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Satellite Communication Overview of the Technology & the Antenna System Part IV

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Key Issues

Looking ahead of 1990’s, one could observe a very rapid expansion of global market in satellite communication into personal communication and new mobile satellite services, such as Personal Communication System (PCS) and Mobile satellite Services (MSS) respectively, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and new direct broadcast satellite services. LEO satellite services were introduced towards the end of 1990’s, and the growth depended on the competitive factors. The conventional Fixed Satellite services (FSS) and Maritime Mobile Satellite Services (MMSS) grew steadily but not as before.

Optical fiber cables, now forming a greater part of this communication revolution through out the world, severely challenged the fixed satellite services. Very high data rates, similar to High Dynamic Range (HDR) graphics, which requires greater than 155Mb per second of data transfer, which required excellent signal conditioning, were being carried by the fiber optics cables. Fiber optic cables have a better performance than satellites, having much less time delay in transmission. It was a time when satellite services needed to prove its advantage on HDR applications and networking, having a more modest data rates, for example T1=1.5Mb per second. A T-1 line actually consists of 24 individual channels, each of which supports up-to 64Kbits per second data rate. The advantages include, wide area coverage, distance insensitivity, flexibility, multiple access and destination capabilities and economy. Although much of the HDR traffic, such as multi-channel telephone trunks, from satellites to cables, will be transmitted through fiber optics cables, new opportunities opened up for HDR satellites to carry HDTV picture signal distribution, and also support the emerging field of Distributed High Performance Computing (DHPC). To gain access to this application market, HDR satellites needed to be developed and deployed commercially.

It was clear by now that the world of satellite communication was changing fast and threats existed for fixed satellite services, while new opportunities opened up in mobile, broadcast and personal services. Presently, the US leadership in satellite communication is being challenged, while it was undoubtedly the leader of such technology and was an agent of the changes in the past.

There are reasons as to why there has been a bleak assessment of the future of US in satellite communication technology. The important reasons include, the governments reduced role, lagging R&D effort, lack of systems conceptualisation, non-focusing of effort in new applications, and lack of effective industrial liaison and co-operation. On record, the assessment shows that during 1970’s and 1980’s there was extremely limited activity in US in the area of satellite communications projects, while there were frequent diverse research programs that were going on in Europe and Japan. Although these projects are of a different technology and much less budgeted than the US ones, the overall impression of US losing ground in the area of satellite communication is essentially correct.

The setting up of policy, planning, and supporting industrial development in different countries varies widely, with the governments of each country playing a key role in such activities. The policies and planning of the governments in Europe and Japan are far more aggressive than that of US, with the resources for such development being far more deployed. In-fact, in the last ten years, NASA has spent much less in satellite communication than its counterparts, the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA) or the European Space Agency (ESA), although NASA’s total budget is many times greater.

Satellite Communication Technologies

A brief discussion, relating to the assessment of satellite communication technology, is presented here.

The Antenna System

A component of active transmitter and receiver, the antenna is a transducer between electromagnetic waves in space and voltages or currents in a transmission line. The receiving antenna transforms the receiving radio waves into electrical signals which are processed for necessary information. On the other hand, a transmitting antenna converts electrical signal into radio waves and transmits them to the Earth stations. The radio waves (signals) received and transmitted by the two antennas are based on certain frequencies and the receive frequency is always different from the transmitted one. These two frequencies are kept separate owing to the reason that if they were the same, there would conflict between the received and transmitted signals. These antennas are generally directional antenna, transmitting more power in some direction than others. The directional property of an antenna is represented by its radiation pattern, which are generally 3-dimensional.

An antenna needs power to transmit. This power lets the antenna transmit over greater distances. This ability to transmit depends on the “gain” of the antenna. The more the “gain,” the antenna can transmit a greater distance. This power is derived from the onboard electrical power generation in a satellite. Here there is a limitation on this power. A battery bank and solar cell panels, provide power to the onboard satellite systems. The solar panels are active during the sun-light times, as it powers the satellite systems and charges the battery bank as well. In dark the solar system cannot work and the battery bank starts to provide the generation. A dark situation occurs when the Earth comes in-between the satellite and the Sun, when the battery bank switches on to supply the power required.

