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Understanding Mobile Phones

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Benefits of Fixed Mobile Convergence

There are three types of savings an organisation can make from a convergent solution: call costs, infrastructure and productivity.

Savings delivered through convergence

Although call cost savings are the easiest to measure, they provide the least scale for savings. More benefits can be derived through infrastructure efficiencies and productivity.

Infrastructure savings are delivered through fixed-line replacement strategies and green field site deployments. This impacts the CAPEX and ongoing OPEX requirements of owning a fixed and mobile fleet.

Productivity and improved business processes, whilst providing the greatest opportunity for organisations to derive benefits from convergence, are also the hardest to quantify. For example, while a converged voicemail solution may save an employee five minutes of effort a day, the real benefit may not directly be derived through having an extra five minutes for ‘productive’ work. The benefits may, in fact, be delivered through customer satisfaction and repeat business as a result of improved response times. However, most businesses now measure customer satisfaction as a key performance indicator. Therefore, the increase in productivity and potential process re-engineering which can be achieved will have a positive impact on customer satisfaction levels.

Benefits include

  • Extending fixed line call features to mobile handsets
  • Reducing call costs
  • Improving the responsiveness of the business
  • Delivering control – for instance, for compliance with FSA regulations
  • Reducing duplication
  • Ease of extending capacity
  • Improving productivity

The use of converged solutions also enables the workforce to be more productive through functions such as mobile access to direct dial extensions and conferencing. Employees are able to respond faster to voicemails, and benefit from reduced telephone tag as they are able to answer more calls first time. Specific productivity gains are illustrated by the following examples:

  • Consultants within a Healthcare Consultingcompany achieved a 10 to 15% productivity gain as a result of reduced telephone tag.
  • Carers at a Home Care Servicescompany achieved time savings of 60 minutes each day per employee due to fewer voicemails, more calls answered first time and reduced telephone tag.
  • A specialist call centre within a Travel Insurancecompany handled 25% more calls as a direct result of increased responsiveness of staff.
  • A Universityachieved one hour time saving per day for IT support staff, minimising delays in reaching colleagues to issue job instructions or resolve issues.
  • Within a Hospital, nurses were able to save at least 10 minutes each time they retrieved patient results, by being able to access and check results irrespective of location within the hospital.

Productivity benefits can be relatively difficult to quantify and are best addressed on an individual basis. However, financial savings can be found by calculating, for example, the number of minutes saved per day through enhanced communications and business processes (e.g. time wasted unnecessarily visiting office to pick up desk based voicemails or job schedules). In addition, the ability to rapidly and consistently answer enquiries and client calls can ensure that a client is gained and maintained owing to a better standard of service.

Although more difficult to measure, research has shown that softer benefits can lead to quantifiable revenue, customer satisfaction, customer retention, and work rate or cost saving improvements for enterprises.

One simple solution is a feature rich Business SIM enabling Voice, SMS & Data 3G and HSDPA whilst roaming. This mobile SIM provides the business with full control over calls and texts, both nationally on the hosted network and whilst Roaming. In addition, the SIM provides connectivity to defined private mobile networks and access to a common core for application activation.

The mobile is enhanced by providing short code dialling to other extensions in the business and support for the same feature dialling provided on fixed line handsets, enhancing application integration.

Number Portability

The MNO or MVNO provides for number portability and ensures that users can maintain their existing phone numbers and avoids any disruption to the dialling experience for the end user; no user training is required.

Data Support.

Idealy the network fully supports data options providing internet and mail connections. Access Point Names ( APNs) are provided for network supported applications such as Push-to-Talk (PTT

Roaming

Subscribers naturally expect the same service capabilities when travelling abroad as they do when registered onto their home network. We aim to avoid complicated methods to make a call while ensuring subscribers can use their account when roaming internationally. Ideally, they want to be able to dial straight from their mobile contacts list without having to edit numbers in order to specify the correct country code.

CAMEL Customised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic support means that, as long as the international network supports CAMEL, the user dials as normal. When CAMEL is supported, we can guarantee a seamless prepaid roaming experience. Costs are, typically, less than normal call rates and this solution ensures call recording as required for FSA compliance is still delivered while travelling in CAMEL countries.

CAMEL Call Back This solutions means that the caller makes a call as normal and the call is directed to the platform. The call then drops for a short period. The platform then immediately rings back both the caller and the destination number and connects the two parties. This solution is CAMEL dependent and ensures a lower call rate but it also incurs a slightly longer connection time.

Roaming will enable connection even when no CAMEL network is available. The call is made over the local macro network selected for the strongest network signal in the area. Call charges are at the standard country rates. This solution guarantees connection but will not ensure call recording within FSA regulations and will, potentially, incur the highest call rate.

Landline Number in the SIM

The SIMs can support both mobile and landline numbers which enables a mobile phone to host both a standard landline DDI (number) and a mobile number simultaneously.

