Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, better known as Hosni Mubarak, was an Egyptian political leader who served as the president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
He had been the president for almost 30 years when the 2011 Egyptian Revolution broke out forcing him to venture down from the presidency after long stretches of fierce riots, peaceful common resistance, demonstrations of common insubordination, and strikes demanding the disintegration of the Mubarak Government.
At the hour of his venturing, down he was the longest-surviving ruler of the country since Muhammad Ali Pasha had ruled for over four decades in the first half of the 19th century.
Mubarak had been a military leader before he entered politics, having served in the Egyptian Air Force as an Air Chief Marshal. As an Air Force officer Mubarak was credited with the fruitful performance of the Egyptian air force in the initial days of the war with Israel.
The then-President Anwar Sadat had great confidence in Mubarak and consequently selected him as the Vice President of Egypt.
He took over the reins as the president when Sadat was killed after a couple of years, and along these lines started the Mubarak administration which would keep going for almost three decades before being overthrown in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
Childhood and Early Life
Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt. His father was a minor official in the Ministry of Justice.
Mubarak received his primary training from his town schools and went to the nearby provincial capital of Shibin El-Kom for his secondary instruction.
He then joined the Egyptian Military Academy from where he received a Bachelor’s degree in Military Sciences in 1949. After leaving the military academy he entered the Air Force Academy and picked up his bonus as a pilot officer in March 1950. He also received a Bachelor’s degree in flying sciences and underwent progressed flight and bomber training in the Soviet Union.
Hosni Mubarak joined the Egyptian Air Force and served in several units over the following not many years. He turned into a lecturer in the Air Force Academy in 1952 was and educated there till 1959.
He went to the Soviet Union in February 1959 for undergoing further training in a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. His training proceeded till 1961.
He earned a seat at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow in 1964 and trained there for a year. He served as a wing commander in Egypt upon his return and commanded the Cairo West Air Base in October 1966.
In 1 President Gamal Abdel Nasser named Mubarak as the director of the Air Force Academy and entrusted him with the crucial task of rebuilding the air force, which the Israelis had destroyed during the Six-Day Day War of June 1967. Two years later, in 1969 he got Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force and in 1972 its commander-in-boss.
As the commander-in-, boss he was credited with the effective performance of the Egyptian Air Force in the initial days of the war with Israel in October 1973, and was promoted to the rank of air marshal in 1974.
Another chapter started in his life when in 1975 the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat named him the Vice President.
President Sadat was killed in October 1981 and soon afterward Mubarak expected office as the president.
During the initial years of his administration, he increased the production of dress, furniture, and medication and provided affordable lodging. He tried to curb corruption in the administration and improved relations with the former Soviet Union.
He got popular and effectively won a second six-year term in 1987. Being a former military officer, he stressed on security and expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn promotion Dawla) and the Central Security Forces (anti-riot and control forces).
Hosni Mubarak won the election in 1993 and also in 1999, greatly broadening his tenure as the president. No other candidate could run against him in view of a provision in the Egyptian constitution in which the People’s Assembly assumed the primary role in choosing the President of the Republic.
The pressure for democratic reforms in Egypt was mounting and in September 2005 a different candidate election was held. He won 88.6% of the votes in what was the first challenged presidential election in Egypt’s history, in the midst of allegations of mass rigging exercises.
At this point the individuals of Egypt were growing increasingly disappointed with the Mubarak administration. Corruption, joblessness, and anti-democracy exercises were on the rise, and activists were imprisoned without trial. Mubarak’s family was blamed for amassing wealth from bribes and other illegal exercises.
Mass protests against him and his administration erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian urban communities in January 2011, prompting the Egyptian Revolution in which lakhs of protestors from all over the country demanded that Mubarak be overthrown. Despite the fact that initially reluctant, he eventually yielded to the mounting pressure and resigned from his situation as the president.
He needed to then stand on trial on several charges including ordering the killing of protesters, corruption, and maltreatment of power.
In June 2012, an Egyptian court condemned Mubarak to life imprisonment however Egypt’s Court of Cassation overturned his sentence and ordered a retrial in 2013.
He was condemned to three years in prison in 2014 on charges of theft.
In 2015, Egypt’s Court of Cassation overturned his sentence and ordered a retrial.
Awards and Achievements
In 1995, the Government of India honored him with the Jawaharlal Nehru Award which is presented to individuals “for their outstanding contribution to the promotion of international understanding, generosity, and friendship among individuals of the world”.
Hosni Mubarak received the Military Honor Medal Knight Rank from the President of Syria.
He was honored with the Decoration of King Abdul Aziz-Excellent Degree from King Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saoud.
Personal Life and Legacy
Hosni Mubarak was married to Suzanne Saleh Thabet. They had two children. His wife was born to an Egyptian father and a British mother.
On 25 February 2020, Hosni Mubarak kicked the bucket in Al-Galaa Military Hospital, Egypt. He was 91 at the hour of his death. He had recently undergone surgery for a vague medical condition and had spent numerous days in escalated care. He was called a “military leader and war hero” by Egypt’s president upon his death.