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Globalisation – Challenges And Opportunities

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Globalisation has become the need of the day for every country of the world – be it small or big, developed or developing nation, Globalisation, which started as back as 1980, has spurred due to technological advancement in the areas of transport and communication and by the selection of big developing nations to bring necessary improvement in investment climate and to open up to international trade and investment. The most encouraging aspect is that for the first time, poor nations are trying hard with desire and commitment to harness the potential and opportunities of their huge labour to break into world markets for manufactured products and services. Since the initiation of globalisation, manufactures have witnessed a rise from less than 25 percent to 80 percent. The major contribution to this increase is made out by Brazil, China, Hungry, India and Mexico.


24 developing nations, which cover 3 billion people, have doubled their ratio of trade to income over the last two decades. Countries that undertook globalisation at a faster rate have increased their per capita income from 1 percent in the decade of 60s to 3 percent in the decade of 70s, 4 percent in the decade of 80s, and 5 percent in the decade of 90s.

According to the World Bank, in the past decade, the number of the poor in the world (excluding China) rose by more than 100 million. Another study found that during 1990-98, 36 countries had average annual growth of 2.3 percent, 34 countries had a growth of 1.9 percent and 39 countries had no growth with 15 countries experiencing falling living standards.

The World Bank holds the view that the impact of growth on poverty has varied according to the pattern of investment. For example, in India, a given growth rate has cut poverty in some states by four to five times as much as in others. Those states which invested heavily in education and health saw a much higher rate of reduction in poverty. This point of view has been adopted by almost all donors for the disbursement of their assistance to developing countries.

The free trade and investment policies continue to be under attack from many quarters, in that the realities of the developing world are not taken into account. Under attack also are the blatant hypocrisy and double standards that govern the behaviour of rich countries towards the poor countries.

The developing world has not received a fair share of benefits because the rich countries have not kept their part of the agreement reached at the Uruguay Round, under which they had pledged to reduce subsidies to their agriculture by 36 percent in return for the lowering of tariffs on agricultural imports by the developing countries. While the developing countries reduced their tariffs by 50 percent, the rich countries subsidies remained unchanged.

Similarly, the industrial countries had agreed to phase out the protectionist Multi-Fibre Agreement by 2005, But 30 percent of textiles and clothing skills face significant restrictions even in 2004. The average tariff on these goods is 11 percent, which is three times as high as on other industrial goods. South Asia alone loses $2 billion a year due to these tariffs.

Agriculture and textiles together account for 70 percent of the poor world’s exports. Developing countries lose nearly $100 billion a year due to rich countries’ export subsidies and trade barriers. In rich countries, tariffs on goods from poor countries are four times higher than on goods from rich countries. If poor countries’ goods get free access to rich country markets, and if the later remove all subsidies, it would add $1.5 billion by 2015 to poor countries’ income, and lift 300 million people from the rank of the poor.


It is generally said that India has failed in globalising its economy and therefore, real fruits of globalisation have not been reaped out by the common man. Development economists of India put two arguments in this respect. First, inability of Indian economy to contain fiscal deficit is resulting into stagnation of the country’s economy. Second, failure to reform the structure of Indian economy so that sustainable growth is ensured in the future. These issues have far reaching effect on the globalisation of Indian economy. There are two emerging parameters on the basis of which failure could be judged. First, a relatively small change in the components of exports away from agricultural to sophisticated manufactures. Second, decrease in the inflow of FDI.

During the year 1990-91 i.e. pre-liberalisation, agriculture had contributed 24 percent in India’s total exports. The share of sophisticated manufactures was 21.8 percent and remaining share i.e. 54.2 percent was of light manufactures. On the other side of it, in the year 1999-2000, the relative share of agriculture was 17 percent ( a decline of 7 percent). The relative share of sophisticated manufactures stood at 29.8 percent (a rise of 7 percent). The relative share of light manufactures remained at 54.2 percent. This means during a span of ten years there was only 7 percent increase in sophisticated manufactures and from that it could be concluded there has been no appreciable degree of globalisation in Indian economy.