Choice of Handset

It will support a wide range of handset models and, since it is independent of Smartphone operating systems, it is unaffected by operating system changes.

Short Code Dialling

As a result of the call routing presentation at the PBX or hosted data centre switch, short code dialling and feature dialling (i.e. number tagging to request a feature or application support such as record/don’t record or identification of private calls), are supported.

Cost Saving

Removing Business Costs Mobile phone software applications raise a number of management, cost and support issues for business. Furthermore, it is possible for mobile applications to be bypassed, even if this requires the mobile phone to be rebooted. All applications are delivered and supported centrally from the core; there is no need for support on the individual handsets, all that is needed is a New SIM card.

Savings on Mobile Costs

The outbound call leg is under the control of the business and will, typically, be configured to avoid Mobile Network Operator (MNO) charges for national and international calls. Calls, at the discretion of the business, may be placed:

  • FOC over internal, national and international business networks if they remain on-net or at land line contract rates for off-net calls over PSTN or the business’s chosen carrier
  • Inbound calls to mobiles are presented at the PBX and receive a share of the Media Termination Credits (a credit to the SIM) paid to the Mobile Network

In addition this can provide significant savings, in excess of 70%, on international roaming charges. This is provided by:

  • Use of professional mobile operator Call Back
  • Reduced costs as the outbound call leg is under the control of business

Application Integration from the Core

Will route all calls and messages (SMS) to a common core for switching. This common core may also route calls or messages to or through an application platform which, in turn, will activate the required service for that call or message. This enables Fixed and Mobile calls and messaging to use a common applications platform and, for the first time, ensures that the business requirements are met without requiring applications on mobile phones.

Third Party Business Applications

The common core provides a rich capacity for application integration. The ability to dial short codes will enable an integrated application to be activated with the dialled digits feeding the application, avoiding the need for the user to enter additional digits. For example, a time registration for, say, Time and Attendance or flex time recording or for security staff arriving at a location might dial a number which indicates the application and the location – the Calling line ID can identify the caller – all completed in one call.

Push-to-Talk (PTT) PTT is a mobile application enabling mobile phones to be used like Private Mobile Radios (PMR) but with more choice of instruments, including ruggedized phones. PTT is a Hosted Service but available locally with a private mobile network. PTT also provides for Health & Safety Lone Worker requirements with the ability to locate using SMS and GPRS.

User Applications

Support for a wide variety of user-related applications providing inbound call management, mail and business services for the individual. This means that these services are available from both fixed line and mobile handsets.

Intelligent Number (iN) Intelligent Number supports personal numbering, offering the user the flexibility to choose to deliver their calls to any nominated number that can be dialled, including international numbers. This provides a comprehensive strategy for hot-desking, as well as supporting business continuity / disaster recovery.

iN supports lifestyle management, providing call redirection when not available (e.g. switched off), or by date and time, plus the ability to be notified of people attempting to make contact through SMS and email notification.

In the event that the person called cannot be contacted, the call may be offered to an assistant or team (e.g. sales team) for answering. The ‘Assistant’ can have announced the original called party and, if known, the reason for non-answer, in order to answer the caller appropriately. This service also provides for manager-secretary working.

Voicemail Corporate voicemail services which include enhanced notification options through email and SMS integration.

Call Recording On-Demand – Press * at any point in your conversation and a recording of the whole conversation will be captured. This recording will be stored with voice mails and will be accessible over mobile, fixed phone or PC.

‘Always-on’ recording for business and regulatory compliance and governance requirements. Integrates the ability to apply call recording to an extension, a mobile or an intelligent Number – this is enforced through routing for both fixed and mobile calls. Call recordings are accessible through a web portal and can be tamper evident and / or encrypted.

Financial Services Authority (FSA) requirements for mobile voice and SMS recording. There is considerable demand in the mobile market for services to meet FSA requirements for recording both voice and SMS. Fioxed Mobile Convergence through the SIM will enable businesses to enforce the recording of both voice and SMS from any company mobile phone through mobile network routing. This solution does not rely on mobile phone software which can be bypassed or deleted by users.

All calls are logged for individuals.

Audio Conferencing Pre-booked or instant conferencing facilities provide a cost effective scalable conferencing bridge.

Providing Control

Will provide businesses with control over the use of their company mobile. Many mobiles are used in the workplace when fixed line phones are also available. Using fixed line functionality is significantly cheaper than mobile, so providing a converged solution allows the business to maintain control of costs, irrelevant of whether mobile or fixed line phones are used. Private mobile network deployments bring total control of mobiles and costs into the business, in the same way as a PBX. The mobile phone incurs costs at the same rate as a fixed phone.

Mobile Deployment Options

The primary design objective is to converge fixed and mobile networks for businesses, giving them total control over their mobile estate, taking control of onward dialling, enabling significant savings on typical mobile costs, integrating applications, and more. This SIM replacement solution will meet this objective for customers using legacy and IP PBX at the customer premise and where the customer installs a private mobile network system at their premises.