In order to know more about antenna, let us now look at some of the terms used in defining an antenna characteristic. First, the radio signals received or transmitted by an antenna is related as frequencies and expressed in Hertz (Hz). Frequency has been names as Hertz (Hz), after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1847-1894), who was first to transmit and receive radio waves. Hertz is a measure of the frequency and denotes the number of cycles that a signal undergoes in a second. For example, if a signal makes a complete cycle in one second, that is measured as 1Hz. As for the term Bandwidth in the concept of radio communication, the difference between the highest frequency signal component and its lowest one, in terms of Hz, is the spectrum which is called the bandwidth of the signal. A typical voice signal has a bandwidth of 3 kHz, that is to say that the frequency of a voice lies within 3 kilo hertz bandwidth, where-as the TV signal has a bandwidth of 6MHz, some 2,000 times as wide as the voice. In here, “k” and “M” denote kilo and Mega respectively. For understanding, the table below provides the conversions:

Table 1

I kHz 1000 Hz

1MHz 1000 kHz

1 GHz 1000 MHz

Where,

k = Kilo

M = Mega

G = Giga

Staying in the subject of bandwidth, generally three types of bandwidths are utilised in satellite communication and these are, Ku-band, L-band and C-band. The Ku-band uses frequencies from 14 Giga Hertz to 14.5 Giga Hertz (see Table 1), for up-linking signals from the Earth stations to the satellite and 11.7GHz and 12.7GHz and for down-linking from the satellite to the Earth stations.

It has been mentioned above, that receiving and transmitting frequencies, to and from the satellite are kept wide apart, to avoid any interference between the two. The higher frequencies, Ku-band frequencies are significantly more susceptible to signal quality problems caused by rainfalls. This is known as “rain-fading.”

L-band frequencies range from 390MHz to 1,55GHz. Satellite communication and terrestrial communications between satellite equipment uses this band of frequencies. L-band higher frequencies are less susceptible to rain-fading compared to Ku-band signals.

The original frequency band allocated for satellite communication is the C-band frequency, which uses 3.7GHz to 4.2Ghz for down-linking signals to the Earth stations and 5.925GHz to 6.425Ghz for up-linking from the Earth stations. The lower frequency ranges in this band have a better performance under bad weather conditions than the Ku-band frequencies. Variations of C-band frequencies are being used in different parts of the world and these are classified as, Extended C-band, Super Extended C-Band, INSAT C-Band, etc. C-band requires a larger Earth station dish antenna, varying between 3 inches to 9 inches, depending on the design parameters. Reflector antennas are mostly used in traditional geostationary satellite, having applications in fixed satellite services (FSS) and maritime mobile satellite service (MMSS). These are used to link L-band, C-band and Ku-band, which require high gain antennas with parabolic dish structure. A reflector antenna is the one which has a spherical wave-front, which means that the radiations of the signals from the antenna are spherical in nature, one in which the energy spreads out in all directions away from the antenna and produces a pattern that is not very directional. A parabolic antenna is specifically used for high directivity. These antennas are illuminated by a set of “feed” antennas or indirectly through a system of sub-reflectors. A feed antenna will generally consist of a horn type structure, having electronics components for signal amplifications and signal conditioning circuitry. This feed antenna is mounted at the absolute center of the dish reflector antenna, with the horn facing the center of the dish. There could be multiple horns in such feed antenna.

Most of the Low Earth Orbit satellites have space constraint to have any of the type of parabolic antennas. Instead they have antennas which are known as “Whip Antenna.” There is ofcourse a shrink in the gain of the antenna in comparison to the reflector antenna as used with the geosynchronous satellites. This loss of gain is compensated by the reduction in the distance that such satellites orbit the Earth, being just 2,000 kilo meters as compared to 40,000 kilo meters for the geosynchronous satellites.