Added to this, if these trends are compared with economic transformation in East Asia during the period under review, India is nowhere and it proves to be a ‘glimmer’. The major factor attributed to these trends is insignificant role played by foreign and joint ventures in the promotion of India’s exports during the period under reference.

Foreign direct investment (FDI), one of the most vital instruments for globalising Indian economy, is partially responsible for the failure of globalisation in India. This is because FDI inflows to India never exceeded from a level of US$3.3 billion as against a minimum need of at least US$ 10 billion annually. India is being considered a nation inveterately hostile to FDI to India in comparison to total FDI approved. From the year 1991 to 2001 only 21.7 percent has been actual inflow to India. This is due to lack of proper initiation and implementation of ‘second generation’ reforms. These reforms relate to factor market and administrative system under which firms have to work.

Indian economy has also failed to link to global economy. It is essential on the part of Indian economy to attract investment not only to strategic industries but also to simple industries. China did a right thing by inviting investment in simple industries.

The other viewpoint in regard to globalisation of Indian economy is that Indian economy globalisation is a ‘mixed blessing’. A better alternative is not to opt out of the process of globalisation, but to come out and evolve an appropriate framework to have maximum benefits from the existing international trade and investment scenario. In this regard, it has become imperative to understand the gains and losses on one hand and to study the benefits and dangers on the other hand.

There is an urgent need to cooperate with other developing nations to bring the desired change in the existing international trade environment. Simultaneously, India must identify and strengthen its comparative advantages. This would result into spirit of meeting the challenges of globalisation. India has miles to go to reap out the benefits of globalisation for all its inhabitants. Globalisation of Indian economy must be based on the premise of equality of opportunities for all.


It is true that the present -day world does not give us any option except to join the process of globalisation, we should along with other developing countries, find ways and means of devising policies and programmers which really help the poor nations and the poor among these nations. We should fight for a more just and equitable world order and develop the strength and unity to resist imposition of unequal treaties and discriminatory trade policies. India signed the WTO accord but the Indian industry as well as trade circles are not fully aware even today of the commitments made by the country.

In fact, the problem with globalisation is that a few may benefit and majority may be worse off. As such, it is necessary that government takes an active part in managing and tackling it. In recent times, an important aspect of globalisation has been outsourcing of jobs, particularly hi-tech jobs, by developed countries like America to developing countries like India. This has been favourable to America as it can now specialise in areas of competitive advantage involving skilled labour and advanced technology. It is, however, argued that today America is producing lesser number of engineers than, say, India or China even as they may e to some disadvantage either because of poor training or such other factors. But then, this disadvantage is more than offset by the wage differentials, causing unemployment amongst American engineers.

It is thus that America has to grapple with the challenges of adjusting to globalisation and at the same time, be more sensitive to the plight of developing countries. No wonder, globalisation can also boomerang, limiting the growth process in developed countries in case workers are unemployed or their living condition become worse off because of outsourcing.

What is more, the main driving forces of present-day globalisation are the market and the return on investment. Only countries with high growth and good prospects or attractive returns have been drawn within the fold of global trade and investment flows. Developing countries attract only 30 percent of global investment flows, but just 20 countries in the developing world attract over 85 percent of total foreign direct investment flows and 94 percent of portfolio investment. Globalisation has thus eluded the rest of the developing countries inspite of drastic liberalisation of their economic policies.

It can also be said that as a result of globalisation, there has been large concentration of activities within certain geographical confines like those of the Asia pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) and the European Union (EU) and this has widened the disparity between the rich and the poor countries. The income-gap between the top 20 percent of the world’s population in the highest-income countries and bottom 20 percent of world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the latter accounts for only one percent. And there is no guarantee that more liberalisation by the developing countries will help to narrow this gap.

As part of trade reforms, the tariff and non-tariff barriers have been lowered gradually. India’s agreement with the WTO norms has resulted in the country removing the quantitative restrictions on various items and from April 2003 free import of various items has been allowed.

