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The History of Title Insurance

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The need for title insurance arose historically from the fact that traditional methods of conveying real property did not provide adequate safety to the parties involved. Until a century ago, transferring title to real property was handled primarily by conveyancers, who were responsible for all aspects of the transaction. The conveyancer conducted a title search to determine the ownership rights of the seller and any other rights, interests, liens or encumbrances that might exist with respect to the property, and, based on its search, provide a signed abstract (or description) of the status of the title. Although the conveyancer was generally not a lawyer, that individual was recognized as an authority on real estate law. The origin of title insurance is directly traceable to the limited protection that the work of such a conveyancer provided to the purchaser of real property.

In 1868, the celebrated case of Watson v. Muirhead (57 Pa. 161) was filed in Pennsylvania. In that case, Muirhead, a conveyancer, had searched and abstracted a title for Watson, the purchaser of a parcel of real property. In good faith and after consulting an attorney, Muirhead chose to ignore certain recorded judgments and to report the title as good and unencumbered. On the basis of Muirhead’s abstract, Watson went ahead with the purchase, but was subsequently presented with, and require to satisfy, the liens that Muirhead had concluded were not impairments to title. Watson sued Muirhead to recover his losses, but the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled that there was no negligence on the conveyancer’s part and dismissed the case. Watson, an innocent purchaser who had suffered financial damages because of the encumbrances on his title, had no recourse.

The decision of Watson v. Muirhead demonstrated clearly that the existing conveyancing system could not provide total assurance to purchasers of real property that they would be safe and secure in their ownership. As a result of that decision, the Pennsylvania legislature shortly thereafter passed an act “to provide for the incorporation and regulation of title insurance companies.” The first title company was founded in Philadelphia in 1876.

This new type of insurance (called “title insurance”), addressed the concerns raised in Watson v. Muirhead by providing:

1. Responsibility without proof of negligence;

2. Financial protection through a reduction of the risk of insolvency; and

3. The assumption of risks beyond those disclosed in the public records (for which the abstractor was not liable).

Since the late 1800s, the title insurance industry has grown to where it now is an essential component in an overwhelming majority of real estate transactions in this country. The services provided by the title insurers may vary somewhat from one area of the country to the other, reflecting the different laws, customs and procedures of the various states and counties throughout the nation. But the essential purpose of these services is the same – to assist all of the parties in real estate transactions by ensuring that the acquisition or transfer of an interest in real estate can be effected with a maximum degree of efficiency, security and safety.



Staffing Agencies and Recruiters – 5 Things to Look For When Choosing One

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A staffing agency can be a good job lead source if you find the right one to work with. Here are five questions to ask before deciding which is right for you.

1. Does the staffing firm specialize in a niche that employs your skills?

Well run staffing agencies won’t want to waste your time or theirs. If they can’t help you they should say so. Finding a company that successfully places people with your kind of skills will be key to success. Asking what kind of positions they fill or the types of openings they have will give you an idea of whether it’s worth your time to apply.

2. Does the staffing agency have a reputation for placing quality talent? (Hint: You can tell by its screening process.)

Some temp services will ‘hire’ almost anyone who walks through the door. If it’s simply a matter of registering for work, it’s a sure bet that staffing agency does not have a reputation for quality work. You will suffer by association with such a company. It may seem like a supreme hassle to go through a rigorous screening process, but in the long run it’s in your best interest to be associated with a well respected firm.

3. How is the firm’s external talent treated?

When you make first contact are you treated with courtesy and respect? Does someone take the time to have a real conversation with you? Or are you left on hold for extended periods of time with no one checking back? The best company to work with is the one that recognizes your potential value to them and treats you accordingly.

4. Is communication honest and timely?

Work with a recruiter that communicates fully. That communication includes explaining her process and how you can facilitate your own success through her. It also includes timely feedback (in both directions) and phone calls that are returned within one business day.

5. Does the recruiter require an exclusive relationship?

Contract or temporary placement pros generally won’t expect an exclusive placement relationship with you. They are working with a talent pool that is actively seeking work.

On the other hand, it’s not unusual for an executive headhunter to require an exclusive relationship. She will want to know where you’ve already applied and she’ll want assurances that you’re not working with another recruiter. This may seem unreasonable until you realize that she tends to work with passive (working) candidates. The recruiter goes through a lot of time and expense in vetting you for a particular opening and all that effort is lost if your candidacy is already in the hands of her client. That being said, a smart recruiter will not turn her nose up at an active candidate with the right qualifications. The bottom line is: know what you’re getting into.

Knowing which staffing firm or recruiter you want to work with and being a desirable candidate are two very different things. Staffing companies exist to find people for jobs, not jobs for people. For a win-win the agency must need you as much as you need them. The next article in this series focuses on 5 ways to attract a staffing firm.

