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Sexuality of Violence and Other Human Predations – Part 2

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In the last adventure in the pseudosciences, the exploration of human behavior considered the sexual impetus to act out in certain ways. Sometimes, the behaviors become illicit forms of anti-communal deviations, and other times, unlawful actions result in harmful inflictions. Deviance can be described as that which violates duly constituted codes, regulations and statutory provisions as instituted by lawful governmental constituted authority. Otherwise, if a particular act is not defined by statute or code, then who defines what is deviant?
As a side note in the exploration of Gonzo Theory and subset topics referred to as “cryptocriminology”, it is offered for either mindless or meaningful discussion, that “pseudoscience” applies to the murky and mysterious realms of criminology, sociology and psychology. Organic, material, or biological substantiation by laboratory specificity remain elusive in these academic areas. Yet, social media, movies, news reporting, politics, etc., continue to perpetrate associated mythologies and metaphorical misunderstandings.
As diehard adherents run screaming, ranting, and gnashing their teeth into the court of political correctness, filing one complaint after another, inquisitors must beckon the inquiry as to scientific validation. If one challenges the “sacred doctrines” of hollowed sanctuaries of academia, there are dire consequences of sure and swift ostracizing. What physiological substantial hard science proof is there for any theoretical claim, no matter how much anecdotal references one cites? For every assertion of mental affliction, what is the biological test for this or that?
Gonzo Theory asserts a standpoint of skepticism with a healthy dose of cynicism. An investigative process should insist upon doubt, disbelief and suspicion regarding any claim of certainty when it comes to human behavior. It is a presupposition from this posture that behavioral analysis follows a path of idiosyncratic appraisal. Likewise, “cryptocriminology” strives to overturn long held theoretical notions that can be attacked for their lack of substantive evidentiary sufficiency. And, within the field of criminology issues remain controversial.
“Cryptocriminology” is a reference to that which remains mysterious, unknown, hidden or secret, and mostly speculation. This applies as in the multidimensional complexity of human thinking. By contrast, when a question arises as to what is “normal behavior” a variety of responses can be heard echoing all manner of belief system. Regardless of ideological viewpoint, or philosophical doctrine, neither dogma nor doctrine can dictate normalcy.
Communal constraints as accepted by social conventionality are choices to be made on an individual basis. There are always exceptions and consequences to choices one or more people decide upon. In an unevolving society, which faces probable extinction, authenticity and openness about serious contemplations regarding human sexuality is frequently discouraged.
Previously it was stated that the amazing nature of human sexuality seems to frighten, intimidate and embarrass most people. At least that’s the public expression, or what might be portrayed in a collegiate classroom setting. There are exceptions of course to every issue. For a few, among those more prone to mature, wiser and more creatively inquisitive discoveries, the vast array of imaginative sexuality is an exceptional quest for self-evolution.
Not only does one study after another extol the extraordinary health benefits of sexual activity, but the subsequent healthy effects on the brain are exceptionally positive. In the individuation of personal freedom and liberation, psycho-bio-sexual differentiation is a life-long transformation to productive self-discovery. Independent individuality is a deeper search for more profound levels of understanding and intuitive insight, and sexual vitality is critical to the process.
However, one study suggests younger generations are experiencing less sexual activity than an older generation. A growing sense of naiveté, gullibility and misinformation appears more prevalent than ever. Whatever the multidimensional factors, most will shun a personal exploration of sexual discovery, and avoid keeping an open mind as to the vast range of human proclivities. As a result, serious investigative analysis will be stifled. As one older generation flows into the next younger generation, fearful notions about sexuality become evident. In spite of vast information resources, ignorance and immaturity flourish.
Human existence is an amazing expression of sexuality. Likewise, narcissistic infantilism and grotesque expressions of selfishness suggest a regressive and devolving species. This extends analysis into to what one author calls the “diabolis sexualis”, or when sexuality is used in dysfunctional and maladaptive ways. Primarily this regards the darker side of humanity when people do harm to others. The infliction of pain and suffering on another is a product of choice, malice aforethought, premeditated and intentional this perception stems from the criminological school of thought sometimes called the Classical School in criminology.
People purposefully make rational choices to perpetrate illicit and unlawful afflictions from others, of which, sexuality is the primary drive and force behind their behaviors. One can select options to be productive and creative, or prefer the opposite, and cause destruction.
From the healthy sense of the sexual nature, one can provide the basis for a more uninhibited framework of transformation. For the bolder inquiry, on the trek of human sexual behavior research, as related to the scheme of so called anti-social behaviors, a different philosophical standpoint diverts from mainstream canonistic or dogmatic ideological belief systems. Whether one agrees or disagrees, is arguable to a particular point of view as regards manifestations of human behavior. Here, the “philosophical viewpoint” infers that outside the realm of the “hard sciences”, the pseudosciences are matters of opinion based on belief system.
Even among those who claim “expert opinion” status, in a court of law, everything is debatable. To that point, who is an “expert” when it comes to a non-science school of thought, particularly in the trinity of pseudosciences, criminology, sociology and psychology? Two critical aspects surface. One, by what experience, or investigative process does an expert claims expertise? And two, is the level of competence measured purely from the “classroom” setting by recitation of anecdotal or observation analysis? This would be an exercise in an appeal to one’s “authority” by way of limited interactions of interpersonal engagement.
Unlike hard sciences like chemistry, biology, physics, or astronomy, the “pseudosciences” as mentioned earlier, focus around philosophies of diverse perceptions. With respect to criminological applications, such is a matter of one opinion versus another. By contrast, as in the crime lab, the forensic sciences apply scientific validation to authenticate the viability of credible evidence. Beyond any doubt and to the exclusion of all other possibilities, by rigorous technical analysis, and experiential competency, authenticity reaches a higher certainty. Yet, on the contrary and in opposition to molecular frameworks of the physical world, the realms of conscious to unconscious thinking processes continue to define absolute degrees of certainty.