No doubt, an impression has been gaining ground that many an economic ill are due to globalisation. Also, it is felt that increased cross-border trade will adversely affect Indian economy. Moreover, Indian companies fear that they are going to be easy targets for takeover by foreign companies. There may be an element of truth in these perceptions but not all of them may be real.

It is also true that liberalisation of trade and investments increased capital flows and the resultant competition also leads to higher economic growth. Evidence suggests that open economies have prospered better than those economies which have adopted protective practices, as in the case of many of the South East Asian economies.

Therefore, India should rise to avail itself of the opportunities of globalisation. Indian business cannot perpetually live behind protective barriers. It is necessary to push Indian companies into global competition and break their lethargy. To withdraw from globalisation would be an opportunity lost.

No wonder then, however, a first class infrastructure network has to be provided for Indian industry and business so that they become effectively competitive in the global market. Along with that, some law pertaining to labour and production need to be changed while some new have to be introduced keeping in view the global standards that need to be achieved. Surely, by leaving these and other problems unattended, it cannot be expected that Indian industry and business will be able to rise to meet the global challenges.

Of no less concern is the fact that huge global corporations enjoy sufficient financial cloud to erode the regulatory powers of nations and ride roughshod over the rights of individuals to determine their future. Whereas the post-colonialism had held out the promise of an equlitarian world order and globalisation was supposed to deliver economic equality among nations, the reality is to the contrary. In the post-globalisation world in which we live today, inequality is on the increase.

It is said globalisation’s driving idea is free market capitalism. Like the cold war, globalisation also has its own set of economic rules which revolve around opening deregulation and privatisation of economic activities. In the era of globalisation, we are all connected as we reach for the internet but nobody is totally in charge. If the defining perspective of cold war was division, it was integration for globalisation. Once a country makes the leap into the system of globalisation, its elites try to locate themselves in a global context.

The financial sector reforms have been particularly significant and banks are now reorienting their strategy to compete with international players. The insurance sector has been opened up only recently and the forces of competition are already coming into play. Industrial licensing has been more or less abolished and the role of private capital has been enhanced in various sectors.

Also, in India’s corporate sector some kind of discontinuity is visible as global competition is knocking at their doors. Foreign investments are sometimes looked upon with suspicion and yet they seem to be crucial for modernisation. Now time has come when we should aim at making Indian companies as global companies with the vast pool of trained manpower and skills available in the country. The objective should be to build Indian brands and products which are recognised through out the world.

Nevertheless, all this calls for restructuring on a scale, which has been untried till now in so far as the economy and corporate sector are concerned. The level of performance would need not be sustained by constant innovation, cost reduction and better quality. It has to be recognised that as a consequence of globalistion, free roaming across the global economy by multinationals has encouraged many developing nations to liberalize at great speed. Therefore, mergers and acquisitions have eroded competition and developed monopolistic tendencies, vitiating all fruitful results of a global environment.


Understanding the current status of globalisation is necessary for setting the course for the future. The main point here is that globalisation is still an evolving concept, and up to now it has been shaped largely by the rich and the powerful countries to assert their advantages in the fields of manufacturing, services and finance. The developing countries have not been able to secure as much benefit from their primary strengths in agriculture and labour as they should have. Although India took the initiative to echo its concern in the Cancun agenda, this subject is yet to again its rightful attention.

It is to be noted that developing countries are not homogeneous. Each country has its own unique strengths, weaknesses and concerns, and each needs to frame its policies accordingly. For India to secure its due share of gains from the globalisation process, it needs to capitalise on its strengths.

India is the second largest country and the largest democracy in the world. Its record on freedom of speech, association and worship is quite impressive. It has well-developed legal and financial institutions and infrastructure, and a large industrial and sophisticated scientific base. Its higher education system is large and capable of achieving excellence.

The most important strength of India is its well-trained but surplus man power which is English-speaking and Western-oriented. It also has a vast surplus of low-skill and unskilled manpower. India’s gain could be enormous if it were allowed to export this manpower freely. There would also be other significant economic, political and social gains.