The ground antennas for the low Earth orbiting satellites are of generally Yagi or Helix design. Low Earth orbiting satellites use very low frequencies in receiving and transmitting signals and the dish antennas would be impractically large. There is not much of a difference between the requirement of a low Earth orbiting satellite and a geosynchronous one and with the advent of modern systems, like Motorola’s IRIDIUM, that require sophisticated beaming of signals, low Earth orbiting satellites may soon have phased arrays and reflector antennas.

The Yagi antenna derives its name from two Japanese inventors, Yagi and Uda. This is the reason why the antenna is also referred to as Yagi-Uda antenna. The invention was first published in 1928, which was presented by Yagi himself. This type of antenna consists of an array of a dipole and additional parasitic elements. There is another element, a reflector, slightly larger in length than that of a dipole. This arrangement gives antenna better directional characteristic than a single dipole antenna. Yagi antennas are directional, along the axis perpendicular to its plane of elements, from the reflector to the driven parasitic elements. It is interesting to note that additional directors in these type of antennas increase directivity of the signals, where-as, addition of further reflectors makes no significant difference.

The gain of a Yagi antenna is controlled by the number of elements that it has. However, spacing the elements is also a design factor in terms of gain of such antenna. The design of the Yagi antenna has many inter-related variables, and earlier designs were not being able to achieve the full potential or performance of these antennas. Today’s computer design has made a great impact of the design characteristics and greater improvement in performance has been achieved.

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Benefits of Bing and Yahoo Pay Per Click

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With today’s very competitive online marketing, it is important that a business creates a strong marketing effort to build qualified traffic to their website. Pay per click marketing is one great way of advertising on the Internet. It can bring a steady flow of traffic that can result to potential leads and new sales. Over the years, it has been proven profitable, especially if the business is targeting a segment of audience. Adding Bing and Yahoo to your Google pay per click marketing is worth considering.

Pay per click campaign is based on keyword selection specifically designed to revolve around search terms that are relevant for the site. They are normally the ads that show up at the top and right corner of a search page. Generally, search engines do not charge when displaying these ads, but when a visitor clicks on the ad or the link which lands back to the business’ site, only then, is the advertiser charged.

All throughout the pay per click marketing world, Google is leading all other search engines with their 67% market share. However, what most advertisers do not realize is that with the growing amount of traffic on Google, also comes a number of competitors, still making it hard to hit on search result targets.

So, what is the alternative? Over the last couple of years, Bing and Yahoo pay per click have emerged as Google’s number one competitor. Although, Yahoo’s market share only comes up to 11.6% and Bing’s to 16.7%. When combined, they total of over 30% and this can still make a dent with Google’s share. And for any advertisers who overlooks these numbers could be ignoring a large population of potential customers.

Other advantages of Bing and Yahoo pay per click, include:

  • Pay per click with Bing and Yahoo does not cost as much as with Google. – Many advertisers say that taking Google as their host for paid search is a complete campaign suicide, mainly because of their high costs. Relevant keywords being bid with Bing and Yahoo do not cost as much as $2 to $5 per click as with Google. For instance, one of the most expensive keywords in Google includes “insurance,” “loans,” “mortgage,” “trading,” which usually ranges from $30 to $50 per click. So, if you run a business about loans and need to bid on “house loans” keyword, a business can pay as much as $3500 a month for that particular keyword alone with Google. However, Bing and Yahoo give much more reasonable prices. They have the lowest cost per click, even with the most expensive keywords in AdWords that normally ranges from $0.10 to $2, but still lands in the first pages. More so, they offer long-tail keywords of four or more words, but still at a very reasonable price bid.
  • Bing and Yahoo have demographic advantages. – Although recently, Bing removed their feature to target ads by gender and age as they say they improve it to become more accurate. Bing and Yahoo still have a statistical advantage because 58% of their users are women, and their audiences are from an age group of 35-45 and 55-64, which are definite age groups that can afford to buy as much in the Internet. Furthermore, this is probably because Bing is owned by Microsoft, and they normally put default web browsers that come with the computer a user has bought, not unless of course, if they are tech savvy and knows how to change web search engines in their computers.
  • Bing and Yahoo allow their users to import campaigns from Google – most advertisers admit that they are always having a hard time running separate campaigns in Google, and with Bing and Yahoo as they do their best to update each. Now, AdCenter with Bing and Yahoo allows users to import their campaign from AdWords with Google, without even exporting a single file. This is perfect for advertisers who do not want to spend time editing, exporting, and re-uploading spreadsheets from one account to another.
  • Bing and Yahoo pay per click does not run on Internet Explorer alone – Recently, many adCenter users of Bing and Yahoo requested to expand their service outside Internet Explorer. Now, pay per click may also be run through Mac and Chrome users, including all other web browsers.
  • Bing and Yahoo for mobile – paid search through Bing and Yahoo is made easy as they launched Bing on mobile devices through WAP or GPRS connections. Not only will users enjoy “Find My Location,” applications, as well as driving directions and maps, but they will also be able to search for new information through their smart phones, and this means that pay per click campaigns will reach a much wider audience.
  • Bing and Yahoo have representatives to talk to for free, 24/7. – Microsoft has dedicated customer representatives who are specifically assigned to help Bing and Yahoo AdCenter users, even those that are starting with their Bing and Yahoo ads. They have a range of topics that they can help with, from starting up, to billing, managing campaigns, editorial questions, and campaign reports. In fact, they are even open to suggestions and comments, which is the main reason why Microsoft brought about the freedom for users to use their Bing pay per click campaign on other web browsers. More so, these representatives are always active in social media, so it could be easy to reach them in Twitter or Facebook.
  • Cross-Platform Analytic Reports – With Bing and Yahoo’s adCenter report, it becomes easy for users to compare keyword performance for their pay per click campaign with other search engines, so that they can make the most of their budget.
  • Potentially Better Return of Investments – any pay per click campaign is useless if it does not get positive results. Numerous advertisers have vouched that adCenter pay per click campaigns through Bing and Yahoo drove more traffic than keywords run with AdWords of Google, which significantly gives a better return on investment.

Even with the 67% market share of Google, if combined with costly prices for their pay per click campaign, and with their other seemingly flaws, Bing and Yahoo still strike as a better alternative to Google, and as they make a dent to Google’s ad campaign, soon more and more advertisers will realize the benefits and power of what Bing and Yahoo can offer with the increase of their sales and rapid growth of their business.

Additional Resources

  • Pay Per Click on Bing
  • Pay Per Click on Google
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Top Three Attributes of the Car Accident Lawyer You Should Retain

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Car accidents, including motorcycle and truck accidents, are serious business. They happen every day and, even if you’re the safest driver in the world, they can still happen to you. If you suffer serious injuries from a car, motorcycle, or truck accident, it is vital that you first speak to a car accident lawyer before you reach any settlement with the insurance company, which would like nothing more than to pay you the least amount possible. However, choosing the right lawyer is not as simple as the decision to consult with one. Here are the top three attributes that you should look for in a prospective car accident lawyer to retain.

Expert

One of the most critical attributes to look for in a prospective auto injury lawyer is whether he or she actually specializes in car, motorcycle, and truck accident law. As an injured accident victim, you will be relying on lawyer you retain to maximize your recovery from the insurance company. Do yourself a big favor and make sure you retain a lawyer who specializes exclusively in representing auto accident victims.

There are many attorneys in each state practicing personal injury law. However, personal injury law can cover a wide-range of injuries. You don’t want a personal injury lawyer that handles a wide variety of personal injury lawsuits. You want a lawyer that specializes exclusively in car, motorcycle and truck accident law; someone who day-to-day represents auto accident victims.