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Online Forex Trading Benefits

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Trading Forex online has many advantages even for novice traders. It has risen dramatically in the past decade with a lot of people in this country investing in it either as a side hustle or a full time job. If you take your time to learn its nitty-gritties, you can stand a good chance of amassing good profits from it that could even surpass what you earn from your day job.

Even though becoming a professional online Forex trader may take quite some time, the basic concepts are very easy to learn. It is also very quick and easy to access the Forex market and start trading. It is something that you easily do from anywhere as long as you have a computer with internet connection. You can easily undertake your trades through relevant financial institutions or brokers with little expense as well as effort.

Another advantage of online Forex trading is the exceptional liquidity that the market offers. You can buy and sell currency in this market at any point in time regardless of the market conditions. This is unlike stocks that you will be essentially stuck with during volatile moments. When trading in the Forex market, you are at liberty to cash in your trade at any moment since there is always going to be a buyer.

You are going to find Forex online to be a very beneficial business since it goes on for 24 hours. This market never sleeps, and as a result it will be convenient for you if you have other things to do and you can only trade on part time basis. This is because you are free to choose the most suitable time to trade so as to avoid interfering with your normal schedule.

You will not need to part with a lot of money to start trading in the Forex market. When compared to other investments such as stocks, futures, and options, getting started as a currency trader is not going to cost you a ton of money. There are some brokers who offer micro trading accounts that need a minimum deposit of 100 USD to get started. In fact, it is recommended to open an online Forex trading account with the bare minimum especially if you are a novice trader. This makes this investment to be more accessible even to people who do not have a lot of startup capital.

Another advantage of online Forex trading is the ability to trade with leverage. You can use a small deposit to control a total contract value that is much larger. Using the leverage, you can be able to make nice profits and also keep the risk capital to a minimum. For instance, if you trade with a leverage of 1:100, it means that a deposit of 100 USD could enable you to buy or sell 10,000 USD worth of currencies. You however need to use the leverage with great care since it has the potential of causing huge losses if not used properly.

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Enhanced Natural Thin Stone Installation System Changing the Exterior Veneer Industry

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As the popularity and use of Natural Thin Stone grows, installation research and findings are producing enhanced standards that are generating better longer-lasting installations at reduced costs. 

Historically, the minimum acceptable standards for installing Natural Thin Stone have long been the following:

1. Apply sheathing over the studs. This sheathing can be exterior OSB, plywood, exterior grade drywall, wallboard or cementitious board.

2. Staple the building paper to the sheathing. Attach the building paper in horizontal strips. Start at the bottom and overlap 2″ (like shingles). Overlap the vertical joints by at least 6″. If using flashing or support brackets (anchors), install them before proceeding to the next step.

3. Screw, staple or nail the metal lath to the studs with a maximum horizontal spacing of 16″o.c. Overlap the metal lath at least 1″ for horizontal and vertical joints. At corners, overlap the vertical joints at least 16″ around the corner to avoid corner cracking. Use barbed galvanized nails at 6″o.c. vertically for exterior work or steel wire furring nails at 4″o.c. for interior work. Minimum nail penetration is 1″ into the studs. For steel studs, the lath must be anchored with corrosion resistant screws that have a minimum shank diameter of 0.190″.

4. Apply a scratch coat of mortar that is 3/8″ to 1/2″ thick over and embedding into the metal lath. Use a toothed scraper, notched trowel or small piece of lath to lightly rake horizontal grooves in the scratch coat. Allow the scratch coat to cure for a minimum of 24 hours.

Across the United States, depending on the geography, the climate, the moisture level, Enhanced Installation Techniques and Systems have been developed that offer superior performance. One of those approaches is described below.

Enhanced System for use over Wood or Steel Stud Substrate

In this application, the Lath and Scratch Coat is replaced with Cement Backer Board and Roller-Grade, Flexible Waterproofing Membrane. Using the Cement Backer Board eliminates installer errors that can occur by scratching the initial coat of mortar too deep. If this overly deep scratch occurs, moisture can penetrate the coat and lead to corrosion of the lath and ultimately complete installation system failure. By using the Cement Backer Board and the Roller-Grade Flexible Waterproofing Membrane, this lath and scratch-coat system weakness is eliminated.

Similar to thin set tile installations, movement joints are also used every 8-10 feet. The below graphic illustrates Laticrete’s approach using their HydroBan Acrylic Waterproofing Membrane and their 255 MultiMax Thin Set Mortar. This type of system not only offers superior performance, but can reduce total installation costs by 10-30%. Other enhanced products are listed below.

These products have been tested for use in most climates in the United States and proven to provide lasting protection. Many include warranties as well.