Nonetheless, social, political and institutional contrivances remain entrenched in the dogma of one ideological viewpoint vying with another, to ascribe a scientific basis to a philosophical school of thought. In that regard, such debate presupposes one theoretical foundation is more scientific than another. Some viewpoints have become “cult-like” and territorial in academic turf wars. In many institutions of so-called higher learning, subdivisions within academia are designed with titles such as the “school of social and behavioral sciences”. Other educational institutions changed those identifiers to the “college of arts and letters”. Minor points, but relevant. As opinions vary in regard to the nature of criminality, relevancy is important in terms of distinguishing what can be proved or disproved by way of the essentiality of evidentiary criteria.
Even though one may claim the application of scientific methodology in researching an issue, looking under a microscope is more critical than conducting a survey, or doing an observation in a controlled setting. This raises issues of preconceived notions as to observer’s influence upon an observation. To control bias, and otherwise control subjective validation, absent defensiveness and negative retribution, a mature investigative inquiry requires significant fortitude.
Most people are not capable of insisting upon the discipline of their emotions, feelings and personal beliefs, particularly ideologies of a supernatural perspective. For instance, an analysis of human sexuality, and specifically the relationship to intentional violence, invites fearful resistance due to prejudicial inclinations on the part of the investigator. The inquiry is predisposed to subjective inclination given a particular belief system. Naturally, there are always exceptions, but unfortunately, that is an exceptionally eccentric group who strive to self-evolve and transform in a well-differentiated mind-set. For the few who aspire to be different, such effort is demanding. Frequently, however, the mere suggestion of libidinous motivational factors conjures a wide range of self-focused misdirection in relation to the necessity of an open-minded analysis.
In addition, an important query is to ask what the evidence shows, and would any claim or assertion with stand the rigorous serious scientific validation. As to human behavior, that is to say thinking processes, there are no certainties, absolutes or anything else pretending to be indisputable. Seemingly, as time goes by, and generations come and go, it is likely openness in public discourse becomes more challenging. To circumvent the possibilities of offending, “victimizing” or otherwise “violating” political correctness, much discussion overly simplistic. In avoiding the presumed trespass upon subjects deemed taboo, bizarre or deviant, relevant debate, analysis and insight are often reduced to a mundane sophomoric level.
Nonetheless, matters of human sexuality are extremely important aspects in the totality of human behavioral intricacy. Not only that, but what most researchers and investigators choose to overlook is the extraordinary relevance to the variety of illicit human actions. In a framework of pretentious “normality”, human sexuality is at the core of being human. As the most important compelling force in human action choices, there is every reason to believe the criticality of such in illegal motivations. Particularly in terms of violent behaviors is the significance of sexual proclivities as essential is analyzing the incentive and subsequent consequences. Unfortunately, due to self-interests of one aspect or another, there is an effort to downplay the issue of amative instigations. Sometimes it’s political correctness and sometimes its intellectual fear.
On other occasion such is a matter of ignorance and avoidance of more in-depth analytical application. Frequently, for one prejudicial notion or another, as well as mythical beliefs, as in religion, seem to carry out regressive oppressions toward a free exploration of the individual sexual considerations in a particular act of violence. Conventional status quo regurgitation of the same old worn out doctrines and dogmas stifle greater leaps of understanding. Avoiding the general significance of amative and salacious instigating thought processes, other than for criminality, is not fundamentally a simple course of investigative inquiry.
Whereas the popularity of the so-called “serial killer” excites many theorists, academics and practitioners alike, fostering many theories, speculation as to this excitation on the part of investigators is fascinating. Could it be the sensuality of the investigator at work in the darker aspects of one’s personality?
Of course, we are affected by our thinking processes, the inspirational factors stimulate from deeper psychosexual components that are intricately of “mind” and body interactivity. Unfortunately, this depth of psychic dimensions is beyond our current capacity to completely define precise distinctions. However, within the pseudosciences, criminology, psychology and sociology, rational and productive speculations are a beginning point. With diverse and varied schools of thought, discussion should foster open and candid considerations of the motivational factors leading to illicit commissions of “anti-social” behaviors. Sometimes, immaturity does not allow openness.
Immaturity can be viewed here as referring to “egos too big” for in-depth discussions, as reflected in “academia”, arrogance at to exclusivity of one’s field of study, and stupidity as to scope of topical areas. Similarly, fear that a particular school of thought might be exposed as “pseudoscience”, is frightening to sacred belief systems. As such, investigative inquiry cannot overlook the trend in deliberate ignorance across the vast reaches of mainstream social interactions. Emotional defensiveness is dangerous. According to several surveys and research efforts recently, a growing inclination tends to devolve toward an increasing “anti-intellectual” atmosphere in American society. In reaction to scientific validity, supported by evidence, as found in real sciences, such as physics, chemistry and biology, intentional stupidity is often preferred.
In a devolving culture, wiser levels of maturity wane, as emotional reactivity relishes in the condescending interactivity of purposeful ignorance. From the classical view, or rational choice perspective, willful selectivity of particular course of action are purposeful and premeditated. For some practitioners, this motivation is extraordinarily sexual in content and format within individual ideation. Yet, a consistent worldview remains challenging in that each investigator brings his or her bias to the investigative and reasoning processes. As maturity in self-evolution toward more enlightened spheres of thinking interact across a diverse spectrum, theoretical applications vary.
As ascendency toward a civilization filled with an enlightened species grows dimmer with each generation, the likelihood of interpersonal violence increases. Nonetheless, from the classic assessment of behavior, other schools of thought might bring to bear a range of fallacies of inference. Spurred by specious conjecture, skewed by ideological doctrine (e.g. religious beliefs, supernatural and metaphysical inclinations), based on questionable theories and nonscientific validation, are often given wider influence in mainstream society. Often for the sake of subjective validation encouraged by “magical thinking” in simplistic solutions, errors are overlooked.
The mention of homicide here refers primarily to the diversity of human killing contrary to matters of law. In particular, the attendant bias suggested is that humans have a special affinity for killing, as a result of subjective validation for the sake of self-assurance within the scheme of personal thinking processes. This in turn is offered as a critical and elemental aspect of one’s personal sexuality, in addition to the perception therein, from fantasy to reality. It might be referred to in the sense that killing reflects a dysfunctional sexual framework of a highly personal nature.