The first customer premise option will enable the customer to converge and control voice; SMS will be delivered and managed on the host mobile network.

The second customer premise option provides for a private mobile network system located alongside the customer PBX on customer’s premises. With this option, the Private mobile network will provide a full mobile service and the location and authentication will flow through the mobile network interconnect providing network transparency.

Hosted Communications may be engaged, using either of the above options, to provide a service to record and manage secure recordings for corporate governance or conformance with regulatory requirements and other application services.

Customer Premise – MDC

A Mobile Direct Connect (MDC) service will trunk all calls from/to the SIM direct to the customer premise equipment. The calls will be SIP and, in the case of legacy networks/PBXs, a gateway will be required. SMS will remain on the mobile network and be delivered to the handset. An additional service for secure SMS recording is also available.

Using MDC, customers with their own legacy PBX or IP PBX, or a network of either or both, will be provided with control at their PBX over mobile originated calls and calls from off-net to their mobiles. It is assumed, for this purpose, the customer cannot accommodate nor has any interest in control over SMS. SMS will be delivered and managed on the host mobile network.

The platform, interconnected with the mobile networks, will receive in SIP calls for the customer which will be routed over SIP trunk(s) to the customer PBX. If the customer wishes to put the onward leg of a call back to the macro network, the call will be sent over the SIP Trunk to the platform which will place the call onto the mobile network. All other second legs of calls will be at the discretion of the business, enabling significant savings.

Integrators will need to configure the PBX, or PBX network, to provide for short code dialling and any other coded dialling used to connect the calls to applications or services, and then to instigate the second leg of the call.

All calls for mobiles on the same network, should be routed through the platform. Where a network originated call is received from the platform and is returned through the platform, certain rules will apply in order that the call is recognised as a call originating from a mobile on the network. Customers who have a requirement to record SMS may have their SMS messages routed through the hosted platform for secure storage and auditing.

Customer Premise – private mobile network

Private mobile network service deployment will see all voice and SMS (into PMX) trunked to the customer premise for delivery through the customer PBXs and over the private mobile network deployment. The voice calls will be SIP and, in the case of legacy networks/PBXs, a gateway will be required. private mobile network will communicate with the National and Global Mobile Networks through the platform interconnect.

Customers with their own legacy PBX or IP PBX or a network of either or both PLUS a local Private mobile network will be provided with control at their PBX over voice calls which may require routing into the private mobile network. The private mobile network will communicate with the platform for the option to distribute SMS messages locally or return to the host mobile network. In addition, the private mobile network system will communicate location and authentication information through the platform for the management of connected handsets within the local private mobile network network and host networks.

Where the local PBX is an IP PBX supporting SIP extensions, the local private mobile network system will use the private mobile network SIP Registration Manager to register mobiles within the local private mobile network. Mobiles will be registered on arrival and until leaving the private mobile network will be treated as SIP extensions on the IP PBX. This close integration will enable mobiles to operate as extensions off the IP PBX and support the local services provided from the IP PBX.

Mobiles will transition between macro, micro and back to macro mobile networks automatically and seamlessly. SMS messages will be delivered to mobiles either locally or on the macro network. Mobiles will have full mobile features and facilities available in the local network.

Customers who have a requirement to audit SMS messages without a facility to do so may have their SMS messages routed through the hosted platform for recording and secure storage.

Hosted Services will provide Private Mobile Extension (PME) services and the full IP Centrex Hosted Communications application portfolio for mobile users as well as a mixed integrated mobile/IP Centrex service. Additional services are available, including voice recording and SMS auditing providing standard, encrypted and secure access options compliant with FSA requirements.

Already a proven approach to delivering a wide range of cost effective options, the Hosted Communications services can take businesses much further in deploying a fully integrated communications platform, developed to maximise availability, increase productivity and improve customer experience, resulting in increased customer satisfaction, retention and service revenues.

The Hosted Communications platform and the mobile platform are collocated and, for maximum choice and resilience, connectivity is to many alternative networks. The service utilises resilient IP connections into carrier networks to deliver voice services.

This “diversely connected” principle is applied over the IP and legacy infrastructure through the carrier network into the hosted platform. This enables the business to effectively manage calls, in the event that the primary infrastructure is unavailable, by routing calls to alternative destinations. This increases the number of calls answered and increases revenue, whilst also maintaining a central point for call management and call logs. Furthermore, the deployment of facilities such as call recording is made simpler, both to network-based devices and off-site destinations, including mobiles, where the hosted platform is managing the delivery of the call.

The Hosted Communications solution offers integrated service options which allow for SIP Trunks, IP extensions and Mobile Extensions to be provisioned at a single site over a single network, as well as across multiple sites over multiple networks, utilising a single integrated dial plan.