Cement Backer Board

·        PermaBase by National Gypsum

Waterproofing Membrane

·        HydroBan by Laticrete

·         Mapelastic Smart by Mapei

·         Sure-Coat by ProSpec


·         255 MultiMax by Laticrete

·         Granirapid Mortar by Mapei

·         StayFlex 590 by Prospec

Other Applications

When applying Natural Thin Stone directly to Concrete, Concrete Block or Existing Masonry, adding a Roller-Grade, Flexible Waterproofing Membrane will significantly enhance the soundness of the installation.

Overall these Enhanced Natural Thin Stone Installation Systems improve the quality, longevity and the cost of using the superior product of natural thin stone veneer.

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Tantra – Experience Ecstasy – Explore the Sensory Awakening Ritual

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What makes Tantra unique from most spiritual practices is that Tantra embraces the senses as a path to the Divine. It sees the body as a temple for Consciousness to play and explore the material plane. Tantra uses the senses to expand awareness. One way this is done is through the Sensory Awakening Ritual. You and your partner explore the art of giving and receiving pleasure by activating the senses. There is something profound about surrendering totally and allowing all your senses to respond and be awakened. It is a sensuous process that can be light and playful or erotically charged. This ritual is a wonderful way to begin a romantic evening or weekend with your beloved. 

Create a Sacred Space

Turn your room into a temple. Begin by removing the clutter and creating an altar. Light some candles, add a vase of flowers, crystals, a photo or object that honors your relationship to the Divine. Then, gather the items that can be used to awaken all the senses during the ritual. Some possibilities might be massage tools, fur, feathers, fruits, chocolate, flowers, essential oils, music, bells, rattles, and eye covers. Bathe and dress in ritual clothes. The ritual begins by blessing the space. This can be done with sage, incense, bells, songs or calling in the directions. Put on some beautiful music.

The Bubble

Now, create a bubble around you and your partner. Do this by waving your arms around to define the shape of the bubble that surrounds both of you. Take turns releasing one thing at a  time that might keep you from being fully present in the ritual. As you say the thing you are removing, (the past, distractions, anger, worry, etc.) make a gesture as if removing an object from your bubble. Next, state the things that will enhance your connection (love, willingness, presence, trust etc.) and gesture, as if bringing these things into your bubble.

Share Your Desires, Fears and Boundaries

Once the bubble is created, share your desires, fears and boundaries related to this practice. First, one person speaks while the other person listens without judgment or commentary. Then, you switch roles. Here is an example:

“My desire is to stay present, open and connect deeply to your soul.” “My fear is that I will get self-conscious and shut down.” “My boundary is that we both turn off our cell phones.”

Why boundaries? Boundaries are not walls, they are bridges. Bridges help to bring people together. Intimacy happens when people have healthy boundaries. Healthy boundaries allow you to feel safe, stay open and be present. Boundaries are dynamic, so it is important to check-in periodically with yourself to see if your boundaries have changed. If they have changed, update your partner so he/she can honor your new boundaries. Here are a couple of examples:

“I am getting tired. I want to end by midnight.” “I am sensitive to perfumes, so don’t use them, please.”

Once you’ve shared your desires, fears and boundaries, offer each other a blessing, such as “I want to bless your hands for all they do for others.” Then, decide who will receive first and cover his/her eyes with a blindfold. Help the receiver to lie down and get comfortable. The giver begins the ritual by stimulating the senses in whatever way feels right, as long as it honors the boundaries of the person receiving. Come from a place of devotion as you awaken and arouse your partner. Take your time. Be playful and creative.

The Power of Sight

In this ritual, we limit the vision with a blindfold to enhance the other senses and add an element of surprise. Also, the removal of the blindfold and restoration of sight at the conclusion of the exchange often lends itself to a fresh appreciation of the experience of seeing by the receiver. It’s as if the world is once again being seen through the eyes of a newborn baby. 

The Power of Smell

Scent is an important component of pleasure. Your olfactory nerves pick-up chemical messages from the air you breathe and conduct them quickly to the brain. Smells are often associated with memories. A whiff of a particular food, perfume or place can immediately transport you into a moment from the past associated with that scent. Pheromones are chemical messages we send and receive. They affect who you are attracted to and are an important factor in whom you pick as a mate. Smell is a great awakener.

The Power of Touch

Touch is a basic human need. We live in a culture where many people are often touch-deprived. Touch creates connection at the most basic level. The skin is your biggest organ. It feels good to be massaged, kissed, caressed and held. The skin is sensitive to many types of sensations. Explore nibbling, biting, and pinching if you want to add more excitement. Exploring what excites and arouses you and your partner can be fun and bonding.

The Power of Sound

Sounds create a mood and affect the emotions. They can be intrusive or soothing. Pleasant sounds can help us to relax, be present and open. Stimulating sounds can enliven the body and mind. Music and song are a great gift that can heal and transform. Use music that is sensuous and arousing.