For example, if needed heart sugary, would you want a general surgeon operating on you or a heart surgeon? Retain a lawyer specializing in representing auto accident victims. This can make a significant difference in how much you recover from the insurance company. You do not have to worry about expert auto lawyers being too expensive for you, because they generally do not charge hourly fees but, rather, a contingency fee.

Experience

The second most critical attribute to look for in a prospective car injury lawyer is his or her experience level. It’s not just a matter of being an experienced lawyer, you want an attorney who is very experienced in representing auto accident injury victims.

Following a car accident, the injuries you sustain may change your life drastically. Now is not the time to put your life and the way you are able to lead it in the hands of a rookie. Try to find a car accident attorney with at least five years of experience, ideally someone with experience representing car accident victims against the same insurance company. Consult with a seasoned lawyer who has many years of experience going up against the insurance companies.

However, it’s not just a matter of experience in car accident law. You want an attorney with years of trial experience, because your case may require going to trial.

Success

Finally, when considering a prospective car accident lawyer, you want to make sure he or she has been successful in the past and in the present. There is no point selecting a specialized lawyer with years of experience if he or she has not been successful against the auto insurance companies. It should not be difficult finding out how successful your prospective car lawyer is in representing auto accident injury victims. Just ask! If he or she has a proven track record of success, they will tell you and give you examples. Ideally, they will have been successful for past clients with similar injuries that you have sustained in the car accident.

In the end, you want a car accident lawyer who is an expert, experienced, and successful with respect to auto accident law in your state. Do not settle for anything less. There is absolutely no reason why you would need to.

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Sales Force Automation Software: Business Need

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Sales Force Automation Software was a major challenge before some decades that is successfully superseded by our techno-giants. The entire business community was longing for a system that could control; and monitor the track of sales and marketing activities. Things were getting tougher for an executive or an entrepreneur to manually handle the entire sales process and organizational activities. Moreover, the interaction with the clients was worsened. The answer to all those worries came in the form of this Software.

Streamlines Sales tasks

Sales Force Automation Software basically is another name for Customer Relationship Management Software. Its prime motto is to provide one-to-one interaction of organization executives with their customers. The primitive form of this Software was just for maintaining contacts. But rapid advancement of technology and rigorous endeavors from the technocrats has made it capable of overpowering the entire sales stage.

Online Sales Software handles all the sales tasks easily and gives you accurate sales reports on time. It is easy to use software which fulfills all the needs of the organization. It saves the precious time of the sales team and sales managers.

Web Based Technology

Online CRM Software encompasses cloud computing technology to perform the sales force automation. From Cloud Computing, we basically mean data to be stored in servers that are remotely located and are connected through network. Cloud Computing uses the SaaS module to provide this technology. SaaS stands for Software-As-A-Service. That means, the software needs not to be installed at the client’s computer. It is hosted from a remote server and its complete package can be accessed from there itself.

This Software has sorted out most of the problems faced by the entrepreneurs handling small to big organizations. Its easy usability, portability and anywhere operable flexibility have proved its worth over the previously launched hosted application.

Some Benefits of Online CRM Software over the premise hosted software are:

1) Premise hosted need to be installed to a computer. Thus it gets system specific. You can’t avail the software once you change the software. It can be used anywhere and at anytime, you can access the software any time you required.

2) Online CRM Softwares are cost effective. Whereas premise hosted software are much costlier than that.

3) There is a lot of extra IT infrastructure needed to successfully run premise hosted application. Whereas online application provide all kinds of functional service on a remote access basis.

4) The entire data load in case of premise hosted is upon your system. So, any time, there are chances of data crash and hardware failure. While in case of cloud computing, entire data load is upon the server. So your system is always safe from the impending dangers.

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Addition To The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006 Proposed By HSE

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It was only in 1983 that Asbestos (Licencing) Regulations introduced the requirement for companies or individuals working with asbestos coating or asbestos insulation products to possess a Health and Safety Executive (HSE) licence.

