Legislature effective October 1, 1979. Latest amendment August 30, 1999.

RHODE ISLAND. Adopted by the Rhode Island Supreme Court effective October 1, 1987. No amendments.

SOUTH CAROLINA. Enacted by the South Carolina Legislature effective September 3, 1995. No amendments.

SOUTH DAKOTA. Enacted by the South Dakota Legislature effective July 1, 1978. No amendments.

TENNESSEE. Adopted by the Tennessee Supreme Court effective January 1, 1990. Latest amendment July 1, 2003.

TEXAS. Adopted by the Texas Supreme Court effective March 1, 1998. No amendments.

UTAH. Adopted by the Utah Supreme Court effective September 1, 1983. Latest amendment November 1, 2004.

VERMONT. Adopted by the Vermont Supreme Court effective April 1, 1983. Latest amendment May 27, 2003.

WASHINGTON. Adopted by the Washington Supreme Court effective April 2, 1979. Latest amendment September 1, 2003.

WEST VIRGINIA. Adopted by the West Virginia Supreme Court effective February 1, 1985. Latest amendment January 1, 1995.

WISCONSIN. Adopted by the Wisconsin Supreme Court effective January 1, 1974. Latest amendment March 30, 2004.

WYOMING. Adopted by the Wyoming Supreme Court effective January 1, 1978. Latest amendment February 28, 1995.

THE MILITARY. The Military Rules of Evidence were adopted by Executive order No. 12,198 March 12, 1980. Latest amendment by Executive Order No. 13,262 April 11, 2002.

THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS. No date of adoption found.

What an impressive list of adoptions and enactments patterned after the Federal Rules of Evidence! Several jurisdictions have not adopted rules of evidence based on the Federal Rules of Evidence. They are: California, the District of Columbia, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York and Virginia.

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