Private Mobile Networks

Mobile users can connect to a private mobile network to provide a solution with security, capacity and coverage benefits and further reduce the costs of calls within the private mobile network range.

Infrastructure and Management Savings

A Private mobile network extension can be seen as a fully flexible and instantly relocatable desk phone replacement. Depending on the type of subscriber and their role, an organisation may choose to selectively replace fixed line PBX extensions with mobile handsets, providing the potential to deliver savings on Moves, Adds and Changes as the organisation grows, as well as the cost to deploy new fixed infrastructure during a PBX upgrade.

Within an existing business environment, adding further users to a PBX will incur the costs of cabling and installation as well as the basic cost of procuring the handset. In comparison, once the micro mobile network is deployed, adding users to a cellular-based network limits these expenses to:

  • The cost of a mobile handset (between £10 and £400 dependant on form and function)
  • GSM Base Transceiver Stations (approximately one per 50 handsets, handling seven concurrent calls, equivalent to £35 per handset)

One caveat, however, is that the average lifetime of a mobile handset is far shorter than that of a desk phone and, as such, multiple purchases may be necessary. In addition, there may be management and maintenance fees associated with the service.

Organisational Design Enterprises may wish to move towards flexible working practices such as hot-desking, yet may not have an IP-PBX deployment immediately in mind. A private mobile network and Fixed Mobile Convergence solution can help facilitate this by providing the hot-desking flexibility of an IP-PBX solution without the need for significant (and costly) infrastructure deployment. Since a private mobile network enabled mobile is active as soon as it has detected the micro cellular network, employees are not faced with the challenge of constantly changing their telephone location. As a result, the private mobile network can serve as a substitute for IP-PBX deployment, or a complement if a business wishes to derive other benefits of an IP-PBX deployment.

Enterprises that have deployed converged voice solutions have been able to achieve up to 50% reduction in annualised Moves, Adds and Changes (MACs). This is achieved as they provide new employees with mobile handsets and gradually moved across to flexi-desking where employees were not provided their own desk phone.

Developing a Business Case for Fixed Mobile Convergence The benefits are a mixture of hard and soft benefits and, although soft benefits may have the greatest value to the business, hard cost savings are typically needed to create the business case.

The following areas are key to establishing hard cost savings to justify the move to Fixed Mobile Convergence..

Extend Fixed Line Call Features to Mobile Handsets Extending calling features from a company’s PBX to a mobile handset means these features and functions are no longer the sole preserve of the office and are available when away from the desk or out of office. Other benefits of this form of voice-focused convergence include the provision of single number reach and single voicemail. Subscribers may use a single fixed line number which will also reach them via their mobile, with all voicemail terminating at the company PBX. Enhanced calling services which were previously only available on fixed lines, such as call recording and call tracking, may also be extended to mobile handsets.

Fixed Mobile Convergence Mobile enables PBX features and benefits to be accessible via mobile phones, both in and out of the office.

Reducing Call Costs Controlling communications costs is a perennial concern for all businesses, exacerbated by the increasing need to provide employees with mobile devices. Overall, the percentage of employees using mobile devices in Europe continues to increase. The cost of calls is further aggravated by the increasing usage of mobile phones. Fixed Mobile Convergence, when targeted at appropriate end users who will best benefit from fixed vs. mobile call arbitrage, has the potential to help businesses curb their call spend.

The majority of call cost savings will be from calls to non geographical and international numbers.

Improving Responsiveness With only 25% of calls reaching their intended participant first time, improving communications is one of the top three reasons for deploying FMC services. In order to enhance customer service, businesses seek to improve the responsiveness of employees through quicker access to voicemail, picking up more calls, and allowing customer enquiries to be passed on to the most appropriate employee or team member. Enhancing internal communication is also important as businesses seek to speed up decision making and boost colleague collaboration in an effort to reduce lead times.

Delivering Compliance

The growing importance of compliance is demonstrated by cases of penalties and legal suits against companies that fail to produce appropriate records. In June 2007 the FSA fined Kilminster Financial Management Limited £42,000 for not keeping appropriate training and competence records

Businesses record calls for a variety of reasons: to assist with training, to provide evidence of a business transaction, or to ensure that a business complies with regulatory procedures. Call recording is particularly relevant to certain industry verticals such as financial services and healthcare.

The Financial Services Authority (FSA) requires financial institutions to keep records of all trades and transactions relating to certain types of business. The safest and easiest way of achieving this is to record telephone conversations between traders and customers.

Voice recording in the Healthcare sector has become an imperative to provide protection against liability and incident investigation, in cases when inaccurate information has been given to a call handler.

Call recording is a feature of many PBXs but is usually only available on calls made from desk phones. Using a Fixed Mobile Convergence solution enables the call recording feature to be accessible via the mobile handset, allowing mobile calls to become regulation compliant.