Another twenty years elapsed before the 2003 Regulations instructed that the relevant authority must be notified of the details to any asbestos work which required a license, at least 14 days prior to the commencement of work. The Control of Asbestos Regulations, 2006 unified all previous prohibition and licencing regulations into one comprehensive reference document.

Following correspondence with the European Commission, the HSE is presently in consultation on plans to once again modify aspects of the 2006 Regulations. The aim is to more accurately reflect current levels of health risk concerns to companies and organisations who come into working contact with chrysotile white asbestos, estimated to be still present in a half a million premises around the UK.

Despite the continuing asbestos awareness campaigns of HSE, inconsistency of working knowledge and methods by construction firms and premises owners to the necessary actions required when first inspecting site building, encountering, containing and disposing of asbestos material.

Despite being banned from the 1980s onwards, white asbestos continued to be used in insulating materials such as wall board, wall coatings and cement products found in a wide variety of commercial and domestic building applications.

Currently, there are two existing categories of asbestos work:

1. Licensed asbestos work

2. Non-Licensed asbestos work

Currently, non-licensed work is exempt from requirements to:

– Notify work with asbestos to the relevant enforcing authority

– Carry out medical (respiratory) examinations

– Maintain registers of work (health records)

– Hold an asbestos licence

– Have arrangements to deal with accidents, incidents and emergencies

– Designate asbestos areas

While the licensed asbestos work category remains unchanged, HSE propose to modify non-licensed asbestos work by introducing additional measures for short duration exposure to ‘friable’ ( fragile and disintegrating) or ‘damaged or degraded’ asbestos. A new category of asbestos work is to be introduced in addition to the two existing categories.

3. Notifiable Non-Licensed Work (NNLW).

Work under this new category will be exempt from requirements to:

– Hold an asbestos licence.

– Have arrangements for accidents, incidents and emergencies.

– Designate asbestos areas.

However, work under the new category will require employers to:

– Notify their work with asbestos to the “relevant enforcing authority”.

– Carry out medical (respiratory) examinations.

– Maintain registers of work (health records).

HSE propose that requirements for notifying work with asbestos, health records and medical surveillance will not apply where:

a) Exposure of employees to asbestos is sporadic and of low intensity.

b) It is clear from the risk assessment that the exposure of any employee to asbestos will not exceed the control limitwhere the work involves –

(i) Short, non-continuous maintenance activities in which only non-friable materials are handled.

(ii) Removal without deterioration of non-degraded materials in which the asbestos fibres are firmly bonded in a matrix.

(iii) Encapsulation/sealing of asbestos-containing materials which are in good condition.

(iv) Air monitoring/control, and the collection /analysis of samples to confirm whether a material contains asbestos.

Existing regulations do not specifically require the asbestos to be ‘non-friable’ or ‘non-degraded’ and the European Commission also seems to require a respiratory examination of industry personnel every three years due to uncertainty of not will knowing if there has been an encounter with asbestos in ‘notifiable’ situations.

Throughout the twentieth century and right up until the present day, dangers of asbestos exposure were continually ignored by building trade personnel or building owners. As a result, joiners, plasterers, plumbers, electricians and other operatives would be constantly at fatal risk of inhaling deadly asbestos fibre dust, which remains permanently embedded within the linings of the lungs and would develop into asbestosis disease or the malignant incurable cancer, mesothelioma.

The first asbestosis symptoms would not appear until some 15 to 50 years later, often at an advanced stage when prognosis would be between 4 to 18 months.

In the UK, the number of deaths from mesothelioma has risen to 2, 250 in 2008 and over 2,000 diagnosed cases are recorded each year.

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Outsourcing Your Plastic Surgery Marketing

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As a plastic surgeon you set yourself apart from other doctors. Every day you prove your expertise and skill by sculpting and shaping clients into the people they want to be. That is why it is a good idea for you to do what you do best and let marketing experts do what they do best. Hire a professional plastic surgery marketing team and let them increase your client base.