Nonetheless, the complexity is multidimensional as no single factor or specific component explains definitively the nature of human destructiveness within his or her species. Illicit and perverse ideations translate into murderous behaviors, but no solitary theory can suffice every potentiality. As thinking skills diminish, tainted by cognitive bias, the selfishness of human arrogance portends seemingly limitless possibilities. Unfortunately, in the aftermath of a killing, the media, politicians and a host of others, typically espouse a socio-political agenda.
In doing so, the real issues as to the unfathomable depths of human thinking, in the darkest reaches of the psychic abyss, will never be understood. Social psychobabble for the satiation of a diversity of special interests will overshadow and otherwise stifle efforts to expose the reality. Collusive efforts work to ensure simplistic notions that fit the mainstream agenda of a particular narrative. For which, many succumb to the most naive explanation palatable.
Easy acceptance of a trouble free superficial claim strives for the safeguarding of status quo consensus. To ponder the problematic reaches of unlabored conjecture challenges the imagination, providing a process of imaginative thinking is actually practiced. Take for instance a particular ideology or belief system, from which absurdities might unfold. Is it constructed on the superficiality of faith or the authenticity of fact? Do claims meet the rigorous pressures of intense investigative analysis? Or, is the inquiry merely driven by opinionated speculation?
Most often however, if it sounds good, feels good, pampers the bias of subjective validation, and supports consumerism, political agenda, etc., then it must be okay, right? Entire careers, cottage industries, sales and marketing, dissertations, grant funding, and so on depend on the acceptability of the consumer. Consumption in a bloated and bigoted consumer society can mean many different things to different people. Belief in a product, or ideology, which might be a “school of thought”, as in one of the many fields of psychology, sociology and criminology, belief is critical to the pretentions toward alleged behavioral solvability.
Yet, not so fast. Imperfect humans, with deceptive and self-oriented intentions, misuse data and ignore evidence. The pretense of solvability, such as pseudoscientific claims, is essential to a theory that suggests or pretends to suggest the reasons why a serial killer killed the people he or she killed. Essentiality relates to the “salesmanship” of the so-called “expertise” of the “expert”. Where humans are concerned, not much changes over time. The same old arguments, claims, and allegations, based on interviews, surveys, statistics, group observations, prison cell interviews, and so on, regurgitate the never ending recycling of the same old story tales.
Younger generations come and go, and the same questions asked beg for want to new answers. Meanwhile, every effort is generated to pacify the public, politicians, and pundits, so that the social consensus of the status quo feels better about having an answer. If for example “criminal profiling” is accepted in the mainstream, due to the mysticism and mythic framework of a particular organization, then a unique fabrication can become the folklore of “legendary insight”.
If many people, without serious inquiry buy into the conjecture, then absent serious scientific validation, the theoretical construct becomes believable. Additionally, if based on a particular psychological school of thought, then lots of books, articles, movies, medications, and consultations can promote a range of consumptive processes. As a result, the mainstream realm of communal consumption is filled with illusions contending to be “solvability factors” easily accepted at face value. At the same time, the mention of sexuality scares people.
Since most people find it comforting to believe in the supernatural (80% according to several studies), along with associated myths, magical fascinations, dogma, ritual, fallacies of inference, hasty generalizations, or other worldly illusions, unsubstantiated conjure is easier to accept instead of scientifically validated evidence. Such over-simplification and exaggeration should not come as a surprise. Yet, looking back about 200,000 years, it would be nice if the human race had actually advanced much more than it has. Unfortunately, it has not.
For the seasoned and experienced investigator, academia is not very convincing either. After all, alleged “expertise” from the hallowed halls of ivory towers does not necessarily infer greater perspectives of “knowledge and wisdom”. Primarily, that is partly because viewpoints stem from belief systems. As such, ideology reflects philosophical views connected to, or otherwise influenced by, metaphysical points of reference. Bias influences conclusions, observer additionally influences observations, and research design often affects the outcome of the research.
On an intellectual level, this might suggest that preconception already plays into the shortcomings of any conjecture. Following that, an inference could be implied that subjective validation has already predetermined the outcome of particular theoretical construct. Additionally, preconceived notions of behavior could be erroneous. Not only that, add to the conjectural prejudice the feeling and emotions linked to any serious discussion about sexuality. Any mention of sex causing many to suffer a range of anxious reactivity. Scared, fearful and embarrassed about self-doubt, inhibitions, beliefs and so forth, and the issue becomes taboo.
Unless of course, the subject matter can be fit neatly into an inoffensive template, such as say for instance “lust murder”. Once categorized as such, the ideations surrounding a human psychobiological function can be held at an intellectual distance. Aside from that possibility, other troublesome data suggest the woeful ignorance of the American population regarding “sex ed” in general. Not only that, from one generation to the next, studies show a severe deficit in terms of critical analytic ability. If so, then simple and uncomplicated is easier to accept.
Added to that is the unreality of non-practitioner inferred reliability as to the formulation of a simplistic generalization. By “non-practitioner”, reference is made about someone claimed to be an “expert” who has little or no experience in the real world of criminal behavior. To the theoretician, belief system of a dogmatic inclination further complicates matters. Typically, this is the academician who has gone from classroom to faculty office with a narrow perspective. More often than not, they appear on news shows to offer their alleged “expertise”.
As such, given mythical belief systems, non-science “validity” based on opinion, regurgitation of philosophical points of view by anecdotal citation, and bias of personal agenda for subjective validation, with pretense to causation is questionable. As to criminogenic factors, preconceived notions based on specious conjecture is skewed toward the viewpoint making the claims. Likewise, added to this complexity is the influence of degenerative interpretation of cause and effect. Assertions based on devolving intellectual capacity ought to be viewed as suspicious.