1. International trade tends to grow between manpower sending and receiving countries.

2. When the number of immigrants from a country/region becomes noticeably large and/or economically powerful, they tend to become a political force in their new country.

3. Out sourcing tends to encourage people to obtain education and learn about other countries. As a result, significant outsourcing can become a powerful force for the spread of education.


During 1990 and 2003 the volume of world trade has increased and the high and middle income countries have managed to increase their share in world trade. This has happened mainly because of opening up of economies and globalisation. Moreover, the middle income countries have invited more Foreign Direct Investment during the period. In contrast with this, the per capita GDP of the low income countries has marginally increased. The economic inequality has widened between different income groups. Therefore one may be tempted to conclude that the globalisation has not trickled down to the low income countries. In other words globalisation has been confined to developed countries and developing countries have been able to participate in the process.

However, globalisation should not be accused for losing share of the low income countries. These countries suffer from internal problems like rapid rise in population, infrastructure bottle necks, weak financial markets and so on. More access to globalisation and its benefits demand that developing countries first put in place a conducive environment necessary to ensure higher returns and larger markets for foreign investors. To get a share of global capital, technology and output, developing countries have to upgrade their social and economic institutions through administrative, legislative and legal reforms.

Globalisation should not be thought of as a solution to everything. It merely provides opportunities. Those who take advantage, they flourish and those who do not they sink. Globalisation is not supposed to produce equality of outcome but it produces equality of opportunity for those with right mindset. Hence the developing countries have to focus on economic restructuring building market supporting institutions and creating efficient regulatory mechanisms.

Left to themselves the low income countries cannot travel long. What in fact needed is the international assistance and a support mechanism so as to facilitate their participation in the process of globalisation. The challenge of the hour is to make globalisation work towards global prosperity through disaggregate development. The critically necessity in this context are the collective and cooperative actions which should be realized by all countries of the world and particularly the developed ones.

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Benefits of Bing and Yahoo Pay Per Click

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With today’s very competitive online marketing, it is important that a business creates a strong marketing effort to build qualified traffic to their website. Pay per click marketing is one great way of advertising on the Internet. It can bring a steady flow of traffic that can result to potential leads and new sales. Over the years, it has been proven profitable, especially if the business is targeting a segment of audience. Adding Bing and Yahoo to your Google pay per click marketing is worth considering.

Pay per click campaign is based on keyword selection specifically designed to revolve around search terms that are relevant for the site. They are normally the ads that show up at the top and right corner of a search page. Generally, search engines do not charge when displaying these ads, but when a visitor clicks on the ad or the link which lands back to the business’ site, only then, is the advertiser charged.

All throughout the pay per click marketing world, Google is leading all other search engines with their 67% market share. However, what most advertisers do not realize is that with the growing amount of traffic on Google, also comes a number of competitors, still making it hard to hit on search result targets.

So, what is the alternative? Over the last couple of years, Bing and Yahoo pay per click have emerged as Google’s number one competitor. Although, Yahoo’s market share only comes up to 11.6% and Bing’s to 16.7%. When combined, they total of over 30% and this can still make a dent with Google’s share. And for any advertisers who overlooks these numbers could be ignoring a large population of potential customers.

Other advantages of Bing and Yahoo pay per click, include:

  • Pay per click with Bing and Yahoo does not cost as much as with Google. – Many advertisers say that taking Google as their host for paid search is a complete campaign suicide, mainly because of their high costs. Relevant keywords being bid with Bing and Yahoo do not cost as much as $2 to $5 per click as with Google. For instance, one of the most expensive keywords in Google includes “insurance,” “loans,” “mortgage,” “trading,” which usually ranges from $30 to $50 per click. So, if you run a business about loans and need to bid on “house loans” keyword, a business can pay as much as $3500 a month for that particular keyword alone with Google. However, Bing and Yahoo give much more reasonable prices. They have the lowest cost per click, even with the most expensive keywords in AdWords that normally ranges from $0.10 to $2, but still lands in the first pages. More so, they offer long-tail keywords of four or more words, but still at a very reasonable price bid.
  • Bing and Yahoo have demographic advantages. – Although recently, Bing removed their feature to target ads by gender and age as they say they improve it to become more accurate. Bing and Yahoo still have a statistical advantage because 58% of their users are women, and their audiences are from an age group of 35-45 and 55-64, which are definite age groups that can afford to buy as much in the Internet. Furthermore, this is probably because Bing is owned by Microsoft, and they normally put default web browsers that come with the computer a user has bought, not unless of course, if they are tech savvy and knows how to change web search engines in their computers.
  • Bing and Yahoo allow their users to import campaigns from Google – most advertisers admit that they are always having a hard time running separate campaigns in Google, and with Bing and Yahoo as they do their best to update each. Now, AdCenter with Bing and Yahoo allows users to import their campaign from AdWords with Google, without even exporting a single file. This is perfect for advertisers who do not want to spend time editing, exporting, and re-uploading spreadsheets from one account to another.
  • Bing and Yahoo pay per click does not run on Internet Explorer alone – Recently, many adCenter users of Bing and Yahoo requested to expand their service outside Internet Explorer. Now, pay per click may also be run through Mac and Chrome users, including all other web browsers.
  • Bing and Yahoo for mobile – paid search through Bing and Yahoo is made easy as they launched Bing on mobile devices through WAP or GPRS connections. Not only will users enjoy “Find My Location,” applications, as well as driving directions and maps, but they will also be able to search for new information through their smart phones, and this means that pay per click campaigns will reach a much wider audience.
  • Bing and Yahoo have representatives to talk to for free, 24/7. – Microsoft has dedicated customer representatives who are specifically assigned to help Bing and Yahoo AdCenter users, even those that are starting with their Bing and Yahoo ads. They have a range of topics that they can help with, from starting up, to billing, managing campaigns, editorial questions, and campaign reports. In fact, they are even open to suggestions and comments, which is the main reason why Microsoft brought about the freedom for users to use their Bing pay per click campaign on other web browsers. More so, these representatives are always active in social media, so it could be easy to reach them in Twitter or Facebook.
  • Cross-Platform Analytic Reports – With Bing and Yahoo’s adCenter report, it becomes easy for users to compare keyword performance for their pay per click campaign with other search engines, so that they can make the most of their budget.
  • Potentially Better Return of Investments – any pay per click campaign is useless if it does not get positive results. Numerous advertisers have vouched that adCenter pay per click campaigns through Bing and Yahoo drove more traffic than keywords run with AdWords of Google, which significantly gives a better return on investment.

Even with the 67% market share of Google, if combined with costly prices for their pay per click campaign, and with their other seemingly flaws, Bing and Yahoo still strike as a better alternative to Google, and as they make a dent to Google’s ad campaign, soon more and more advertisers will realize the benefits and power of what Bing and Yahoo can offer with the increase of their sales and rapid growth of their business.

Additional Resources

  • Pay Per Click on Bing
  • Pay Per Click on Google
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Top Three Attributes of the Car Accident Lawyer You Should Retain

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Car accidents, including motorcycle and truck accidents, are serious business. They happen every day and, even if you’re the safest driver in the world, they can still happen to you. If you suffer serious injuries from a car, motorcycle, or truck accident, it is vital that you first speak to a car accident lawyer before you reach any settlement with the insurance company, which would like nothing more than to pay you the least amount possible. However, choosing the right lawyer is not as simple as the decision to consult with one. Here are the top three attributes that you should look for in a prospective car accident lawyer to retain.


One of the most critical attributes to look for in a prospective auto injury lawyer is whether he or she actually specializes in car, motorcycle, and truck accident law. As an injured accident victim, you will be relying on lawyer you retain to maximize your recovery from the insurance company. Do yourself a big favor and make sure you retain a lawyer who specializes exclusively in representing auto accident victims.

There are many attorneys in each state practicing personal injury law. However, personal injury law can cover a wide-range of injuries. You don’t want a personal injury lawyer that handles a wide variety of personal injury lawsuits. You want a lawyer that specializes exclusively in car, motorcycle and truck accident law; someone who day-to-day represents auto accident victims.

