Oscar Wilde was a prominent Irish playwright, writer, poet, and writer, born in the nineteenth century into a scholarly family. While concentrating in Trinity, Dublin, he was affected by the esthetic development, which pushed that art must be practiced distinctly for art and before long got one of its ardent followers.
Although his very first book, ‘Poems’ established him as an upcoming poet, he tasted real achievement just in the most recent decade of his relatively short life.
However, by then, despite being married with two children, he had gotten snared in a homosexual relationship and when that came to light, he was condemned to two-year rigorous imprisonment.
On emerging from prison, he went to France, where he spent the most recent years of his life, cut off from his family and shunned by the majority of his friends. By then, his books had additionally stopped selling and his plays were shut down. Thus he lived in poverty and medical affliction till he kicked the bucket matured just forty-six.
Childhood and Early Years
Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde was born on 16 October 1854 in Dublin, Ireland. His father, Sir William Robert Wills Wilde, was a prominent eye-ear surgeon. He likewise authored several books on medication, archeology, and folklore. In 1864, he was knighted for his services in the censuses of Ireland.
His mother, Jane Francesca Agnes (née Elgee) Wilde, was of Italian plummet. She was a poetess, writing under the penname of ‘Speranza’, which means hope. A supporter of Irish patriot development, a significant number of her works were pro-Ireland and anti-British. She was likewise interested in Irish folktales and campaigned for ladies’ schooling.
Oscar was born second of his parents’ three children. His elder brother, William Charles Kingsbury Wilde, grew up to be a prominent journalist and poet while his sister, Isola Francesca Emily Wilde, kicked the bucket of meningitis at nine years old.
Oscar likewise had three half-kin, Henry Wilson, Emily, and Mary Wilde, born with only one parent present to Sir Wilde before his marriage to Jane. Henry William Wilde was later trained in medication and helped Sir Wilde in his practice in Dublin.
Up to the age of nine, Oscar Wilde was instructed at home under a German governess and a French nurse. From them, he learned German and French respectively.
In 1864, he was enrolled at Portora Royal School, then a boarding school in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. Here, he turned out to be especially interested in Greek and Roman examinations, receiving prizes as the best Classics understudy in his most recent two years there.
In 1871, Oscar Wilde graduated from Portora with a Royal School Scholarship to examine works of art at Trinity College, Dublin. Here he immediately established himself as an outstanding understudy.
Among his teachers at Trinity was John P. Mahaffy, who inspired Wilde to examine Greek literature and additionally taught him to cherish “Greek things”. In the year-end assessment in 1872, Wilde secured the first position in Classics.
Again in the year-end assessment in 1873, Wilde was awarded the Foundation Scholarship. He additionally turned into a member of the University Philosophical Society, taking regular part in its proceedings. At some point now, he was drawn towards the theory of aestheticism and presented a paper called ‘Esthetic Morality’.
In 1874, he graduated from Trinity, winning the Berkeley Gold Medal, the highest decoration for Greek. Thereafter, he entered Magdalen College, Oxford with a Demyship. Among his teachers here were John Ruskin and Walter Pater, who impressed upon him the importance of art in life.
Wilde was especially impressed by Pater, who prompted his understudies “to burn consistently with hard, gemlike fire.” He before long got renowned for his role in the esthetic development. Wearing his hair long and decorating his rooms with peacock feathers, lilies, sunflowers, blue china, he openly scorned masculine sports.
This was likewise the time he first established himself as a poet and in 1878, won the desired Newdigate Prize with his long poem, ‘Ravenna’. In the exact year, he graduated from Oxford with a twofold first in his B.A. of Classical Moderations and Literae Humaniores.
Oscar Wilde In London
On his graduation in 1878, Oscar Wilde returned to Dublin for a brief period. At this point, his father had passed on virtually bankrupt. The family presently sold the house and with his share of legacy Wilde moved to London, where he put up with portraitist Frank Miles, popular in London’s high circle.
He wrote to various friends in Oxford and Cambridge, trying ineffectively for a position in works of art. Concurrently, he concentrated on writing new poetry, expanding and revising old ones, which he published as ‘Poems’ in mid-1881. Although the work received blended reviews it established him as an upcoming post.
Likewise in 1881, he secured his first job as an art reviewer. However, he left it towards the year’s end, to embark on a lecture tour in the United States and Canada on the greeting of Richard D’Oyly Carte, an English headhunter, and impresario.
In the USA
Oscar Wilde reached New York City on 2 January 1882. Although the tour was originally planned for four months, as a result of its commercial achievement, it was reached out for close to 12 months. During this period, he delivered around 140 lectures, generally on aestheticism.