That is to suggest that subsequent generations demonstrating sometimes display an inability to ensure rigorous investigative processes reinforced by scientific sufficiency. Following the typical status quo accepted consensus, erroneous fallacies of inference manufacture misleading and misguided generalizations. This reflects across society as symptomatic of human interactivity that is devolving. In this regard, the primal descent to rudimentary frames of reference, in terms of social interaction, become increasingly regressive. Social discourse becomes degenerative. Likewise, in this schematic of human interaction, the fear of sexuality is commonplace and reflects a complicated mix of conjecture, opinion, misinformation and immaturity.
Important among this is immaturity. Some investigators might delight in the prospect of having a seriously mature conversation about sexuality, and particular deviant sexuality, without the usual defensive juvenile reactions. Fundamentally, when it comes to malice aforethought, premeditation, and intentional infliction, the generalization here is that all violence reflect primordial sexual desires. As state laws tend to define destructive aggressions of a “sexual nature”, with terms as sexual assault, sexual battery, forced sexual intercourse, rape or forced penetration, etc., the classical view here is that “sexual violations” are of a broader context. To take this further, the inference is that all behaviors have a profound driving sexuality behind them. It can be argued that the sexuality of an individual can be “weaponized” to harm others.
Immediately, some will react defensively. However, in the pseudosciences, like criminology, sociology and psychology, toss in theology as well, very little science is at work. Instead, anecdotal conjecture is very prominent, as opposed to hardcore scientific sufficiency. Within these competing fields of philosophical inquiry, opinions are diverse with regard to malicious premeditated intentions of the criminal. Similarly, depending on the belief system of the claimant, as well as level of expertise, a variety of mitigations, sometimes called excuses, are claimed for the perpetrator. From an investigative standpoint, aside of the legalities of a lawful criminal investigation, the bias of a belief system influences the conclusion of an inquiry.
In a recent online publication describing paraphilic labels designated by the psychological industry, researchers listed various sexual paraphilia. Of these, erotophonophilia for instance depicted the deriving of pleasure from murdering another person. An expression of sexual arousal in murdering or imagining the killing of a human being, within the academic community, is called “lust murder”. That phrase generally relates to what some describe as a linkage between “lust” and “desire” to bring about the death of another person. In the sexuality of human behavior, and by connection to homicidal actions, it is appropriate to have a general descriptor.
Typically, as with all the pseudosciences, the challenges remains in the broad realm of speculation for better or for worse. Terms like lust, desire, sadistic, and sexual are difficult to quantify with compelling specificity. While such words may describe a certain range of behaviors, they fall short in delineating exact description of human thinking processes. Of these themes, as noted by other inquiries, there are numerous variations regarding a general designation described as a “sexual killing”. However, in attempting to identify cerebral activity that results in the killing of another, diverse schools of thought used terms like “lust murder” or “sex murder”.
One word or phrase should suffice in the expression of violent behaviors perpetrated against another person. Perhaps the term erotophonophilia could be utilized in the broadest manner possible. Unfortunately, the word depicts a narrow connotation and applies primarily to the perception of a yearning to kill for the pleasure of achieving a sexual arousal. Yet, such a delineation remains insufficient in the totality of defining in particular all forms of murderous behaviors. From assassination for instance, to sexual battery and subsequently killing another human, ought to have a word of phrase that is applicable in every situation.
In short, violence in general is a manifestation of maladaptive sexuality. And, in spite of techno advances in society, by invention of the few, criminal activity remained an ageless matter of choice. The selection of violence as a means of problem solving, by way of assessment of personal gain, emanating from the nature of individual sexuality, permeates all societies across the planet. Regardless of the pretentious conjecture of arrogant propositions, human beings continue to imagine, fantasize, premeditate and otherwise inflict horrendous acts.
Whether actual physical harm, or more covert contrivances of bullying instigation, people will harm others in diverse and sinister ways. Cowardly acts of political intrigue, to manipulation of financial resources, to straggling a partner to death, stem from an intimate connectivity of diabolical sexuality. Times pass, but doing harm to others is a weaponization of carnality.
Regardless of the label, or the attempts to downplay the motivation, the salacious impetus to harm another falls within a humanistic framework. Some may narrowly adjust the focus to something range of behavior called “lust murder”, while others assert a frame of reference referred to as “sex murder”. Typically, this is the perspective often found in most criminal justice related college textbooks. A scan of the contents in the standard reference source generally concerns topical areas as “sexual abuse of children”, or “sexual assault”, meaning rape, or something called “sexually based murders”, etc. Terminology tends to be definitively narrow.
A more encompassing approach toward the long arduous journey of attempting to understand human behavior ought to allow for the realization that sexuality is of primary importance. That is to say, instead of continuing to infer restrictive definitions to fit particular situations, a broader perception is essential. To that realm, and more specifically, sexuality of violence could considered in a much wide-ranging spectrum of human thinking processes. Mindfulness imagines the behavior that is to follow. Making choices in response to the surrounding environment depends upon the imaginative capacity of the individual. Much complexity comes into play.
On an individualized basis, the extent to which a person, and in particular, a criminal, desires to deal with the confrontations of life, evolves or devolves in a range of expressions toward others. Regardless, the contention here is that the very essence of human activity, no matter what form that takes, emanates from a very personalized nature of bio-sexuality. Taken in the totality of the person, the translation from ideation to fruition is intricate, diverse, and multidimensional. No single explanation can perfectly depict or describe the complexity of the manifestation.
To some, the satiation of sensual gratification or in the context of sexual pacification, the balance between pain and pleasure explores a variety of options. Aggressive behaviors become the means by which immediate personal gratification can be achieved. Such is a complex of means to an amative end to ensure inner validation for the desire necessity. In the view of some researchers, the motivational factors conclude, or at least culminate, in an “existential rage”. As to personal proclivity, “sexual frustration” translates into aggression based on sexual motivation.
Other investigators cite ongoing studies into the neurological implications associated with sexually aggressive actions and human deviations from normal behaviors. In furthering the study of the sexuality of violence, along with other human predations, tentative assessments point to a metaphorical balance between pain and pleasure. Pain is the violence from the essential hunt to gratify the pleasures often oppressed or otherwise inhibited by the mainstream society.