Reducing Duplication Enterprises currently suffer from duplication of management fees, with many employees incurring both a fixed and mobile management service charge. While fixed-line management charges vary significantly with business size and vendor, many organisations will be paying around £250 per year for a fixed-line extension, while also paying a mobile service management fee. Clearly, in any organisation of scale, immediate savings can be delivered through the removal of a fixed-line extension, with the PBX functions becoming extended to the mobile.

Furthermore, removal of a fixed-line handset can impact the businesses power consumption and increase its ‘green’ credentials.

Additional Capacity As a business grows, a Fixed Mobile Convergence solution can help ease the pain of incremental changes to the telephony system. First of all, it saves on the cost of individually wiring and deploying a fixed-line desk phone, which can cost in excess of £350 depending on factors such as building layout, technology and handset type. With a converged network mobile handset, provisioning is much simpler, requiring nothing beyond the installation of a SIM card.

Secondary is the boundary case where an enterprises PBX experiences capacity restraints. Instead of replacing the PBX or adding additional cards (along with the associated deployment costs) mobile users can be added.

Improving Productivity Financial benefits can be derived from increased employee productivity and contactability. With improved coverage and the near-ubiquitous presence of mobile devices, employees are able to answer and respond to customer queries and requests, with fewer calls terminating at the voicemail system. Furthermore, increases in communication efficiencies can shorten the decision-making cycle, allowing management to be more responsive and faster acting.

The use of converged solutions also enables the workforce to be more productive through functions such as mobile access to direct dial extensions and conferencing. Employees are able to respond faster to voicemails and benefit from reduced telephone tag due to increased percentage of calls answered first time.

Although more difficult to measure, research has shown that softer benefits can lead to quantifiable revenue, customer retention, customer satisfaction and work rate or cost saving improvements for enterprises.

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Erectile Dysfunction-What You Need To Know?

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To understand better what erectile dysfunction is, we have to understand first what refers to an erection then only then we’ll be able to know about this sexual problem.

During sex, penis is being stimulated and caused stiffness and enlargement in it. The whole process is known as erection. However, it is not so that it only occurs during sexual situations, it may also occur in non sexual activities as well. How it happens? In the primary body system, penis arteries automatically expand due to stagnation by which more blood is filled in the tissue cells of the penis and gives it growth and stiffness. This blood filled tissue shrinks by pressing on the veins that retract the blood back, causes more blood to enter and less blood to return. After a while a balance comes into reality where the same amount of blood starts flowing in the dilated arteries and narrowed veins and because of this penis gets a certain posterior shape automatically. Erection is necessary for sexual intercourse but not necessary for other sexual activities.

What is Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile Dysfunction, also referred to as ED, is an inability to sustain an erection during sexual intercourse and it is a quite common problem in men. In this article, we are going to find out if this problem can be controlled. According to a study, a part of male population over 35-40 years of age group is suffering from this problem and the worst thing is that this percentage is increasing in young men also. First, we should find out about types of erectile dysfunction’s problem.

Types of Erectile Dysfunction’s Problem:

Short Term Problem: This is the case when the problem occurs for sometimes.

Long Term Problem: In this case the problem remains prolonged.

In the first case, lifestyle is majorly responsible for short-term problem’s existence. The type of problem is for a short period of time because of the following reasons like anxiety, stress and excessive intake of alcohol. The second type of problem may be physical and keeps for long time because of high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and blood flow in private organ is affected, which may lead to erectile dysfunction.

Treatment: In my opinion, if you are going through from a long-term condition, you may want to consult with a specialist for the treatment of your prolonged problem. Curing of erectile dysfunction is completely depends on its causes. Your personal call has an importance for its treatment right from changes in way of life to medication.



Self-Help: Listed below are some self-help techniques, you may try before involving into medical assistance.

1. You may want to do exercise on a regular basis to improve blood flow for a strong erection.

2. You can take healthy diet for preventing erectile dysfunction.

3. You can try to improve your sleep schedule as it increases testosterone levels.

4. You can try to quit smoking as it narrowing blood vessels.

5. You may stop extravagant intake of alcohol because it affects on central nervous system.

Medicine: You may use prescribed oral medication to get and maintain an erection, if none of the self-help techniques are working.

1) Viagra, Levitra and cialis these all medications act in smooth muscles relaxation and also increase the flow of blood in penis during sexual stimulation.

2) Other alternatives include Alprostadil (Caverject) to treat erectile dysfunction either through penile suppository or self-injection at the base or side of the penis.

3) Testosterone therapy is a primary treatment for testosterone’s low levels.

In my opinion, you may try some self-help techniques mentioned above and if none of them are working then you may seek for medical assistance if you have the problem of erectile dysfunction.

Article Source: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/health/erectile-dysfunction-what-you-need-to-know.html

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Internet Access in Jos, Plateau State Ngeria

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Internet access in developing and underdeveloped counties generally face big challenges in terms of infrastructures like fiber optic cables, back-bone cable connections, lack of reliable internet Service providers (ISP), slow or not very fast internet connection speed (poor services), limited internet access to the general public, and high cost of internet access/connection.