Wherever he went, he blended in with every class of people. Oscar Wilde drank whiskey with miners in Leadville and Colorado and simultaneously, visited the most fashionable salons in urban communities like New York, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, feasting with celebrities like Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Walt Whitman.
Although the press was somewhat hostile to him, the public was intrigued by his dress code and odd character. He additionally admired numerous things about America, especially its democracy and universal training. He, therefore, returned to Great Britain rich, both in cash matters and experience.
Return to Great Britain
On his return to Great Britain, Oscar Wilde embarked on another lecture circuit across England and Ireland, which would last up to the center of 1884. Meanwhile, at some point between February and May 1883, he went to Paris for three months and there he completed his play, ‘The Duchess of Padua’.
Very soon Wilde had the option to establish himself as the main proponent of esthetic development and got celebrated for it. Apart from his literary pursuits, he started to contribute regularly as a reviewer in ‘Pall Mall Gazette.’
From 1887, Oscar Wilde discovered employment as the editor of ‘Woman’s World,’ a magazine that managed in ladies’ fashion and had lost its popularity in recent years. Before long, he had the option to revive the magazine by incorporating ladies’ viewpoints on art, literature, and music, yet in addition to modern life.
In 1888, while working as the editor of ‘Woman’s World,’ Wilde published his first major work named, ‘The Happy Prince and Other Tales’, an assortment of children’s stories. Next in 1889, he published another of his memorable works, ‘The Decay of Lying’.
In July 1889, Oscar Wilde found employment elsewhere to concentrate on his literary desire. His lone novel, ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ appeared in the July 1890 release of ‘Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine.’
Although the editor of the magazine had erased roughly 500 words it was criticized by the reviewers for wantonness and homosexual suggestions. However, Oscar Wilde shielded his work and in 1891, he had it published in book form.
In 1891, apart from ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’, he had five other major works published. Among them, ‘Expectations’ comprised of previously published articles. Others were ‘The Soul of Man under Socialism’, ‘Lord Arthur Savile’s Crime and Other Stories’, ‘A House of Pomegranates’ and ‘Salome’.
Oscar Wilde then kept on producing more plays, a considerable lot of which satirized the upper-class society. Falling in this category were ‘Woman Windermere’s Fan’ (1882) and ‘A Woman of No Importance’ (1893), both of which were highly effective.
Contrarily, ‘An Ideal Husband’, a work which Wilde started in the summer of 1883, revolved around shakedown and political corruption. Just like ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’, which he wrote in the summer of 1894, ‘An Ideal Husband’ is likewise considered one of his masterpieces.
Oscar Wilde is best remembered for his last play, ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’, a farcical parody in which the protagonists keep up twofold characters. Complimented for its brains, the play has been revived ordinarily since its premiere on 14 February 1895 at the St James’ Theater, London, and thrice made into films.
Personal Life and Legacy
On 29 May 1884, Oscar Wilde married Constance Lloyd, daughter of Horace Lloyd, a wealthy Queen’s Counsel. The couple had two children, Cyril and Vyvyan.
In 1886, while Constance was pregnant with their subsequent child, Wilde was lured by seventeen-year-old Robert Baldwin Ross, the grandson of the Canadian reform leader Robert Baldwin. In this manner, they developed a relationship and Ross turned into Wilde’s first male lover.
In 1891, Oscar Wilde met Alfred Douglas, child of John Douglas, 9th Marques of Queensberry, and developed an affair with him. Incapable to stop the contact, the Marques left his calling card at Wilde’s club, inscribed: “For Oscar Wilde, posing homosexual” on 18 February 1895.
Against his friends’ advice, Wilde documented a suite of slander against the Marques. To protect himself, the Marques appointed investigators to discover proof about Wilde’s homosexuality and planned to portray him as the older man who habitually lured the youthful and guiltless. Many were additionally coerced to give proof against Wilde.
Imprisoned for Sodomy
As proof against Oscar Wilde mounted, an instance of homosexuality and gross obscenity was recorded against him. The prosecution, which opened on 26 April 1895, saw him as blameworthy on 25 May 1895. He was awarded hard labor. Around the same time, he was shipped off Newgate Prison.
He was in this manner shifted to Pentonville and from there to Wandsworth Prison in London. Life in the latter place was too hard for Wilde’s sensitive health. In early November 1895, he collapsed from hunger and illness, resulting in the rapture of his right eardrum.
On 23 November 1885, Oscar Wilde was transferred to HM Prison Reading at the activity of Liberal MP and reformer Richard B. Haldane and provided with reading just as writing materials. Meanwhile, his wife changed her and her children’s last name to Holland, thus separating themselves from Wilde’s scandals.