For example, if needed heart sugary, would you want a general surgeon operating on you or a heart surgeon? Retain a lawyer specializing in representing auto accident victims. This can make a significant difference in how much you recover from the insurance company. You do not have to worry about expert auto lawyers being too expensive for you, because they generally do not charge hourly fees but, rather, a contingency fee.


The second most critical attribute to look for in a prospective car injury lawyer is his or her experience level. It’s not just a matter of being an experienced lawyer, you want an attorney who is very experienced in representing auto accident injury victims.

Following a car accident, the injuries you sustain may change your life drastically. Now is not the time to put your life and the way you are able to lead it in the hands of a rookie. Try to find a car accident attorney with at least five years of experience, ideally someone with experience representing car accident victims against the same insurance company. Consult with a seasoned lawyer who has many years of experience going up against the insurance companies.

However, it’s not just a matter of experience in car accident law. You want an attorney with years of trial experience, because your case may require going to trial.


Finally, when considering a prospective car accident lawyer, you want to make sure he or she has been successful in the past and in the present. There is no point selecting a specialized lawyer with years of experience if he or she has not been successful against the auto insurance companies. It should not be difficult finding out how successful your prospective car lawyer is in representing auto accident injury victims. Just ask! If he or she has a proven track record of success, they will tell you and give you examples. Ideally, they will have been successful for past clients with similar injuries that you have sustained in the car accident.

In the end, you want a car accident lawyer who is an expert, experienced, and successful with respect to auto accident law in your state. Do not settle for anything less. There is absolutely no reason why you would need to.

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Sales Force Automation Software: Business Need

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Sales Force Automation Software was a major challenge before some decades that is successfully superseded by our techno-giants. The entire business community was longing for a system that could control; and monitor the track of sales and marketing activities. Things were getting tougher for an executive or an entrepreneur to manually handle the entire sales process and organizational activities. Moreover, the interaction with the clients was worsened. The answer to all those worries came in the form of this Software.

Streamlines Sales tasks

Sales Force Automation Software basically is another name for Customer Relationship Management Software. Its prime motto is to provide one-to-one interaction of organization executives with their customers. The primitive form of this Software was just for maintaining contacts. But rapid advancement of technology and rigorous endeavors from the technocrats has made it capable of overpowering the entire sales stage.

Online Sales Software handles all the sales tasks easily and gives you accurate sales reports on time. It is easy to use software which fulfills all the needs of the organization. It saves the precious time of the sales team and sales managers.

Web Based Technology

Online CRM Software encompasses cloud computing technology to perform the sales force automation. From Cloud Computing, we basically mean data to be stored in servers that are remotely located and are connected through network. Cloud Computing uses the SaaS module to provide this technology. SaaS stands for Software-As-A-Service. That means, the software needs not to be installed at the client’s computer. It is hosted from a remote server and its complete package can be accessed from there itself.

This Software has sorted out most of the problems faced by the entrepreneurs handling small to big organizations. Its easy usability, portability and anywhere operable flexibility have proved its worth over the previously launched hosted application.

Some Benefits of Online CRM Software over the premise hosted software are:

1) Premise hosted need to be installed to a computer. Thus it gets system specific. You can’t avail the software once you change the software. It can be used anywhere and at anytime, you can access the software any time you required.

2) Online CRM Softwares are cost effective. Whereas premise hosted software are much costlier than that.

3) There is a lot of extra IT infrastructure needed to successfully run premise hosted application. Whereas online application provide all kinds of functional service on a remote access basis.

4) The entire data load in case of premise hosted is upon your system. So, any time, there are chances of data crash and hardware failure. While in case of cloud computing, entire data load is upon the server. So your system is always safe from the impending dangers.

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Addition To The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006 Proposed By HSE

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It was only in 1983 that Asbestos (Licencing) Regulations introduced the requirement for companies or individuals working with asbestos coating or asbestos insulation products to possess a Health and Safety Executive (HSE) licence.