The Power of Taste

The mouth is a very sensitive sense receptor and highly developed in most people. Food is associated with survival as well as pleasure. Our taste buds detect sweet, bitter, salty and sour. Use a variety of your favorite tastes and textures-salty, crunchy, sweet, juicy, to tantalize the lips and tongue. The Sensory Awakening Ritual is a great way to open and expand your senses. It allows you to surrender into the pure joy of Consciousness celebrating in  human form. It is a gift to be able to connect and experience pleasure and ecstasy with your partner. In a world where people are mesmerized by the incessant stream of thoughts flowing through their head, it is refreshing to let go of the mind and rediscover the pleasures of the body.    

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Colocation Vs Cloud – Do You Know the Difference?

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When it comes to choosing the best way to store your data or to manage an effective disaster recovery program, then you really need to understand the difference between colocation and the cloud. Each one provides you with benefits, yet they are both different in how they are managed and how you can benefit moving forward.

As a business owner, you need to have a set budget in mind on how much you are willing to spend on your data storage or disaster recovery. With a budget in mind, you can identify which of these options you feel is the right match for you now and moving forward. Colocation vs Cloud is definitely something you need to look into, learn as much about as you can and then identify which one you will choose based on your company’s unique needs and requirements.

Looking a colocation, you will need to find a reputable data center company that can provide you with this service. If you’re wondering how colocation vs cloud, then you will find that with this particular option you buy and maintain your own hardware. The data center will rent you space, you share a building with a host of other companies, each of you having your own space to store your infrastructure from your server to switches and computers.

With colocation you are responsible for meeting the data centers protection and compliance regulations. This can work out more expensive for smaller companies as you rent the space, pay for power usage and you buy and maintain your own hardware. It is ideal for companies who want to store all their data at the center on their own protected servers away from the office environment.

Cloud on the other hand can save you money and is the ideal choice if you are simply looking for a disaster recovery solution. With the cloud, the data center will be responsible for the infrastructure and maintenance thereof, which can save you time, money and resources in the long run.

The provider will manage all the hardware, servers, storage, cooling and power, which is so beneficial. You simply pay for the space you need. Most of the cloud services are modular, so you can start with the amount of data storage you believe you need and increase it when you find you are running out of space.

When it comes to colocation vs cloud, you will find that both providers work in a similar pattern in terms of what they do provide. Both will provide you with storage space, both will provide you with power and good up time. They will also both provide chilling, ensuring systems run smoothly at all times.

Many company owners are still concerned about using the cloud due to safety reasons. With advances in technology and anti-virus, you will find that whether you choose colocation or cloud, your data will be safe, only accessed using your passwords that you have set up. Of course the benefit is that every staff member that is given access has their own password, so teams who do sales will not be able to change accounts, while accounts departments will not be able to go through the management reports. You remain in complete control at all times.

This is not a decision that should be taken lightly. Speak to a professional data service provider and identify which of these two options is going to be more beneficial to your company in the long run.

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Virgin Mobile Phones: Mobile Phones With Lecherous Looks Are Proving Their Worth on Virgin Network

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Virgin is one of the best mobile network service provider in the country. It is offering its services since 10+ years. Nowadays, there are plenty of mobile manufacturing companies like Nokia, Samsung, Sony Ericsson, LG, HTC, Apple, and Blackberry, which are launching smart phones. However, there are only few mobile phone manufacturers which gives importance to the looks, and features of their mobiles. Nokia, Blackberry, Sony Ericsson, and Samsung are some of the mobile manufacturing company, which believes in producing smart phones with tempting looks, and features.

With lecherous looks, and tantalizing features, various new phones are proving their worth on Virgin network. Virgin phones always provide satisfactory services to its customers, and it always introduces many scintillating offers for them. Mobile of all leading mobile manufacturing brands are available on Virgin network. Some of the latest mobiles which are being provided on virgin network are HTC Wildfire, Blackberry 8520 Curve, Nokia 6700 Slide, Nokia E72, and Samsung Tocco Ultra Edition. People can easily select or get their favourite mobile phone on Virgin’s contract plan, pay as you go plan, and moreover if the customer has already purchased a SIM free phone he/she can also get the SIM of Virgin network from various attractive SIM only Deals.

Virgin phones can be bought on contract through various cheap contract deals which are being provided in huge quantity. Moreover, customer might also get their favorite mobile with many titillating offers like they can get certain free minutes, free texts, free connection, free unlimited internet, certain cash back, certain free gifts which could be anything, and they might also get the phone for free.

Virgin Phones can be bought through numerous mobile deals. These deals are being provided on various online portals for 24 x 7.

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