It was here at Reading Gaol that he wrote a 50,000-word letter to Douglas. Written among January and March 1887, it was never delivered, yet was partially published in 1905 as ‘De Profundis’ and completely published in 1962 as ‘The Letters of Oscar Wilde’.
Outcast and Death
Oscar Wilde was released from prison on 18 May 1887 and promptly left for France, never to return to England. Very soon, he wrote ‘The Ballad of Reading Gaol’, his last major work. At first, the authorship was credited to C33, yet when it got fruitful; his name was added to it.
Wilde lived for three more years, poor and barren. His wife sent him three pence seven days from her yearly remittance. She refused to see him or permit him to see the children. Among his couple of friends, who remained faithful till the end, were author Reginald Turner and Robert Ross.
At some point around 25 November 1900, Wilde developed meningitis, originating from the ear wound he had developed in prison and kicked the bucket from it on 30 November 1900. At first, he was buried in the Cimetière de Bagneux outside Paris.
On Oscar Wilde death, Robert Ross turned into his literary executor. In 1900, he had Wilde’s remains transferred to Père Lachaise Cemetery. The tomb, which took around ten months to complete, was worked by sculptor Jacob Epstein while the plinth was worked by Charles Holden. The inscription on it was carved by Joseph Cribb.
As per tradition, visitors used to kiss Wilde’s tomb after applying lipstick on their lips, thereby leaving a print on it. In 2011, the building was cleared of these marks and was made ‘kiss-proof’ by erecting a glass-case around it.
In 2017, as the Policing and Crime Act 2017 was ordered in the UK, Wilde was officially pardoned for his offense as homosexuality is not, at this point a crime in England.
Denis Villeneuve Networth
Denis Villeneuve is an accomplished award-winning Canadian movie director, who, over a span of just about thirty years, has delivered several critically acclaimed and commercially fruitful movies.
A multiple-time Canadian Screen Award (formerly Genie Award) winner for Best Direction, Villeneuve has likewise received several awards including the Jutra Awards as additional selections from the prestigious Academy Awards.
Although Denis Villeneuve started considering science to develop a career in the field, his passion for filmmaking encouraged him to pursue film learns at the Université du Quebec à Montréal. He won La Course Europe-Asie, a youth film competition by Radio-Canada.
He initiated filmmaking with short movies and had his breakthrough with the Canadian film ‘Maelström’ that won eight Jutra Awards as well as brought him to the limelight garnering widespread recognition.
Proceeding onward, Denis Villeneuve delivered several remarkable movies like ‘Polytechnique’, ‘Incendies’, ‘Foe’, ‘Prisoners’, ‘Sicario’, and ‘Arrival’. He has thrived in proving his versatility by directing movies of different genres including sci-fi and crime thrillers.
His forthcoming film ‘Sharp edge Runner 2049’, a neo-noir sci-fi, is scheduled for a 2017 release. He will likewise direct movie adaptations of two books namely ‘The Son’ and ‘Rise’ respectively.
Childhood and Early Life
Denis Villeneuve was born on October 3, 1967, in Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada to Nicole Demers and Jean Villeneuve. He has a younger brother Martin Villeneuve who proceeded to turn into a TED speaker, screenwriter, director, actor, producer, and art director.
Very little is thought about the early and scholastic life of this pro director except for the way that he abandoned contemplating science, his underlying choice, to pursue movie learn at the Université du Québec à Montréal following his affection for filmmaking.
Denis Villeneuve Career
He directed the documentary movie ‘La Course Destination Monde’ in 1988.
In 1990-91, he emerged as the winner of the youth film competition ‘La Course Europe-Asie’ by ‘Radio Canada’ that certified him for assets from the ‘Public Film Board’.
His underlying works saw him directing short movies that included ‘REW-FFWD’ (1994) in which he additionally contributed as a screenwriter.
The Canadian drama film ‘Universe’, an anthology of six short movies, was released on November 15, 1996. A total of six filmmakers worked on the movie writing and directing one section each with Villeneuve contributing to the fragment named ‘Le Technetium’.
Denis Villeneuve then worked as writer-director of one more Canadian drama flick ‘August 32nd on Earth’ that was released on September 17, 1998. The film starring Pascale Bussières and Alexis Martin saw the latter winning ‘Prix Jutra’ award for Best Actor. The film was screened at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival in its ‘Un Certain Regard’ area.
Although a couple of movies old, Villeneuve landed up with his real breakthrough as writer-director of the Canadian movie ‘Maelström’ (2000) starring Marie-Josee Croze.