Another twenty years elapsed before the 2003 Regulations instructed that the relevant authority must be notified of the details to any asbestos work which required a license, at least 14 days prior to the commencement of work. The Control of Asbestos Regulations, 2006 unified all previous prohibition and licencing regulations into one comprehensive reference document.

Following correspondence with the European Commission, the HSE is presently in consultation on plans to once again modify aspects of the 2006 Regulations. The aim is to more accurately reflect current levels of health risk concerns to companies and organisations who come into working contact with chrysotile white asbestos, estimated to be still present in a half a million premises around the UK.

Despite the continuing asbestos awareness campaigns of HSE, inconsistency of working knowledge and methods by construction firms and premises owners to the necessary actions required when first inspecting site building, encountering, containing and disposing of asbestos material.

Despite being banned from the 1980s onwards, white asbestos continued to be used in insulating materials such as wall board, wall coatings and cement products found in a wide variety of commercial and domestic building applications.

Currently, there are two existing categories of asbestos work:

1. Licensed asbestos work

2. Non-Licensed asbestos work

Currently, non-licensed work is exempt from requirements to:

– Notify work with asbestos to the relevant enforcing authority

– Carry out medical (respiratory) examinations

– Maintain registers of work (health records)

– Hold an asbestos licence

– Have arrangements to deal with accidents, incidents and emergencies

– Designate asbestos areas

While the licensed asbestos work category remains unchanged, HSE propose to modify non-licensed asbestos work by introducing additional measures for short duration exposure to ‘friable’ ( fragile and disintegrating) or ‘damaged or degraded’ asbestos. A new category of asbestos work is to be introduced in addition to the two existing categories.

3. Notifiable Non-Licensed Work (NNLW).

Work under this new category will be exempt from requirements to:

– Hold an asbestos licence.

– Have arrangements for accidents, incidents and emergencies.

– Designate asbestos areas.

However, work under the new category will require employers to:

– Notify their work with asbestos to the “relevant enforcing authority”.

– Carry out medical (respiratory) examinations.

– Maintain registers of work (health records).

HSE propose that requirements for notifying work with asbestos, health records and medical surveillance will not apply where:

a) Exposure of employees to asbestos is sporadic and of low intensity.

b) It is clear from the risk assessment that the exposure of any employee to asbestos will not exceed the control limitwhere the work involves –

(i) Short, non-continuous maintenance activities in which only non-friable materials are handled.

(ii) Removal without deterioration of non-degraded materials in which the asbestos fibres are firmly bonded in a matrix.

(iii) Encapsulation/sealing of asbestos-containing materials which are in good condition.

(iv) Air monitoring/control, and the collection /analysis of samples to confirm whether a material contains asbestos.

Existing regulations do not specifically require the asbestos to be ‘non-friable’ or ‘non-degraded’ and the European Commission also seems to require a respiratory examination of industry personnel every three years due to uncertainty of not will knowing if there has been an encounter with asbestos in ‘notifiable’ situations.

Throughout the twentieth century and right up until the present day, dangers of asbestos exposure were continually ignored by building trade personnel or building owners. As a result, joiners, plasterers, plumbers, electricians and other operatives would be constantly at fatal risk of inhaling deadly asbestos fibre dust, which remains permanently embedded within the linings of the lungs and would develop into asbestosis disease or the malignant incurable cancer, mesothelioma.

The first asbestosis symptoms would not appear until some 15 to 50 years later, often at an advanced stage when prognosis would be between 4 to 18 months.

In the UK, the number of deaths from mesothelioma has risen to 2, 250 in 2008 and over 2,000 diagnosed cases are recorded each year.

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Outsourcing Your Plastic Surgery Marketing

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As a plastic surgeon you set yourself apart from other doctors. Every day you prove your expertise and skill by sculpting and shaping clients into the people they want to be. That is why it is a good idea for you to do what you do best and let marketing experts do what they do best. Hire a professional plastic surgery marketing team and let them increase your client base.