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Information Security – Online Training Programs

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Many companies and businesses make use of the internet and networking systems in order to produce, show, and store their work. With this comes the responsibility of not only keeping that information private but secure. Many accredited online colleges offer degree distinctions in information security to do just that. Students interested in the field have numerous options to choose from when deciding on a degree program.

Criminal activity online increases at about the same rate as technology and as a result numerous online schools are adding information security to their curriculum. Information breaches and theft cost companies millions of dollars each year in revenue. This fact has companies and businesses employing trained professionals to secure their information. Prospective students can gain training in the industry anywhere from a certificate to a master’s in the field.

Online certificate programs are a good choice for individuals who are already working in the field. They offer computer professionals an in depth study into their specialty. The goal of a certificate is to provide students with a narrow and focused skill within the industry. For example, students can gain a certificate in ethical hacking. A course like this would have students diving into the techniques used by hackers. These hackers are considered to be black hat hackers and students who are learning the exact same hacking skills are called white hat hackers. This means that students will take an ethical approach to hacking so that in the work place they can find the organization’s vulnerable areas and secure them. There are numerous online certificates available that allow students to study information security and that properly prepare them for work within the industry. Other certificates that can be taken are security architecture, intrusion prevention, and more.

A popular approach to schooling in this industry is gaining a bachelor’s degree. A bachelor’s degree builds a solid foundation to prepare students to work with companies and their online information. Online course work in this area typically centers on practical approaches to computer engineering, science, information security, technology security, communications, and more. Students seeking a bachelor’s degree should plan on committing on average of four years to their studies.

Some online schools offer a master’s degree or a doctorate in the field. Graduate study in this field is usually preceded by a of couple years of work experience. Many information security professionals gain a graduate degree in order to advance in the industry and earn promotions. Since both of these are graduate degree distinctions students will study advanced information security techniques. Courses will go into executive level skills, problem-solving abilities, and knowledge in managing a team and resources. Most graduate programs will take on average one to two years to complete.

A vast job market waits upon graduation. With more companies adding higher security regimes and needing trained individuals to secure their information, graduates will have very little difficulty securing a position. Students can become information systems directors, programmers, analysts, and more. Start training today by seeking out an accredited online program for information security that fits your career goals and schedule.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

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Intellectual Property and International Law: What Every Business Should Know About Border Protection

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The saying once was that if you build a better mouse trap the world will beat a path to your door. Today, if you build a better mouse trap, your competition may beat a path to your customers’ doors. So, how are customers to identify your better mouse trap? Obviously a patent can offer protection as can a trademark. But what can you do if you are worried that your competitors will be outside the United States?

How will you keep a watch on all of your competitors? What if someone brings mouse traps just like yours into the country and sells them? What if a foreign competitor labels its mouse traps the same as yours and the purchasers think they are buying your product? How much will it cost to keep up with all of this information? Are there companies which can be hired to monitor the problem for you?

The solution to this serious problem is actually much less complicated and expensive than you might expect. Because of its unique position of monitoring imports and exports, the U.S. Customs Service can provide assistance. The procedure is to record your trademark, trade name, copyright, or patent information with the Customs Service. As each is different, each of the procedures and limitations will be reviewed.

Trademarks and Trade Names

If the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has registered a trademark, a status copy of the certificate of registration and five copies can be recorded with the Intellectual Property Rights Branch of the U.S. Customs Service.(1) The address will appear in the regulations published at 19 C.F.R. §§133.1 et seq. While no special application form is provided, the regulations do set out the information that must be included. The regulations require that 8 x 10 1/2 inch paper be used for the application. The current cost is $190 per class of goods based upon the classes listed on the certificate. The recordation remains in force concurrently with the 20-year trademark registration period and may be renewed. The regulations also establish rules for change of ownership of a recorded trademark.

There is no federal trade name registration without trademark registration, thus there is no certificate which can be issued for trade names. A trade name or trade style used for at least six months may be recorded to identify a manufacturer or trader. Trade names are different from trademarks although the same mark or symbol may be used for both purposes. If a symbol is also used as a trademark, it cannot be recorded with the Customs Service as a trade name without regard to whether or not the mark has been registered with the Patent and Trademark Office. In other words, the trademark protection is assumed to be adequate.

Because there is no central national registry for trade names registration, after an application to record the registration is filed, the proposed trade name is published in the Federal Register. Interested parties may oppose the recordation but, of course, this requires one to review the Federal Register.

After consideration of opposition, the Customs Service publishes a notice of final approval or disapproval in the Federal Register and the Customs Bulletin. This is very important as a Louisiana company which enjoys a state trade name registration with the secretary of state of Louisiana may lose the right to object to registration by someone from another state if the description of the products associated with the trade names are the same. Thereafter, if the Louisiana company attempts to import a product bearing its trade name into any state, including Louisiana, it could be barred from doing so because a company from another state has recorded its trade name with the Customs Service. Obviously, this can become a race to filing with Customs and the result in such a case would most likely be exclusion of the goods or the posting of a bond by the Louisiana company followed by litigation. Protection for a recorded trade name remains in force as long as the name is used but may be cancelled for disuse.