The film was screened at different celebrations around the globe and won eight Jutra Awards; 5 Genie Awards; and a ‘Best Canadian Film’ award from the ‘Toronto International Film Festival’ among a total of 23 awards.
After around 10 years he proceeded to contribute as director and co-writer (with Jacques Davidts) of one more commercially hit feature movie ‘Polytechnique’, released on February 6, 2009.
‘Polytechnique’ was a controversial yet critically acclaimed film based on the École Polytechnique massacre, which occurred on December 6, 1989. The film was likewise screened in the 2009 ‘Cannes Film Festival’ and proceeded to garner nine Genie Awards among several others.
During a break, while shooting ‘Polytechnique,’ he directed the short movie ‘Nearby’ that premiered as part of the Semaine de la critique program at the 2008 ‘Cannes Film Festival’ and received the Canal+ prize for the best short movie. The short film, generally wordless, was released on May 15, 2008.
‘Nearby’ won the Prix Jutra for Best Short Film; the Genie Award for Best Live Action Short Drama; and garnered a special reference for the Toronto International Film Festival Award for Best Canadian Short Film.
Denis Villeneuve remained director and co-writer of the critically acclaimed and commercially fruitful Canadian mystery drama movie ‘Incendies’ that premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival and at the Venice Film Festival in September 2010 and released in Canada on September 17 that year.
‘Incendies’ earned several awards including eight Genie Awards among which the awards for Best Direction and Best Adapted Screenplay were bagged by Villeneuve. Denis Villeneuve likewise won the Jutra Awards for Best Direction and Best Screenplay. The film was chosen to represent Canada in the Best Foreign Language Film category at the 83rd Academy Award.
The accomplishment of ‘Incendies’ that was named among ’10 Best Films of 2011′ by ‘The New York Times’ upped his burgeoning career in filmmaking as well as garnered him several recognitions.
In 2011, Denis Villeneuve was chosen among the top ten filmmakers to watch by the ‘Variety’ magazine and was presented with National Arts Center Award at the Governor General’s Performing Arts Awards.
Pushing forward, he thought of one more blockbuster and critically acclaimed thriller ‘Prisoners’ starring Hugh Jackman and Jake Gyllenhaal.
‘Prisoners’ marked the first English language feature movie by the pro director and earned several awards and designations including a selection for Best Cinematography at the 86th Academy Awards.
Denis Villeneuve proceeded with his example of overcoming adversity as a filmmaker with the 2013 psychological thriller flick ‘Foe’ that turned into a smashing hit as well as garnered positive reviews by critics. It premiered on September 8, 2013, at the Toronto International Film Festival in its Special Presentation area.
‘Adversary’ earned him Best Director award from the Canadian Screen Awards and Best Director of a Canadian Film from the Vancouver Film Critics Circle. The Toronto Film Critics Association Awards 2014 named the film as the Best Canadian Film of the Year.
The 2015 crime drama flick ‘Sicario’ directed by Villeneuve additionally emerged as a smashing hit grossing around $80 million worldwide. The critically acclaimed film was selected for the Palme d’Or at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival and additionally earned three designations each from both the Academy Awards and the BAFTA.
Denis Villeneuve next directed the American sci-fi flick ‘Arrival’ that was premiered at the Venice Film Festival on September 1, 2016, and then released in the US and Canada on November 11 that year.
The film starring Jeremy Renner, Amy A, dams, and Forest Whitaker was based on Ted Chiang’s 1998 short ‘Story of Your Life’ and turned into a smashing hit in the cinematic world grossing over $203 million worldwide.
‘Arrival’ received praise from the critics apart from earning several awards. These incorporated the ‘Best Sound Editing’ award at the 89th Academy Awards where the movie additionally earned several other designations in different categories including a Best Director assignment for Villeneuve.
The film was chosen among ten Movies of the Year by the American Film Institute.
His forthcoming film is an American neo-noir sci-fi named ‘Sharp edge Runner 2049’, a spin-off of the 1982 flick ‘Edge Runner’ – the Harrison Ford starrer film that inspired him to turn into a filmmaker.
‘Sharp edge Runner 2049’ is scheduled for a worldwide release on October 6, 2017, in 2D, 3D, and IMAX 3D. Harrison Ford is reprising his role as Rick Deckard in the film starring opposite Ryan Gosling.
Denis Villeneuve is additionally headed to direct the movie adaptation of the crime novel ‘The Son’ by Jo Nesbo and that of the epic sci-fi novel ‘Hill’ by Frank Herbert.
Personal Life and Legacy
He was first married to Canadian film and TV actress Macha Grenon. He has three children from his first marriage.
Presently, Denis Villeneuve is married to Tanya Lapointe, a cultural reporter.