What an SEO Professional Can Do For You

An internet marketer is skilled at optimizing your website for higher search engine ranking. The whole idea behind marketing is being seen and a professional knows how to get you seen better than anyone. He has spent years creating ways to grab the attention of the consumer. Just as you have spent years perfecting your skills.

It would take you just as long to learn how to successfully market your business. You didn’t learn how to be a plastic surgeon just by watching the techniques on television or by reading a few books. You learned hands on with the guidance of a professional. A marketing expert learned in much the same way.

Don’t Try to Do Everything

When you try to do everything on your own you end up stressing out and making mistakes. A few plastic surgery marketing mistakes can cost you quite a few clients. But, if your stress causes mistakes in your practice, then you are really in trouble. You could even lose your license. Outsourcing your marketing strategies takes away all of that stress.

A marketing expert can create a social media marketing campaign, an email campaign, create online videos and a slew of other effective promotional techniques to get your name out on the internet and a high search engine ranking. An SEO expert knows how reach a targeted audience that have already shown an interest in having plastic surgery.

Another good reason for hiring a professional is that the industry is constantly evolving. Once you think you know everything about plastic surgery marketing, things change. The techniques that worked yesterday may not work today. A professional marketer stays on top these changes and changes with them.

People like getting instant answers and that is what Google is all about. They just type in what they are looking for and in an instant they see over a hundred thousands results. If your website is down near the one hundred thousand mark, no will click on your link. If you are in the top five, you will have much more success. A marketing expert can get you into that top five.

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How to Stop Being Resigned to Living With an Alcoholic

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Alcoholism is an illness that can be much harder for those living with an alcoholic than it is for the alcoholic. Those with an alcoholic parent or spouse know the hardship of constantly worrying that their loved one will drive while intoxicated, sell personal valuables in order to finance their habit or go on a binge and disappear for days.

For many living with an alcoholic means constantly worrying about paying the bills, having to clean up after their alcoholic loved one, looking out for various signs of alcoholism, dealing with abuse, and even being unable to sleep from fear of what will happen next.

Instead of allowing or becoming resigned to the situation you must fight back. This is the only way to ensure better future! Use these top 5 tips to make a positive change to your live.

1. Take an honest look at the alcoholic: Recognizing the line between social drinking and alcohol abuse is not always easy to identify. Although an individual who only drinks a few glasses during the weekend might not be considered an alcoholic, anyone who drinks to the point that it affects their regular life can be considered to be abusing alcohol.

Talk to the alcoholic parent or spouse. Sit down and ask them why they drink. Discus worrying symptoms that indicate alcoholism such as drinking to the point of blacking out, needing to drink to feel better about their life and feeling ashamed over their drinking habits.

2. Let the alcoholic accept the consequences: To get out of resignation, let the alcoholic experience the negative consequences of drinking and do not let yourself take on responsibility for their actions. When living with an alcoholic do not call in for them if they miss work, never purchase alcohol for them, do not help them to bed or cleaning up the empty bottles after they have been drinking. To stay out of debt and get them to see how bad the situation has become do not buy alcohol for them or give them money to buy more.

3. Accept the reality: To change your life with an alcoholic parent or spouse, you need to accept the reality. Do not live in denial or make excuses for the signs of alcoholism being displayed. You should also not feel guilty or try to threaten or bribe them into giving up alcohol. Instead, deal with your own emotions, because this is the only thing you have power to control.

4. Do not engage: When living with an alcoholic, you are likely to notice that when heavily drinking they may start arguments, throw items around, or become verbally abusive. Do not allow yourself to be drawn into playing mind games or involved in fights! Make sure your spouse experiences being loved by you but detach yourself from the situation. If needed, leave the house for a few hours or go out with friends. By not accepting the outburst and bad behaviours they will see even faster that they need help.

5. Get Support: The road to recovery will not happen in just a few weeks or months. For some the process can take years! To get the emotional support needed to recognize and treat the signs of alcoholism therapists, support groups, online forums and even eBook systems can be accessed.

These treatment methods are enormously helpful for both the alcoholic and the individuals living with an alcoholic.

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