Protection for Trademarks and Trade Names

Regulations state that articles bearing a mark copying or simulating a registered trademark or trade name shall be denied entry and may be subject to forfeiture.The regulations, however, make a very important distinction between “simulating” marks, which are those which so resemble a recorded mark that it is likely to cause the public to associate the copying or simulating mark with the recorded mark or name, and a “counterfeit” trademark, which is indistinguishable from a registered trademark.

Foreign-made products bearing copying or simulated marks are subject to seizure and forfeiture as prohibited substitutions. There are, however, several exceptions, the most important relating to “gray market” goods. “Gray market” goods are goods made outside of the U.S. with the permission of the intellectual property owner or where there is a common ownership or control between the domestic and foreign producers but the product is imported into an unauthorized market (in this context usually the U.S.). This is a very ripe area for dispute, although the Customs Service has apparently decided not to be the arbitrator of disputes arising from conflicts between U.S. and foreign producers who should be working together.

When gray market goods enter the country, the owner of the recorded mark is notified and may resort to litigation. How does the Customs Service know what are “gray market” goods? A great deal of initial information will come from the application to record the trademark or trade name. Therefore, it is imperative in the application phase to determine the present or future possibility of gray market goods and to structure deals so the gray market goods exception does not render the protection useless.

Other exceptions include when the recordant itself imports goods, when the recordant gives written consent to importation, and when the objectionable mark can be removed or obliterated (this does not, however, apply to articles bearing counterfeit marks).

Special Rules for Counterfeit Goods

The regulations provide, in part, that if an article bears a mark which is counterfeit, in the absence of written consent of the trademark owner, the property shall be seized and forfeited.(2) After seizure, the registrant is notified of the seizure and of the quantity of goods. If the registrant does not provide written consent to importation, exportation, entry after removal of the mark, or other appropriate disposition, the goods are kept by the government, given to charities, or, if possible, sold. Because the regulations provide such harsh penalties against counterfeit goods, most violators take great care to make their marks “simulating” rather than “counterfeiting,” with the hope that, if caught, they can remove the marks and avoid forfeiture. Thus, in order to obtain the fullest protection, a recordant must recognize that the mere recordation will not solve all potential problems and one may still have to seek a court order in the event Customs determines a mark to be simulating as opposed to a true counterfeit.

Anticounterfeiting Consumer Protection Act of 1996

On July 2, 1996, President Clinton signed the Anticounterfeiting Consumer Protection Act of 1996. Section 3 of the Act establishes counterfeiting and the trafficking of goods bearing counterfeit marks as a racketeering crime. Like any other criminal law, one can conspire to and attempt to violate the law. Further, since criminal law is involved, this opens the door for civil penalties as well. Section 10 of the Act modifies 19 U.S.C. §1526 to state that any person who directs, assists financially or otherwise, or aids and abets the importation of merchandise for sale or public distribution that is seized, shall be subject to a civil fine. What is missing from the civil penalties subsection are words such as “knowingly” and “intentionally” so those involved in importation must do what they can not to assist, aid, or abet. Attorneys, C.P.A.s, freight forwarders, customs brokers, bankers, and just about everyone involved must now do their part to stop trafficking in counterfeit goods or face penalties. This also includes owners of vessels, vehicles, and aircraft, as §13 of the Act forbids unlawful use of these in violation of the criminal provisions. Violations could lead to seizure of the vessels, vehicles, and aircraft, as is common in drug matters.

The Act is further strengthened by §§11 and 12, which call for public disclosure of aircraft manifests, and by allowing the Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe new regulations for entry documentation to determine if the goods sought to be imported bear an infringing trademark. One must remember to check for new regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations and the Federal Register before taking any actions.

Goods Already Passed Through Customs

Another powerful regulation is 19 C.F.R. §133.24, which allows for a demand for redelivery after release of the merchandise. If goods were released by Customs and the recordant discovers this, the port director (a Customs official) is to make demand on the importer for redelivery of the goods. If they are not redelivered, i.e., have already been sold, a claim for liquidated damages may be made.

Copyright Protection

Claims to copyrights which have been registered in accordance with the Copyright Act of July 1947, or the Copyright Act of 1976, may be recorded with Customs for import protection. An application to record a copyright must include a statement of actual or potential injury, the country of manufacture of the genuine copies or phonorecords, along with information identifying the copyright owner and all foreign persons or entities authorized or licensed to use the protected work.(3) An “additional certificate” of copyright registration issued by the U.S. Copyright Office must also accompany the application and five photocopies of the copyrighted work (except where the copyright covers a book, magazine, periodical, or similar matter readily identifiable by title or author). The recordation remains in effect for 20 years, unless the copyright ownership expires before that time.

As with trademarks and trade names, importation of infringing copies is prohibited. If the port director determines that an imported article is an infringing copy or phonorecord, it will be seized and the importer notified. The importer is then given an opportunity to contest the allegation that the article infringes a recorded copyright. If the importer contests the allegation, the copyright owner is supplied with a sample and notice that the copyright owner must demand exclusion, post a bond, and submit legal briefs, evidence, and other pertinent material to substantiate infringement. The burden of proof is on the copyright owner.

The copyright infringement procedure is as complicated as any administrative matter and there are important deadlines and cutoff dates which must be complied with. If the material is found to infringe on the copyright, the works are destroyed unless some “conditional” relief is possible. One such relief is to allow articles seized or detained to be returned to the country of export if the importer can show that he or she had no reasonable grounds for believing that his her actions constituted a violation. If articles infringing on a copyright have already cleared customs, the port director is promptly to demand redelivery, subject to a claim for liquidated damages if the articles are not redelivered.

The Anticounterfeiting Consumer Protection Act of 1996 provides criminal and civil protection for phonorecords, computer programs, packaging, and documentation, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works.

Patent Protection: Patent Surveys

The first requirement is that the patent be issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce. Since patents are more complicated than trademarks or trade names, obviously the Customs Service cannot check each item to determine how it works and if there is a violation of a patent. Some patent infringements may be quite obvious, while others may be quite difficult to detect. Thus, the Customs Service has only limited authority to assist patent owners and more active participation by the patent owner is required.