Nigeria is not an exception to these problems even though there seems to be significant improvements in recent times and big plans for the future, the problems still exists and stands as a challenge yet to be conquered. Plateau State and Jos its capital city are both in Nigeria and are not exempted from the Nigerian situation.

Internet access in Jos city and indeed Plateau State and even Nigeria as a country has been mostly through the use of satellite (VSAT) which is considerably a very expensive means of internet access. People who cannot secure the high cost of owning or maintaining one usually patronize the public internet cafes or go for the internet access services offered by mobile telecommunication companies present in the State.

Locally it costs from about $1.00 to $2.00 (N150.00 to N300.00 as at march 2010) or even more for every hour of internet accesses at public internet cafes within the Jos metropolis. Notable local internet cafes and internet service providers in Jos, even though some have gone out of business include; Net-link 24hr (Jos Business School), Bethnan Internet Café, Rabjib, Zecon, Afrione, Zebeh, Logic Systems, UCL Internet Café, System Links, Metro Cybercafé, MD Internet café, etc. Also worthy of note is that most of the local Internet Service Providers (ISPs localized in the Jos-Plateau) make use of the Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) technology, MMDS (Multipoint Microwave Distribution Service) and sometimes fixed WiMax (World-wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) through the ISM bands to connect customers to their VSATs (internet access satellite) equipment for internet access. This involves the use of customer premise equipments like antennas (receivers) and wireless routers and Telco-Office transmitters mounted on pole/masts which operate mostly on line-of-sight (LOS) and sometimes on non-line-of-sight (NLOS).

With all the speeds that these Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) offers; the through-put at the end of the day for the customer drops down to the actual shared internet access speeds available to the internet service provider (ISP) for its customers which is at most 5-7kbps (kilobits per second) on a very good day.

However, internet access today in Jos city and in Plateau State is generally being dominated by mobile telecommunication companies offering mostly General Packet Radio Services (GPRS), Enhanced General Packet Radio Services (EGPRS), Third Generation mobile internet access (3G), and EV-DO RevA type internet access technologies with the use of customized modems unique to each mobile telecommunication company operating as an internet service provider which are in a few cases better than what the local internet service provider (ISP) alternative has to offer. These mobile phone and telecommunication companies are the likes of MTN (MTN Fast Link), Zain Mobile, Starcoms, Zoom, Visafone, Multi-Links Telkom, and Glo Mobile.

Generally, the internet is very accessible in Jos and in Plateau State even though not at real broad band speeds, it is still very usable depending on the Internet Service Provider (ISP) you chose to use. However the best we have tested so far, even though not devoid of down time problems is the Multi-links Telkom’s EV-DO Rev A hybrid internet access modems. We rate it our best in terms of speed, and reliability, even though is fails in terms of reach-ability (it is not usable in some rural areas), setup (first time installation) and affordability (compared to the cost of what other mobile phone telecommunication companies are offering).

In the midst of all these, one thing is for sure; you will never lose torch of the internet to connect with family, friends, and colleagues or to surf the web and do some downloads or whatever you use the internet for whenever you find yourself in the lovely city of Jos or in most parts of Plateau State.

Markets & places of interest on the Jos-Plateau; Building Materials and Vegetable Market, Gada Biyu Market, Faringada Tomatoes Market,, Langtang Street, Rukuba Road Market,, Ahmadu Belo Way, Jama’a Junction, Mangu Market, Jengre Market, etc.

The Jos-Plateau in Nigeria is also the place to find the following commodities in abundance and at good wholesale and retail prices. Commodities like; vegetables (including Irish potatoes, Cucumber, Cabbage, Tomatoes, Green pepper, Green peas, water melon, Water, Onions, Carrots), grains (including Popcorn, Sorghum, Millet, Yellow Maize, White Maize, Beans, Acha, Rice, Soybeans, Sesame seeds), fruits (including; Oranges, Bananas, Mango, Pineapples, Strawberry, Grape), (including Cow, Calf, Goat, Sheep, Goat, Chicken Eggs, Broiler chicken), and gem stones (including Topaz, Ruby, Tourmaline Blue, Pink Tourmaline, Aquamarine, Quartz, Sapphire), and many more.

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Designing a Process For Customer Service Issue Escalation

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Most companies have some sort of customer service. However, the companies that are good at customer service do more than just offer it. They have a process for escalating customer issues to prevent their losing the customer. Then they train their customer service staff in that process, as well as how to best serve the customer within company policy and manage to keep them happy too. Consider documenting a customer service escalation process and training towards using it. At a minimum the process should include the following levels of escalation.