What an SEO Professional Can Do For You

An internet marketer is skilled at optimizing your website for higher search engine ranking. The whole idea behind marketing is being seen and a professional knows how to get you seen better than anyone. He has spent years creating ways to grab the attention of the consumer. Just as you have spent years perfecting your skills.

It would take you just as long to learn how to successfully market your business. You didn’t learn how to be a plastic surgeon just by watching the techniques on television or by reading a few books. You learned hands on with the guidance of a professional. A marketing expert learned in much the same way.

Don’t Try to Do Everything

When you try to do everything on your own you end up stressing out and making mistakes. A few plastic surgery marketing mistakes can cost you quite a few clients. But, if your stress causes mistakes in your practice, then you are really in trouble. You could even lose your license. Outsourcing your marketing strategies takes away all of that stress.

A marketing expert can create a social media marketing campaign, an email campaign, create online videos and a slew of other effective promotional techniques to get your name out on the internet and a high search engine ranking. An SEO expert knows how reach a targeted audience that have already shown an interest in having plastic surgery.

Another good reason for hiring a professional is that the industry is constantly evolving. Once you think you know everything about plastic surgery marketing, things change. The techniques that worked yesterday may not work today. A professional marketer stays on top these changes and changes with them.

People like getting instant answers and that is what Google is all about. They just type in what they are looking for and in an instant they see over a hundred thousands results. If your website is down near the one hundred thousand mark, no will click on your link. If you are in the top five, you will have much more success. A marketing expert can get you into that top five.

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How to Stop Being Resigned to Living With an Alcoholic

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Alcoholism is an illness that can be much harder for those living with an alcoholic than it is for the alcoholic. Those with an alcoholic parent or spouse know the hardship of constantly worrying that their loved one will drive while intoxicated, sell personal valuables in order to finance their habit or go on a binge and disappear for days.

For many living with an alcoholic means constantly worrying about paying the bills, having to clean up after their alcoholic loved one, looking out for various signs of alcoholism, dealing with abuse, and even being unable to sleep from fear of what will happen next.

Instead of allowing or becoming resigned to the situation you must fight back. This is the only way to ensure better future! Use these top 5 tips to make a positive change to your live.

1. Take an honest look at the alcoholic: Recognizing the line between social drinking and alcohol abuse is not always easy to identify. Although an individual who only drinks a few glasses during the weekend might not be considered an alcoholic, anyone who drinks to the point that it affects their regular life can be considered to be abusing alcohol.

Talk to the alcoholic parent or spouse. Sit down and ask them why they drink. Discus worrying symptoms that indicate alcoholism such as drinking to the point of blacking out, needing to drink to feel better about their life and feeling ashamed over their drinking habits.

2. Let the alcoholic accept the consequences: To get out of resignation, let the alcoholic experience the negative consequences of drinking and do not let yourself take on responsibility for their actions. When living with an alcoholic do not call in for them if they miss work, never purchase alcohol for them, do not help them to bed or cleaning up the empty bottles after they have been drinking. To stay out of debt and get them to see how bad the situation has become do not buy alcohol for them or give them money to buy more.

3. Accept the reality: To change your life with an alcoholic parent or spouse, you need to accept the reality. Do not live in denial or make excuses for the signs of alcoholism being displayed. You should also not feel guilty or try to threaten or bribe them into giving up alcohol. Instead, deal with your own emotions, because this is the only thing you have power to control.

4. Do not engage: When living with an alcoholic, you are likely to notice that when heavily drinking they may start arguments, throw items around, or become verbally abusive. Do not allow yourself to be drawn into playing mind games or involved in fights! Make sure your spouse experiences being loved by you but detach yourself from the situation. If needed, leave the house for a few hours or go out with friends. By not accepting the outburst and bad behaviours they will see even faster that they need help.

5. Get Support: The road to recovery will not happen in just a few weeks or months. For some the process can take years! To get the emotional support needed to recognize and treat the signs of alcoholism therapists, support groups, online forums and even eBook systems can be accessed.

These treatment methods are enormously helpful for both the alcoholic and the individuals living with an alcoholic.

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