The remedies for patent owners are exclusion orders and seizure and/or forfeiture orders issued by the International Trade Commission under §337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. These orders are issued as remedies against the sale after importation of articles which infringe upon a patent or registered copyright, or which are made by a process covered by the claims of a patent. The major problem for U.S. patent owners is discovering who is infringing on the patent. The U.S. Customs Service can assist by providing the patent owner with the names and addresses of importers of merchandise which appears to infringe a registered patent.

Applications for patent surveys require the name of the patent owner, a certified copy of the patent, with additional photocopies, a statement of the requested length of the survey (two, four, or six months), and a list of all merchandise which is believed to infringe the patent, or in which it is a possible component part. Additional required information is the Harmonized Tariff System classification number, trade names, trademarks, and a statement of the manner in which the patent is used. Also required is a sample chemical analysis or other information used to identify the patented product or process. The Customs Service also requires identification of any information supplied in the patent survey application which is confidential or privileged.

The present costs of patent surveys are $1,000, for two months, $1,500, for four months, and $2,000, for six months. The more complicated the patented product or process, the more the patent owner will need to discuss the survey with Customs to better learn how to show the Customs officers what to look for in potential violations. If a patent survey demonstrates possible infringement, the evidence may be used to bring an action before the International Trade Commission.

Conclusion

The possible protection which the U.S. Customs Service has to offer U.S. trade name, trademark, copyright, and patent owners is not only unique, but is highly cost effective. Accordingly, businesses simply cannot ignore these forms of protection. This is particularly so for small to medium size businesses which cannot afford any reasonable alternative.

(1) 15 U.S.C. §1124.

(2) 19 C.F.R. §133.23a.

(3) 19 C.F.R. §133.32.

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5 Most Common Side Effects of Cancer Treatment And Their Management Strategies

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More than 2 million people around the world are diagnosed with cancer each year. Depending on the type of cancer that they suffer from, oncologists may suggest a combination of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, stem cells transplant, or immunotherapy as a part of the treatment plan.

Each cancer patient and their family members end up spending thousands of dollars to seek good quality cancer treatment. However, there is more than just the financial expenses. They also end up losing a big chunk of their physical and mental energy, primarily because of the aftermath of the cancer treatment.

Cancer treatment often produces a series of side effects that patients find difficult to deal with. Not all patients experience these side effects, but those who do have no idea how they should manage them to make their lives easier.

Cancer treatment side effects can not only make the patient uncomfortable and worst if they are not able to stick to their treatment protocol. In fact, the side effects may even reduce the effectiveness of the treatment if nothing is done to manage them.

The following are some of the most common side effects of cancer treatment and the ways to manage them:

#1: Fatigue

It is estimated that more than 70 percent of the cancer patients experience fatigue after undergoing cancer treatment, especially chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Fatigue that is not controlled by resting often ends up affecting the way how the patient conducts his or her daily activities after the treatment.

The following strategies can help manage fatigue after cancer treatment:

  • Reduce your workload
  • Rest whenever you feel tired
  • Exercise everyday
  • Take a nutritious diet

#2: Hair loss

Hair loss is one of the most common side effects experienced by cancer patients after chemotherapy. The high dose of drugs destroy the rapidly growing cells, including cancer cells and hair roots. This is the reason why cancer patients may lose hair from their scalp, armpits, eyebrows, eyelashes, and private regions.

Even though hair grows back normally in a few months the following strategies can help manage hair loss after chemotherapy:

  • Use a hat, scarf, or wig to cover your scalp.
  • Try cooling the scalp.
  • If approved by the doctor, take the drug minoxidil.
  • Let hair fall out on their own without getting yourself stressed. They will grow back eventually.

#3: Diarrhea

Some drugs used to treat specific types of cancer may affect the intestines. The active ingredient contained in the drug may react with the enzymes produced by the intestinal bacteria and cause discomfort and diarrhea is one of them. This side effect is reported in almost 30 percent of the cancer patients.

Here are some of the strategies to manage diarrhea resulting out of cancer treatment:

  • Only eat food items that are easy to digest
  • Avoid fiber-rich foods as they can worsen diarrhea
  • Increase your fluid intake

#4: Decreased libido and sex drive

Some patients may experience sexual dysfunction after cancer treatment. This is especially true in the case of patients who have had received treatment for cancers related to the bladder, prostate, colon, and rectum. However, this side effect is not just restricted to males. Females, too, can experience sexual dysfunction after receiving therapies for breast, ovarian, or cervical cancer.

Cancer treatment decreases sexual drive by affecting the nerves, hormones, and vessels that control sexual activity and mechanism. In addition, increased stress and anxiety can also hamper sexual activity of the cancer patient.

The following strategies can help manage sexual dysfunction in cancer patients:

  • Sildenafil (Viagra) administration for treatment of erectile dysfunction in males
  • Women are advised to talk to their doctor about the changes in their sexual drive

#5: Itchiness and redness

Sometimes the drugs administered may react internally and cause an irritation of the skin. This may lead to excessive dryness, redness, and itchiness. In addition to the changes related to the skin, the nails may become pale, brittle, and dark because of the chemotherapy drugs.

The following strategies can help manage changes related to the skin and nails:

  • Use mild and fragrance-free lotions, soaps, or cream. It can help treat minor irritation to the skin.
  • Certain drugs such as cyclophosphamide and methotrexate can cause dark or golden pigmentation. Ask your doctor for more information.
  • Some doctors ask the patient to wear frozen mittens during chemotherapy. It is believed that it helps drugs from reaching the hand.
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7 Easy Steps To Create Cheap And Best Online Shopping Store

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How it would be if small business people are provided by some cheap and best business solutions that at once make them big businessmen from small retailers? Are there any such solutions available in the world? If available, how can one get them?

