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8 Reasons For Painful Periods And Menstrual Cramps

Menstruation is the normal vaginal bleeding that every woman experience in preparation for fertilisation. Asides from the usual blood flow and cramps, some people face difficult period pains in the lower abdomen that radiates towards the back, hips and legs. This throbbing pain that arrives with men

The pain of periods cramps is often accompanied by other symptoms and may be hard to identify as period cramps at times. Here

Menstruation is the normal vaginal bleeding that every woman experience in preparation for fertilisation. Asides from the usual blood flow and cramps, some people face difficult period pains in the lower abdomen that radiates towards the back, hips and legs. This throbbing pain that arrives with menstruation refers to Dysmenorrhea.

According to in-depth research by the Epidemiologic reviews, about 16-91% of menstruating women experience bad period pain. What are the causes of menstrual cramps? Firstly, you should note that the causes of painful periods arrive in two classes depending on the associating factor. Primary Dysmenorrhea occurs because of menstruation alone, while the second type arises from other medical conditions asides from the usual blood flow. Here are eight reasons for painful periods and menstrual cramps.


Period pain that lasts for weeks or months or worsens with age could be due to uterine fibroids. The uterus’s fibroids are benign tumours forming from the uterine smooth muscle. The United Kingdom National Health Service estimates that as many as 1 in 3 women will experience fibroids within 30-50.

The uterus passes through a monthly cycle in which it prepares for potential pregnancy by producing a more robust inner lining. The lining is lost if conception does not occur and you have your period. However, a fibroid can increase the period of pain by applying more pressure on the uterine lining. Having fibroids, whether within the uterine wall or projecting into the uterine cavity, increases the area of the uterus, leading to a more significant shedding of the lining during menstruation.

You may have more severe cramping in the days leading up to your period as your uterus goes through its movements to drive out the lining and a more pronounced sensation of pressure when your period begins due to the increased blood flow. If your uterine fibroids are enormous, their high blood flow may also cause you to feel more pressure than usual during your period.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The uterus is part of the female reproductive system that undergoes preparation each month, resulting in menstruation. However, the reproductive system can inflame, leading to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). STIs are the leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the female reproductive tract. PID can result in unpleasant menstrual cramps, infertility, and inflammation if you do not treat it.

The infection can also cause pain in the lower abdomen and is also associated with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and vaginal bleeding are all symptoms. Infertility and other problems are avoidable with prompt antibiotic treatment of PID.

Most cases of PID result from scar tissue and adhesions that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can develop in the pelvic area. Hormonal changes during menstruation can cause inflammation, bleeding, and pain by affecting the uterus and its surrounding structures, such as scar tissue and adhesions. Antibiotics are effective against PID if you identify it early, but they cannot repair any structural damage that has already occurred. If you experience significant period pain, you must engage in safe sexual behaviour and be tested regularly for sexually transmitted illnesses.


Endometriosis is a medical disorder where the uterine tissue lining appears in places other than the uterus. The tissue can occur in areas like the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, pelvic floor, and, in extreme cases, the colon, diaphragm, liver, lungs, and brain.

The symptoms and location of the endometriosis may be related to the intensity of the discomfort. Painful pelvic discomfort is often the result of endometriosis, especially if it goes untreated and leads to adhesions, persistent inflammation, large cysts, or internal bleeding. Period pain isn’t the only kind of discomfort endometriosis causes. In addition to IBS-like symptoms, many women also experience back pain and other gastrointestinal distress.


Another cause of bad period pain is adenomyosis. Like endometriosis, adenomyosis occurs when the endometrium implants within the uterine muscle rather than outside. It occurs when the tissue begins to invade the outer muscular walls of the uterus (the myometrium). The uterus can swell by a factor of two or three due to this excess tissue, producing painful periods and irregular uterine flow.

This adenomyotic tissue within the uterine wall also swells and bleeds during menstruation, leading to severe discomfort, cramps, and heavy periods. An enlarged uterus can be felt as a lump in the lower abdomen and can stress the urinary tract and bowels, leading to increased urination and constipation. However, many women experience no symptoms at all.

Intrauterine Device (IUD)

In some cases, the copper intrauterine device (IUD) can effectively prevent conception for up to ten years without using hormones or other invasive methods. This medical device, implanted in the uterus by a doctor, inhibits pregnancy by immobilising sperm and stopping eggs from planting. Copper is the active ingredient.

Copper IUDs, as opposed to progestin IUDs, have been linked to heavier and more painful menstruation, especially during the first few menstrual cycles following insertion. Warning: if you’ve been using a copper IUD for a while and suddenly start having significant period pain, something else may happen. This is probably not related to your IUD.

Uterine Defects

A female foetus’s uterus develops from a structure known as the paramesonephric ducts while still within the mother’s uterus. Infertility, painful erections, and other menstrual and sexual discomforts can result from uterine malformations.

Menstrual cramps are common and arrive through the build-up of mucous and clots in the uterus and vagina. Unicornuate is the most frequent kind of uterine abnormality, followed by bicornuate uterus (two uteri that connect to a single cervix) and septate uterus (a normal uterus with a fibrous band of tissue dividing it) (it develops from one paramesonephric duct).

Cervical Stenosis

The cervix is an opening into the vaginal canal between the uterus and the vagina. This condition is known as cervical stenosis when the cervix is abnormally tiny, preventing adequate transit between the uterus and the vaginal canal. The cervix is unusually small, preventing good transit between the uterus and vaginal canal; this condition is cervical stenosis. It may be inherited or arise later due to other medical issues or interventions. Due to the increased strain on the uterus, which cervical stenosis makes more difficult, women with this condition often complain of severe cramping during their pregnancies.

Menstrual flow becomes slow when the cervix is abnormally thin, and the uterine pressure rises, producing pain. This disease is called cervical stenosis and is relatively uncommon.

Ectopic Pregnancy

The fertilised egg never reached the uterus, where it might adhere to the endometrium. It is joined to the fallopian tube instead, typically at the ampulla, ovary, isthmus portions, fimbria site of the ovary, or cervix.

Physicians usually carry out a diagnosis of appendicitis in cases of suspected ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancies cause excruciating agony and heavy bleeding. Consult your physician if you face any of these symptoms.


Dysmenorrhea that only occurs during menstruation is the most common kind. Studies have indicated that increased prostaglandin synthesis during menstruation is the root cause of primary Dysmenorrhea.

When you menstruate, your body creates a lot of prostaglandins, which causes muscle contractions, especially in the hips and lower abdomen. Nonetheless, your way of living may increase your chances of experiencing such discomfort. Cigarette use, stress, anxiety, obesity and early menstruation are all examples.