Always start the escalation process with the first person to talk with the customer. For a phone or internet customer service, this is typically a customer service representative (CSR). When the CSR is working with a customer, it is their responsibility to try to resolve the customer’s issue or problem in a pleasant manner. The CSR should make an effort to really meet the customer need without lying or bending company rules. Often a solution at the first level will make the customer happy enough that they continue business with the company. Training on how to improved customer service offered on the phone and in-person will help make this step more effective. This type of training should include role plays to allow the new CSR to practice. Since the CSR job can be stressful and new information is always pertinent, it is important to offer periodic retraining as well.

If the customer’s issue is related to a technical problem or a specific product and the CSR does not have the information to help the customer, then they should pass the issue onto an appropriate expert for resolution. The CSR should let the customer know that an expert will need to handle the issue and give an idea when the customer may expect to heat back from the expert. The expert should reply as soon as they find an answer for the customer, even if they must take the time to leave a voice mail or compose a detailed email. If a customer’s problem goes this far, only a quick and great solution will result in a happy customer. Providing a list of product or technical issue experts that CSR’s may refer to will make this second escalation step easier. However, the experts should receive some additional training in people skills so that they treat the customer appropriately as well.

When there is no expert or the expert does not resolve the issue, the CSR should request the issue be promoted to the customer service supervisor or manager. Or the customer may request this third level of escalation if they are unhappy with what they have encountered thus far. The supervisory person should resolve the issue for the customer immediately after they receive the escalation. The supervisor or manager will have to sincerely apologize to the customer and explain what they are going to do or have done. It they do not, the problem will only get bigger as customer may choose to personally escalate their complaint to a fourth level that can result in unfortunate consequences for the customer service group.

A customer service escalation path that is well designed and has properly trained representatives should indicate no need for customers to want to seek a fourth level. However, the fourth level the customers could choose to implement their self. This might be to write a letter or email to the division manager, the company president, or the organization’s CEO. Or for external customers, they may choose to file a complaint with the Better Business Bureau. Customers that chose to escalate to a fourth level will be lost to the company unless they get a solution that they feel is above and beyond anything that could reasonably be expected at the other levels. Prevent the need for the customer to desire this level of escalation by answering their need and resolving their problem at one of the first three levels.

For the reasons outlined above, consider documenting a customer service escalation process and training customer service staff appropriately. An effective process for escalation of customer issues will help maintain current customers as future ones. Be a company that offers more than a customer service contact, but be one that is good at delivering the service as well.

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Smooth Operator: 5 Simple Ways To Help Your Business Run Smoothly

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If you run a business, you will appreciate how many protocols and processes must be overseen on a daily basis. You may have automated where possible, and delegated what remained. But it is still likely that there are some areas of your business that could run more smoothly.

While running a business is a process of continual refinement and improvement, some areas are regularly identified as requiring attention. These areas are vital for the overall functionality and effectiveness of your business. Supporting them in running smoothly will allow the business to run smoothly overall – allowing for the inevitable road bumps and adjustments along the way!

Read on to discover these five simple, but highly effective, ways to help your business run more smoothly.

1. Review Regularly

Reviews and assessments may only seem valuable once a year – or even only when something goes wrong – but the reverse is true. Reviews and evaluations should be undertaken well in advance of anything going wrong or getting severely off-track.

You can help facilitate this by scheduling regular reviews in your calendar, and especially the key areas that should be assessed such as budget, processes, and deadlines.

By incorporating regular reviews, audits, and assessments into the overall day-to-day running of your business, you will always have a clear overview of your operations and be able to stay in control. Reviews are especially effective in spotting small problems before they have a chance to develop into big ones.

Don’t forget that you can also hire professionals or those with an objective ‘outsider’ perspective to assist with this, such as auditors and accountants.

2. Use Professional Couriers

Many businesses report that one of their biggest areas of stress and disruption is in mail and deliveries.

Using the conventional postal service often simply is not good enough for a business. It can risk losing supplies, being unable to track the package or contact the driver, and leaving customers disappointed as a result. They may also be waiting on supplies and equipment of their own.

Using professional, reliable couriers may involve an initial outlay, but it can be an investment overall. There are many reasons why businesses are choosing to use professional couriers, but some of the most common are speed, reliability, and price.

If this is an area that your business relies on – or even struggles with – consider consulting with a professional courier service.

3. Hire Experts

Know when someone else knows better! Many businesses waste countless hours trying to figure something out that an expert could have solved in minutes. This may be true of budgets, business plans, logistics, social media, Search Engine Optimisation, and more.

Expand your network by bringing in experts and professionals. Have them assess your processes and offer ideas for improvement. Consider hiring experts regularly to oversee the most crucial aspects of your business too.

While it is important to understand and appreciate your own processes, it is still likely that an expert could offer more than you have had time to learn.

4. Update Key Equipment

It can be helpful to identify key pieces of equipment that help keep your business running smoothly – and ensuring they are always in excellent working order.

This might include computers and electronics, machinery, software, or even a car that you use for business. Ensure that you get things serviced regularly, such as taking your car to a reputable garage and driving in the most fuel-efficient way between visits.

