Leon Trotsky was one of the vital revolutionaries in the history of Russia. He fought for the liberation of the working class from the overwhelming regime of monarchy close by any semblance of Lenin. Appointed the Commissar of War, he helped rout the forces that opposed’Bolshevik’ principles.
He was responsible for building the ‘Red Army’ and drove the army to victory in the battle against the ‘White Army.’ His activities resulted in him being arrested and ousted to Siberia multiple times; his last outcast was a complete banishment from the Soviet Union.
For his entire life, he struggled to promote the theories of Marxist society and opposed mere capitalism as a method for progress. He supported Vladimir Lenin and his theories, though he disagreed on several principles. After Lenin’s death, the power was transferred to Joseph Stalin.
Thereafter, Trotsky’s hold on the party declined consistently, resulting in a permanent outcast from the country. The author of several books, Trotsky kept on promoting Marxist and Socialist methods of governance. He was a strong critic of the Stalin-drove government.
He was brutally killed in Mexico City, where he was spending his time estranged abroad.
Childhood and Early Life
Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on November 7, 1879, in Yanovka, YelisavetgradskyUyezd, Kherson Governorate, Russian Empire, to David LeontyevichBronstein and Anna Bronstein. He was born into a wealthy family with his father working as a farmer. Despite being Jewish, they were not very religious.
His father sent him to Odessa to concentrate in a German school. Odessa was a clamoring cosmopolitan city, and his exposure to the city helped Trotsky develop an international viewpoint very early in his childhood.
Revolutionary exercises were on the rise in Russia around that time. In 1896, Trotsky got engaged with revolutionary politics after moving to Nikolayev.
Leon Trotsky enrolled to pursue a pure Mathematics degree in college. However, he before long dropped out and engaged in setting up the ‘South Russian Worker’s Union’ in 1897.
Leon Trotsky Career
Leon Trotsky wrote pamphlets and flyers, professing communist thoughts and distributed them. In 1898, he was imprisoned alongside several other members of the Union, for two years.
In 1900, he was condemned to a four-year banish and had to leave to Siberia alongside his wife. His two daughters, Zinaida and Nina, were born in Siberia; they escaped from Siberia with their mother.
Leon Trotsky connected himself with a London based newspaper ‘Iskra’ and started writing for the newspaper. In 1902, he escaped from Siberia and moved to London, where he changed his name to Trotsky, and worked with communist stalwarts like Lenin.
In 1903, the ‘Iskra’ members split into two groups, the ‘Bolsheviks’ and the ‘Mensheviks.’ The ‘Bolsheviks’ were driven by Lenin, while the ‘Mensheviks’ were droved by Martov, whom Trotsky followed.
Members of the two groups kept changing sides, and Trotsky chose to leave the ‘Mensheviks’ because of differences in their policies and their reluctance to reconcile with Lenin.
General unrest with the ruling government picked up the pace. In January 1905, a strike by the workers was called for, which grew into a monstrous protest at St. Petersburg. On Sunday that followed, thousands of residents, who participated in a peaceful protest march, were killed as the officials opened fire.
The function would be marked in history as ‘Grisly Sunday.’
Following the functions of ‘Bleeding Sunday,’Trotsky returned to Russia to work intimately with the ‘Bolsheviks’ and the ‘Mensheviks.’ However, he had to flee to Finland, after being betrayed by certain members, and to try not to get caught by the police.
The period of unrest proceeded all over Russia, and strikes at workplaces got normal, influencing the rail framework and creating chaos. This allowed Trotsky a chance to return to Russia undetected and to engage with the newspapers indeed.
Leon Trotsky wrote, yet also, voiced his opinion against the Tsarist government that before long drove him to confront trial by and by. In 1906, at a trial, he gave a speech that catapulted him to distinction and established him as an accomplished public speaker, though he had to suffer another outcast to Siberia.
In 1907, Leon Trotsky escaped again and advanced toward London, and later to Vienna. There, he met Adolph Joffe, who remained his friend for the following 20 years, and additionally taught him about psychoanalysis.