For each and every above question there is an answer in the market now. This is all made possible by the latest internet technology that effect social life in all corners of life today. When the mobile phone was first introduced, it was serving as a mere phone. But now, every one is enjoying its multiple services. In the same way, the growth of internet penetration is opening gates to new business opportunities for retailers.

Cheap online store builders are widely available now in the market and converting every small retailer into big businessman. Following some simple steps any retailer can enter online market.

A few easy steps enable you to build cheap online shopping store within no time that expands your business to new boundaries.

1. Easy affordability. It is not a matter of even half a dollar too. Paying a very nominal price, a small retailer can also avail the services of cheap online store builder.

2. This online store builder helps you how to create cheap online shopping store. Without having any designing knowledge or HTML or any kind of technical background, anyone can simply build online stores.

3. If the online store builder provides you with a vast product data bank with more than 20,000, that will definitely enhance your selling capacity, which will cover all categories of products in online market. POS system makes you add as many products as you want to add to your online store.

4. Easy online advertisements like linking to yellow pages, directories and shopping directories will bring awareness among the online customers and make your online store to be searched easily. This certainly increases footfalls to your concrete store.

5. Since the middle class customers are also entering online shopping, the expectations of online sales are very much high. If retailers can reach them with their online stores and satisfy them in online shopping, it will really lead to a big success in online marketing.

6. Securable and multiple payment gateways assure customers to pay online without hassle. 100% protection from misappropriation of credit and debit cards etc.

7. The order management system receives the order from customers and sends an immediate auto reply to them revealing the delivery time. Offering the best and genuine goods to your customers taking them satisfaction level to delight, you can enjoy the long lasting customer rapport.

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5 Major Tips to Find The Best SEO Business

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When it comes to finding the best SEO business, then you have to consider lots of things. Even newbie don’t know that what are major and important factors that they should be considering. It can make harder to take a decision, and it can make you take the wrong decision. But, there is no need to worry about a single thing. This guide will help you find a good company with ease. And, you can follow all the major five tips where you will be considering the vital aspects.

1. Look for Local SEO Businesses

One can easily find that there are so many companies in the local that do SEO. However, choosing the right business is a hard thing which can require attention to many factors. If you want to find the right one and don’t want to face any issue, then search SEO company and add your city name as a suffix. Many results will pop up, and you will find companies that are nearby and able to help you with ORM and boosting your traffic easily.

2. Portfolio

Every company has a portfolio and testimonial section which you can out easily without any issue. Check out the portfolio and the testimonial to know what does the SEO company offers. It is really an important part to take into consideration while looking or the best one. Even if you want to find the best SEO business and don’t want to face any kind of issue lately then considering this factor will ease up the work in many ways and you can rely on it. Isn’t it a better option and reliable to take into consideration.

3. Feedback Of Previous Clients

Google can help you know more about an agency. As you out online to find the best SEO business, then you will see that Google offer rating and review section for every company. Check out what other say about the business, it will help you ensure whether the service provider is reliable or not. Check out all the reviews, and the majority of reviews will help you conclude. Isn’t it easy and better option than others? You avoid mistakes and find the right service provider through this method. After checking the reviews, you just need to contact the SEO business and ask plenty of questions.

Conclusion

To conclude, you can take reviews into consideration along with the price of services. If you don’t want to get overcharged then choose a company that is reliable and have positive reviews all around. A reputed business is always a little bit costly, but you are going to avail premium services, better customer support, and instant results. Even there is insight provided for every week, and you get significant results. Many companies bring an affordable option that can surely help you meet the need with ease. Always find the best SEO business that is licensed and has a good experience in your niche.

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What Network Marketing Can Offer to the New Prospects

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Attracted and interested people who are planning to engage themselves in the growing industry of home-based network marketing or MLM usually ask themselves this single question:

“What can I get from it?”

Every one of us, human beings, would always ask this very same question every time we are into the point of making an important decision in life, especially when it comes to networking. This attitude may seem very selfish of us or we might feel that we are too demanding. But this is the natural reaction and thinking of people since the business requires effort, time, and money before it succeed.

Before you enter into such business, you may want to think wisely by asking yourself these questions:

1. Will I be able to generate more leads and bring people into the business using the company’s network marketing plans and strategies? Will the methods be enough to have success in the business?

2. Will I be able to show my prospects what they can get from the business and that they will also generate high income and high business leads through the lead generation techniques that I am using?

Even though the company is able to provide you with graphics-full and glossy brochures and leaflets plus the promise of giving your down line a 6-figure monthly income as the main attraction in introducing the MLM business, it will all come to nothing and your effort will be wasted if the prospects did not visualized what the marketing plan is trying to promote.

Suppose a prospect attended a presentation of the business program; after the power point or graphics presentation and all the success stories that have been told during the recruitment seminar, he appreciated the business as a whole and he was interested to do the business but was hesitant to do so because of one question which is:

“What strategy should be used in order to keep the down line involved and active in the business?”

If you are that prospect, you would surely want to hear the best reply there could be and that is:

Is it Answer no. 1?

What can you really get from the MLM networking business? To start the business correctly, make yourself familiar with all the important details about the business and the products. Even the benefits, the contents, and the important issue to tackle regarding the products should also reach your mind. Once you have learned all these, you can start making a list of your prospects starting with your friends, family, relatives, classmates, and other people that are possible to make use of the products and the business. Start communicating with them and let them know that you are already a part of the business team. The company has prepared all the materials needed for the recruitment, whether it is a personal communication, or through emails and websites, you do not have to worry about the discussion because the company is always there to support you.

Or Answer no. 2?

What can you get from the MLM networking business? To avoid wasting your time presenting the business to other people, concentrate and focus on those who show interest to the products and business plans. The company already provided the program for a tried and tested system that you can use for your goal of pursuing prospective down line. The business has been programmed systematically to make the networking and recruitment stage as easy as possible. This means, you can work with it smarter and not harder.

So, what’s really in it for you?

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