Upgrade your equipment where necessary as a legitimate business expense, and continually assess whether your processes are as streamlined as they could be.

It is not just about accumulating or upgrading equipment for your business. These assessments could also show if there are things you are hanging onto needlessly that are not vital for your business. You could declutter and save money as a result!

5. Take Breaks

One of the most vital aspects of the smooth running of your business is you. Invest in your health and wellbeing, being especially conscious of stress or circumstances that may harm your mental health.

Mental and physical health concerns in the workplace are on the rise, so it is important to be vigilant. Take scheduled and effective rest breaks – throughout the day, but also throughout the year where possible.

Prioritise your health and wellbeing, as well as that of your team, and your business will stand the very best chance of thriving!

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Finance

Copywriter Jobs for the Talented Wordsmith – A Satisfying and Well-Paying Career Option

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“All the news that is fit to print” and all the other catchy slogans you hear from time to time that you either find impossible to forget or that become a part of the popular culture, come from the pens of copywriters. If it weren’t for those clever word artists who work endlessly behind some of the most well-known catch phrases, slogans, tag lines and popular rhymes, businesses would probably have no way to sell their products. Copywriter jobs aren’t just for the creation of advertising catchphrases though, of course. Copywriters design brochures, they design the websites of companies, and almost anything written that can affect sales, almost anywhere where using the right words can attract better business.

As with any position that involves creativity in a business setting, copywriter jobs work best for people who do well in a team – a team of project managers, editors, developers, graphics designers and accountants – all these people focused narrowly on getting someone to buy a product. That doesn’t mean that all copywriter jobs exist in large corporations or advertising agencies though. While those do make up the bulk of the copywriter’s employment market, freelance opportunities success as well.

When copywriters come to be employed by a large company, they work on the company’s internal creative team. The copywriter in such a job needs to have a great understanding of the business of the company, and needs to accept responsibility for the company’s performance. He can be asked to come up with materials to serve almost any marketing need at the company – the production of a brochure, a press release, material for a tradeshow, anything. And advertising agencies that provide corporations with all the advertising solutions they need in multimedia, social media and all kinds of marketing, are all about narrower specialization. Since an advertising agency constantly receives work from clients, it can afford to keep specialists on the payroll for each specific job. A press release writer in such a position would probably get to constantly write press releases for all of the company’s clients. A copywriter who writes advertising scripts would probably gain such expertise doing his job repeatedly, that they wouldn’t let him write anything else. Now a copywriter working in these kinds of organizations is spared the trouble of finding new clients when a job is done. That’s what the business he works for is there for. Unfortunately, that’s not how it works for a freelance copywriter.

A freelance copywriter needs to be completely competent not only in the writing of great slogans and arresting copy, but also in the talking up of a strong game. He needs to be able to network, to find clients, maintain business relationships. Still, creative types like copywriters do tend to gravitate in any direction that offers them more freedom. Copywriters make a pretty decent living – about $50,000 a year on average. It’s rewarding work, and if you a have degree in communications, journalism, advertising or language, and if you have a great way with words, you’ll probably find the hiring managers coming after you.

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Factors to Consider When Choosing Business Card Printing Services

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In any business setting, business cards are important and this is because they make it possible for customers to learn more about the company. In addition to this, when used appropriately, they also come in handy for the purposes of branding. In order to enjoy the benefits that come with this, it is therefore advisable to hire business card printing services. There are hundreds of service providers to choose from and while this is supposed to make things easier, it can only complicate them. For this reason, there are a couple of things you need to consider in order to make an informed choice.

Excellence

Regardless of what you buy or sell, quality is the first thing you look at and it also plays a major role when choosing a service provider. Quality shows that you care about you’re the image you project to your customers and as such, this draws them closer. Unless the service provider can assure you of meeting this end, you are better of not hiring the services at all.

Price

Price plays a crucial role when choose business card printing services. In this case, you don’t want to settle for extremely cheap prices that comprise on the quality and at the same time, you should not settle for high prices that do not measure up to the desired expectations. It is therefore advisable to weigh your options carefully and carry out thorough research and comparisons in order to make the most informed and appropriate decision. Set a budget and work within its confined to see whether you can afford the services.

References and Reputation

These aspects work hand in hand and as such, they cannot be overlooked when making your pick. Talk to people who have used the services offered by the company before you and make enquiries about the quality of service offered. This will also go a long way to determine the type of reputation they have built. Make sure that the business card printing service provider is well known for following the agreed timeline and meeting the customer’s needs. This is the only way to increase the probability of getting the most out of the services.

While at it, it is also advisable to research and have a clear picture of what your competitors are doing and the type of services they are using. There is no doubt that competition has become rife in the industry and for this reason, it is important to find out the type of printing they are using. This will is important as it gives you an idea of what you ought to settle down for and as such, increases the possibility of getting the most out of the cards.

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