He spent much of the following hardly any years in a state of banishment in various European countries. He kept writing revolutionary material for magazines. He additionally started a newspaper called ‘Pravda’ which ran until 1912.
In 1917, the Tsar, Nicholas II’s government, was overthrown. Trotsky utilized this opportunity to return to Russia. Another party called ‘Soviet Council of People’s Commissars,’ chaired by Vladimir Lenin was formed, and Leon Trotsky was made the Commissar of Foreign Affairs make peace with Germany.
In the next year, Lenin ordered the formation of the ‘Red Army’ and made Trotsky it’s head. The first undertaking of the ‘Red Army’ was to neutralize the ‘White Army,’ which was active in the common war, and Trotsky emerged victorious.
After the common war, efforts were made to restore peace and order, and Trotsky was excited about permitting the State to control the trade associations. Lenin opposed the thought and a rift developed between the two. However, Trotsky at last reconciled with Lenin.
By 1922, Lenin’s health had deteriorated and he suffered strokes that made him frail. Though it appeared to be that Trotsky would have his spot, it was Joseph Stalin who gathered forces to slow down the rising of Trotsky as the following leader.
After Lenin died in 1924, Leon Trotsky was completely overshadowed by Stalin. Trotsky was pushed out of the government. He was inevitably removed from the country too.
Somewhere in the range of 1925 and 1928, Trotsky was reliably pushed out from party affairs by Stalin and his partners. His role in the ‘Russian Revolution’ was discredited by them, and he was expelled from the party and sent on banish.
In 1929, Leon Trotsky was banished from the Soviet Union. His next not many years were spent in France, Turkey, and Norway. He at long last got comfortable in Mexico City from where he kept on criticizing Stalin.
Leon Trotsky’s book ‘History of Russian Revolution’ is an exemplary record of the political, social, and affordable circumstances that drove and governed the ‘Russian Revolution.’ In the book, he has described how the unrest among the oppressed classes prompted the overthrowing of the monarchist rule and heralded another era of communist government under Lenin’s leadership.
Published in 1930, Trotsky’s ‘My Life: An Attempt at an Autobiography’ is the main autobiography written by a ‘Bolshevik.’ He wrote this book while spending his long outcast from the Soviet Union; it highlights his lifelong struggle, yet also the horrors of the Stalinist regime.
The ‘October Revolution,’ which was driven by Trotsky, was an example of the concept of the ‘Permanent Revolution’ against the monarchic regime. This was a great achievement in the struggle against the bourgeoisie because the problems looked by the working class were not settled up to that point.
Leon Trotsky likewise developed the concept of ‘Joined Front,’ a method of joining all revolutionaries and reformists against a typical struggle. His theories likewise voiced protests against the rising Fascist governance in Germany and Spain, and supported a unified front for these countries too.
Personal Life and Legacy
In 1900, Trotsky married Aleksandra Sokolovskaya with whom he had two daughters, Zinaida and Nina. The marriage was short-lived as the couple before long got divorced. His daughters were dealt with by his parents.
In 1902, Leon Trotsky met Natalia Ivanovna Sedova and got married to her in 1903. The two remained married until his death. They had two children, Lev Sedov and Sergei Sedov. Lev and Sergei predeceased their parents.
On August 20, 1940, while he was sitting in his work area, he was assaulted by Ramon Mercader, an undercover operator working for the Soviet secret police. He was hit with an ice hatchet that punctured his skull, injuring him severely.
Leon Trotsky was taken to the hospital where surgery was performed. He figured out how to survive more than a day, however, kicked the bucket on August 21, 1940, at 60 years old.
Born as Lev Bronstein, this Russian revolutionary adopted another name which turned into his revolutionary pseudonym, and he utilized it for the rest of his life.
This fierce communist Russian revolutionary was highly affected by the theories of Karl Marx, a German philosopher. He was arrested and charged for spreading dangerous thoughts and causing political disorder and sent on outcast to Siberia.